Research

Recent discoveries and reports

Here are a few interesting papers since 2017

A Cross-Sectional Study Into the Prevalence of Dairy Cattle Lameness and Associated Herd-Level Risk Factors in England and Wales (2018) Bethany E. Griffiths, Dai Grove White, and Georgios Oikonomou PDF

Randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of foot trimming before and after first calving on subsequent lameness episodes and productivity in dairy heifers. S.A. Mahendran J.N. HuxleyY.-M. ChangM. BurnellD.C. BarrettH.R. WhayT. BlackmoreC.S. Mason and N.J. Bell. Finding: Heifers under-going pre-calving trim had highers odds of lameness during a lactation.

Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video. K. Abdul Jabbar, Mark F. HansenMelvyn L. Smith and Lyndon N. Smith. Video system had lameness detection accuracy of 95.7%.

Research paper database

Below is a comprehensive library of over 3000 research papers related to foot health in cattle herds. This has been compiled from a systematic review by Hirst (Liverpool University) and Potterton, with some extra publications added from a personal collection (NJB). Use the search box below to find the papers you are interested in. You can also leave comments about individual papers by clicking on their title in the table below. If you have queries about any of the papers, or would like to suggest papers for inclusion in this list, please contact the Healthy Feet Team.

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TitleAuthorsFull titleAll authorsJournalYearDescription
Tie-stall design and its relationship to lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317 Ontario dairy farmsAnderson, N., Kelton, D., Millman, S. et alTie-stall design and its relationship to lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317 Ontario dairy farmsAnderson, N., Kelton, D., Millman, S., Zurbrigg, K.Journal of Dairy Science2005The objective of this study was to identify relationships between tie-stall design and selected cow-based injury, lameness, and cleanliness measurements. All lactating dairy cows (n = 17,893) from 317 Ontario tie-stall dairy farms were evaluated once between March and September 2003. Stall dimensions were recorded and cows were scored for neck and hock lesions, broken tails, back arch, hind claw rotation, and udder and hind limb cleanliness. Neck lesions were significantly associated with tie-rail height. Hock lesions were positively associated with presence of an electric trainer and hind limb and udder cleanliness and negatively associated with tie-chain length. A negative association was found between broken tails and tie-rail height and a positive association between broken tails and udder and hind limb cleanliness. As mean stall length increased, fewer cows had hind-claw rotation. Having more dirty cows was associated negatively with stall length and chain length, and positively associated with the presence of an electric trainer. Proportion of cows with clean udders increased with the percentage of cows with clean hind limbs and with tie-rail height. As the prevalence of clean udders increased the prevalence of broken tails decreased.
Fenestration of the abaxial hoof wall and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for the treatment of septic...Jordan, P., Steiner, A., Zulauf, M.Fenestration of the abaxial hoof wall and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for the treatment of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattleJordan, P., Steiner, A., Zulauf, M.Veterinary Record2001A novel surgical approach to the distal interphalangeal joint of cattle, through the abaxial hoof wall, for the treatment of septic arthritis is described. in seven cattle a rectangular piece of horn (15 x 40 mm) was excised from the abaxial hoof wall and the joint was lavaged with Ringer's solution. infected and/or necrotic tissue was removed from the joint and gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges were introduced. The piece of horn was reattached, a rubber block was glued to the contralateral claw, and a bandage applied. Aftercare consisted of changes of bandage, systemic administration of antimicrobial drugs and box rest. At follow-up, six of the cattle were sound but one cow which had been slaughtered five months after surgery had remained slightly lame.
Study of foot diseases on dairy farms in northern TunisiaBen Chehida, N., Chehida, N. B., Guesmi et alStudy of foot diseases on dairy farms in northern TunisiaBen Chehida, N., Chehida, N. B., Guesmi, R., Malek, A., Zrelli, M.Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire1994Of 1280 cows examined between October, 1991, and April, 1992, on 6 farms, 95 (7.4%) showed lameness. The lameness did not originate in the foot in only 4 cases. Lameness was most frequent (18.2%) on a farm with tethered housing, with short stalls and concrete flooring. The commonest disorders were interdigital dermatitis (17%), interdigital necrobacillosis (13.7%), circumscribed pododermatitis (12.9%), and interdigital hyperplasia (10.5%). The lesions were in hind limbs in 74.2% of the cases, with the lateral claw of a hind limb being affected in 64.2% of the cases. All forelimb lesions were on a medial claw. Nearly 73% of the cases of lameness occurred in the first 4 months of lactation
A Study of Podal Pathology in Dairy-Cow Farms in the North of TunisiaBenchehida, N., Guesmi, R., Malek, A. et alA Study of Podal Pathology in Dairy-Cow Farms in the North of TunisiaBenchehida, N., Guesmi, R., Malek, A., Zrelli, M.Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire1994Digital disorders were studied in six farms in the north of Tunisia. Of the 1280 dairy cows examined, 7.4% showed lameness. In 95.8% of cases, lamness was the result of podal pathology. The higher level of lameness (18.24%) was observed in a farm which used tethered housing, with short stalls and concrete flooring. The most frequently seen disorders were: interdigital dermatitis (17%), interdigital necrobacteriosis (13.7%), circumscribed pododermatitis (12.9%) and interdigital hyperplasia (10.5%). The lesions were localised, in 74.2% of cases, to the posterior limbs. The lateral claw of the posterior member was, in 64.2% of cases, the site of the lesion. However, all the lesions of the anterior limb were situated on the medial claw. Lesion attribution in relation to calving showed that 72.8% of the cases of lameness were observed in the first four months of lactation.
Interdigital cutaneous hyperplasia in cattle: clinical approachBen Chehida, N., Zrelli, M.Interdigital cutaneous hyperplasia in cattle: clinical approachBen Chehida, N., Zrelli, M.Maghreb Veterinaire1992
New aspects of mechanical properties of bovine hoof hornGabler, C., Hinterhofer, C., Stanek, Ch et alNew aspects of mechanical properties of bovine hoof hornGabler, C., Hinterhofer, C., Stanek, Ch, Zoescher, M.Proceedings of the XI symposium on disorders of the ruminant digit and the III international conference on bovine lameness2000
Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattleLassen, J., Štípková, M., Zink, V.Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattleLassen, J., Štípková, M., Zink, V.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoirBicalho, R., Dopfer, D., Gomez, M. et alAltered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoirBicalho, R., Dopfer, D., Gomez, M., Guard, C., Lima, F., Lima, S., Machado, V., Zinicola, M.PLoS One2015Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.
Effects of supplemental dietary biotin on performance of Holstein cows during early lactationWeiss, W. P., Zimmerly, C. A.Effects of supplemental dietary biotin on performance of Holstein cows during early lactationWeiss, W. P., Zimmerly, C. A.Journal of Dairy Science2001
Variation in Fusobacterium necrophorum strains present on the hooves of footrot infected sheep, goats and cattleBennett, Grant, Hickford, Jon G. H. et alVariation in Fusobacterium necrophorum strains present on the hooves of footrot infected sheep, goats and cattleBennett, Grant, Hickford, Jon G. H., Zhou, HuitongVeterinary Microbiology2009
Current observations of dermatitis digitalis in cattle in SloveniaTrenti, F., Zemljic, B.Current observations of dermatitis digitalis in cattle in SloveniaTrenti, F., Zemljic, B.Observations were made since the spring of 1992 in the Atlas mountains. Histopathological examination showed a pronounced papillomatous-type of hyperplasia, which became filiform papilloma in chronic cases. The changes resembled those seen in bovine papillomas and verruca caused by papovavirus (BPV1-BPV6). The diseases could not be transmitted and no treponema species were isolated. It is concluded that the disease has a multifactorial origin and the term dermatitis digitalis papillomatosa is suggested
Digital dermatitis and interdigital papillomatosis in cattle: one or two diseases?Juntes, P., Senk, L., Zemljic, B.Digital dermatitis and interdigital papillomatosis in cattle: one or two diseases?Juntes, P., Senk, L., Zemljic, B.Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana1994Digital dermatitis was diagnosed for the first time in Slovenia in spring, 1992, on 2 dairy farms; at the same time it was diagnosed on a diary farm in Croatia near the Slovenian border. The histological changes were similar to those reported for bovine papillomavirus infection. No specific bacteria were detected
Influence of footbathing on prevalence of digital dermatitis after introduction of diseased animals into healthy dairy herd.Zemljic, B.Influence of footbathing on prevalence of digital dermatitis after introduction of diseased animals into healthy dairy herd.Zemljic, B.13th Symp. Lameness in Ruminants2004
Causes and risk factors for the occurrence of lameness in cattleCestnik, V., Pogacnik, A., Zemljic, B.Causes and risk factors for the occurrence of lameness in cattleCestnik, V., Pogacnik, A., Zemljic, B.
Lameness in cattle – causes and consequencesZemljic, B.Lameness in cattle – causes and consequencesZemljic, B.Veterinarske Novice1997
Causes and risk factors of and for lameness in cattleZemljic, B.Causes and risk factors of and for lameness in cattleZemljic, B.Praxis Veterinaria Zagreb1997
Analysis of lameness problems in dairy cows in intensive milk productionZemljic, B.Analysis of lameness problems in dairy cows in intensive milk productionZemljic, B.Sodobno Kmetijstvo1995
Pathohystological features and possible infective reasons for papilomatous digital dermatitis on dairy farms in SloveniaZemljic, B.Pathohystological features and possible infective reasons for papilomatous digital dermatitis on dairy farms in SloveniaZemljic, B.
Foot diseases: laminitis in high yielding cowsZemanova, D.Foot diseases: laminitis in high yielding cowsZemanova, D.Veterinarstvi1999
Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animalsZain, Mohamed E.Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animalsZain, Mohamed E.Journal of Saudi Chemical Society2011
Prevalence of and factors associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries on dairy cows in freestall housing in CanadaBarkema, H. W., de Passille, A. M. et alPrevalence of and factors associated with hock, knee, and neck injuries on dairy cows in freestall housing in CanadaBarkema, H. W., de Passille, A. M., DeVries, T. J., Gibbons, J., Haley, D. B., LeBlanc, S. J., Nash, C. G. R., Orsel, K., Rushen, J., Solano, L., Zaffino Heyerhoff, J. C.Journal of Dairy Science2014
An incidence of acute diffuse aseptic inflammation of the corium of the hoof in dairy cowsJazbec, Ivan, Mesaric, Matjaz, Zadnik et alAn incidence of acute diffuse aseptic inflammation of the corium of the hoof in dairy cowsJazbec, Ivan, Mesaric, Matjaz, Zadnik, TomazVeterinarski Arhiv2000Herd health and production related problems were monitored on a high yield farm with 385 Holstein-Friesian cows near Ljubljana, Slovenia in 1993. At the end of August an outbreak of acute aseptic inflammation of the corium of the hoof (N=33) and retention of urine in vagina (N=37) was detected and treated in cows at pasture. The incidence of the disease in the summer months (pasture) was statistically significantly (P<0.01) higher than in the winter months. The analysis of intake revealed that it was markedly high in proteins and low in fibre in the summer months. A statistically significant (P<0.001) difference was revealed between fat, protein and urea bulk milk contents. Therefore, we may associate the occurrence of acute aseptic inflammation of the corium (sole haemorrhages) and retention of urine in vagina with protein overload (lush grass) and/or an increased urea content and some other toxic substances in the organism of dairy cows
Short communication: Lying behavior of lactating dairy cows is influenced by lameness especially around feeding timeBach, A., Guasch, I., Yunta, C.Short communication: Lying behavior of lactating dairy cows is influenced by lameness especially around feeding timeBach, A., Guasch, I., Yunta, C.Journal of Dairy Science2012Lameness is considered one of the most common welfare and productive problems in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in lying behavior between moderately lame and nonlame lactating cows under commercial conditions. Data were collected from 10 free-stall commercial herds, which were feeding on exactly the same ration once daily. All lactating cows were scored for lameness according to a 1 to 5 locomotion scoring system. Only cows with a lameness score between 1 and 4 were considered in the study. In each herd, between 10 and 15 lame cows (scored as 3 or 4) were chosen, and for each lame cow, a nonlame cow (scored as 1) within the same parity and similar days in milk was also selected. Pendant data loggers were then placed on the right hind leg of each cow for 10 d to record lying behavior at 1-min intervals. In addition, the time of feed delivery was recorded in each herd on a daily basis. Total daily lying time, daily number of lying bouts, lying bout duration, laterality (side of recumbence), and lying behavior around feed delivery time were evaluated using a mixed-effects model that accounted for the fixed effects of lameness, days in milk, parity, and the interaction between parity and lameness, plus the random effects of herd. Total daily lying time (721 ± 24.2 min/d) tended to increase with days in milk, but it was not affected by lameness or parity. Likewise, no differences were found in the number of lying bouts (9.6 ± 0.49/d) or laterality (47 ± 2.6% of time lying on the right side). However, the mean bout duration was longer in lame (89.3 ± 3.89 min) compared with nonlame (80.7 ± 3.90 min) cows. It is interesting that lame cows stood up 13 min later than nonlame cows relative to the time when the ration was delivered. In addition, lame cows lay down 19 min earlier than nonlame ones after the feed was delivered, which implies that nonlame cows spent more time standing, and probably eating, than did lame cows. It was concluded that lame cows have longer lying bouts than nonlame animals, and that lying behavior around feed delivery time may be an effective proxy to identify moderately lame cows.
Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herdPerl, S., Yeruham, I.Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herdPerl, S., Yeruham, I.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association-Tydskrif Van Die Suid-Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging1998Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3%, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a footbath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.
Association between milk production, somatic cell count and bacterial dermatoses in three dairy cattle herdsElad, D., Friedman, S., Perl, S. et alAssociation between milk production, somatic cell count and bacterial dermatoses in three dairy cattle herdsElad, D., Friedman, S., Perl, S., Yeruham, I.Australian Veterinary Journal2000Objective To determine the correlations between three bacterial dermatoses in cattle, milk production and bulk-milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). Design Field observations in three dairy cattle herds. Methods Milk production, BMSCC, fertility and all herd diseases were recorded by computerised dairy management systems. Each herd was visited twice weekly and the clinical signs, course of diseases and morbidity and culling rates were noted. Bulk-tank milk was sampled twice monthly and analysed for somatic cell count. Bacteriological and histological examinations were carried out from samples collected from affected animals in the respective herds. Results The acute exudative form of dermatophilosis was diagnosed only in first- calving cows. The morbidity rate was 53% and the culling rate was 16% of the affected animals. The BMSCC increased by a factor of 2.4 times, and there was an average loss of milk production of 30%/cow/day in affected animals. Ulcerative lymphangitis was diagnosed in first-calving cows (22%) and older cows (15%). The culling rate was 28%. The BMSCC increased by a factor of 17.3 times, and the average loss of milk production was 5.5%/affected animal/day. Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) was diagnosed in first-calving cows (25%) and in older cows (18%). The culling rate was 8%. The BMSCC increased by a factor of two times, and the average loss of milk production was 1.7%/affected animal/day. Conclusions The correlations between three skin diseases (ulcerative lymphangitis, dermatophilosis, papillomatous digital dermatitis), milk production and BMSCC have been found to be unfavourable.
Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake: skin lesions and biochemical findingsAdin, G., Avidar, Y., Bargai, U., Bogin et alLaminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake: skin lesions and biochemical findingsAdin, G., Avidar, Y., Bargai, U., Bogin, E., Frank, D., Perl, S., Yeruham, I.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association1999The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II). They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I) recovered, and the other 4 (group II) were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium
Association analysis for feet and legs disorders with whole-genome sequence variants in 3 dairy cattle breedsGuldbrandtsen, Bernt, Lund et alAssociation analysis for feet and legs disorders with whole-genome sequence variants in 3 dairy cattle breedsGuldbrandtsen, Bernt, Lund, Mogens Sandø, Sahana, Goutam, Wu, XiaopingJournal of Dairy Science2016Identification of genetic variants associated with feet and legs disorders (FLD) will aid in the genetic improvement of these traits by providing knowledge on genes that influence trait variations. In Denmark, FLD in cattle has been recorded since the 1990s. In this report, we used deregressed breeding values as response variables for a genome-wide association study. Bulls (5,334 Danish Holstein, 4,237 Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and 1,180 Danish Jersey) with deregressed estimated breeding values were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequence variants, and then 22,751,039 SNP on 29 autosomes were used for an association analysis. A modified linear mixed-model approach (efficient mixed-model association eXpedited, EMMAX) and a linear mixed model were used for association analysis. We identified 5 (3,854 SNP), 3 (13,642 SNP), and 0 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions associated with the FLD index in Danish Holstein, Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and Danish Jersey populations, respectively. We did not identify any QTL that were common among the 3 breeds. In a meta-analysis of the 3 breeds, 4 QTL regions were significant, but no additional QTL region was identified compared with within-breed analyses. Comparison between top SNP locations within these QTL regions and known genes suggested that RASGRP1, LCORL, MOS, and MITF may be candidate genes for FLD in dairy cattle.
Aetiological surveys on fescue foot in farm cattle: toxicity test of metabolites of Fusarium sppGao, F., Ni, Y. H., Wu, J. J., Wu, J. Z.Aetiological surveys on fescue foot in farm cattle: toxicity test of metabolites of Fusarium sppGao, F., Ni, Y. H., Wu, J. J., Wu, J. Z.Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology1991A total of 52 forage samples in fescue foot affected areas were collected and examined, and 3197 strs. including Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Nigrospora and Alternaria spp. were detected. The occurrence of fescue foot correlated positively with the contamination rate of F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum [F. pallidoroseum] and F. equiseti. 30 ether extracts of maize cultures of 53 strs. of 10 Fusarium spp. caused skin lesions in rabbits. The maize cultures, the ether and methyl alcohol-water (95:5) extracts of F. sporotrichioides and F. pallidoroseum were toxic and lethal for rats and mice. Typical symptoms of fescue foot were observed in 2 healthy bucks when they were injected intraperitoneally with the crude ether toxin
Short communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattleMuenzenberger, C. J., Neitzel, R. R. et alShort communication: Genetic evaluation of mobility for Brown Swiss dairy cattleMuenzenberger, C. J., Neitzel, R. R., Wiggans, G. R., Wright, J. R.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Digital dermatitis; what role spirochaetes?Woodward, M. J.Digital dermatitis; what role spirochaetes?Woodward, M. J.Cattle Practice1999
Spirochaetes associated with bovine and ovine foot rot; parallels with polymicrobiol oral diseases?Collingham, R., Rijpkema, S., Woodward et alSpirochaetes associated with bovine and ovine foot rot; parallels with polymicrobiol oral diseases?Collingham, R., Rijpkema, S., Woodward, M.Journal of Medical Microbiology1998
Infrared thermometry for lesion monitoring in cattle lamenessKNOWLES, T.G., Lin, Y., Main, D. C. J. et alInfrared thermometry for lesion monitoring in cattle lamenessKNOWLES, T.G., Lin, Y., Main, D. C. J., Wood, S.Veterinary Record2015
Axial wall crack — a descriptionWinterbottom, A. J.Axial wall crack — a descriptionWinterbottom, A. J.
Mechanical properties of the bovine claw horn during lactationMargerison, J. K., Winkler, B.Mechanical properties of the bovine claw horn during lactationMargerison, J. K., Winkler, B.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of ageGodden, S. M., Hodgins, D. C., LeBlanc et alFactors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of ageGodden, S. M., Hodgins, D. C., LeBlanc, S. J., Leslie, K. E., Lissemore, K. D., Windeyer, M. C.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2014
The reliability and repeatability of a lameness scoring system for use as an indicator of welfare in dairy cattleWillen, Stefanie, Winckler, ChristophThe reliability and repeatability of a lameness scoring system for use as an indicator of welfare in dairy cattleWillen, Stefanie, Winckler, ChristophActa Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A-Animal Science2001In 16 dairy herds, a lameness scoring system which was reasonably quick and easy to use was evaluated with regard to reliability and repeatability. The ultimate aim was to include it into an on-farm welfare assessment protocol. Locomotion scores in individual cows (n=206) were significantly correlated with the heel and sole disorder indices obtained at routine claw trimmings (e.g. index for hind limb lesions: rs=0.40, p=0.0001; Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients). The inclusion of lesions caused by digital dermatitis increased correlation coefficients when hind limbs and all four feet were considered (rs=0.47/0.50). The inter-observer repeatability of locomotion scores in individual cows was high, and the variation between observers was low when calculated as a percentage of animals within each scoring class. Thus the locomotion scoring system proved to be a useful tool for assessing lameness, and as such a valuable part of on-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle. It is recommended that scoring be performed at least twice during the housing period
Effects of under- and overstocking freestalls on dairy cattle behaviourTucker, Cassandra B., Weary, Daniel M. et alEffects of under- and overstocking freestalls on dairy cattle behaviourTucker, Cassandra B., Weary, Daniel M., Winckler, ChristophApplied Animal Behaviour Science2015Freestall availability affects cattle behaviour and most studies in this area have focused on overstocking. We studied the effects of three levels of stall availability, including both over- and understocking on the time budgets and agonistic interactions in 36 dairy cattle in four stable groups. Using a switch-back design, with treatment order balanced, groups of nine cows were given access to 6, 9, and 12 stalls for 1 week each, allowing for a within-cow test of stocking density of 150, 100 and 75% (cows/stalls). After 5 days of acclimatization at each density, time budgets and displacements from stalls were measured during the last 48 h of each treatment period using continuous video recording and direct observation. When animals had access to fewer stalls, they spent less time lying down (11.6, 12.6, 12.8 h/24 h in 150, 100 and 75% treatments, respectively; SE: 0.31, 0.31, 0.28 h/24 h), particularly at night (6.6, 7.5, 7.6 h; SE: 0.20, 0.20, 0.17 h). Lying behaviour was also more synchronous when more freestalls were available (Kappa coefficient of agreement 0.00, 0.13, 0.17 for lying time in 150, 100 and 75% treatments, respectively). Cows spent more time standing in the alleyways when overstocked (between two rows of stalls: 1.8, 0.8, 0.6 h/24 h in 150, 100 and 75%, respectively; SE: 0.09, 0.09, 0.06 h/24 h; between feeder and stalls: 1.5, 1.3, 1.3 h/24 h in 150, 100 and 75%, respectively; SE: 0.13, 0.13, 0.11 h/24 h), but did not alter the time they spent feeding. Moreover, cows were more likely to displace one another from stalls at greater stocking densities (2.9, 1.1, 0.6 displacements per cow/24 h in 150, 100 and 75% treatments, respectively; SE: 0.16, 0.16, 0.11 displacements per cow/24 h). Cows that were less successful at displacing others spent a higher proportion of their time lying during the day when overstocked, indicating that lying during this time is less preferred. For all variables, the magnitude of response was most affected by overstocking; this practice reduced lying time, especially at night, synchrony of lying behaviour and increased competition for stalls. Understocking provided benefits, but the degree of behavioural change was smaller than when stalls were limited.
Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological FindingsAlt, D. P., Nally, J. E., Wilson-Welder et alDigital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological FindingsAlt, D. P., Nally, J. E., Wilson-Welder, J. H.Animals (Basel)2015Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions.
Comparison of three flooring types for special-fed holstein veal calvesSmith, J. L., Terosky, T. L., Wheeler et alComparison of three flooring types for special-fed holstein veal calvesSmith, J. L., Terosky, T. L., Wheeler, E. F., Wilson, L. L.Applied Engineering in Agriculture1998The study aimed to compare health, haematology measurements, growth performance, body cleanliness, hoof and leg characteristics, ambulation scores, and behavioural activities of veal calves housed in individual, raised wooden stalls with 3 different flooring types. The flooring types used were oak wood slats, rectangular shaped vinyl coated slats and diamond shaped vinyl coated slats. There were no differences between treatment groups in average daily gain, body weight, blood measurements or carcass weight or grade (primarily muscle colour). There were differences in standing and lying frequency but these are not considered to be important. Calves on wooden slats were appreciably less clean than those on vinyl coated floors. Wood slats also increased hoof wear, but this did not affect calf growth or health
Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bullsCrawford, W. H., Frampton, J. W., Stone et alFixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bullsCrawford, W. H., Frampton, J. W., Stone, W. C., Wilson, D. G.Veterinary Surgery1991Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness
An Economic Review of Cattle LamenessBell, N.J., Willshire, J. A.An Economic Review of Cattle LamenessBell, N.J., Willshire, J. A.Cattle Practice2009
Effect of Wet Weather on Lameness in Dairy-CattleRowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M. et alEffect of Wet Weather on Lameness in Dairy-CattleRowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M., Williams, L.A.Veterinary Record1986
The association between high milk somatic cell counts in the first lactation and somatic cell counts in the second lactationCripps, P. J., Grove-White, D. H. et alThe association between high milk somatic cell counts in the first lactation and somatic cell counts in the second lactationCripps, P. J., Grove-White, D. H., Williams, H. J.The Veterinary Journal2012
Bipartite distal sesamoid bones in a Holstein-Friesian calfDik, K. J., Willemen, M. A.Bipartite distal sesamoid bones in a Holstein-Friesian calfDik, K. J., Willemen, M. A.Veterinary Record1995Bipartite distal sesamoid bones were observed in the medial digits of both forelimbs of a six-month-old Holstein-Friesian calf. This paper describes the clinical and radiological (including computed tomographic) findings, and the therapy and follow-up of the case
The Effect of Cubicle Housing Grazing and Increasing Age On the Locomotion Scores of Dairy CowsGwynn, P. E. J., Jory, M., Thomas et alThe Effect of Cubicle Housing Grazing and Increasing Age On the Locomotion Scores of Dairy CowsGwynn, P. E. J., Jory, M., Thomas, T. P., Wilkinson, R.Animal Production1990
An epidemiological study of foot rot in pastured cattle.Dickson, J., Egerton, J. R., Wilkinson et alAn epidemiological study of foot rot in pastured cattle.Dickson, J., Egerton, J. R., Wilkinson, F.C.Acta Vet Scand. 1983;24(4):401983
Influence of regular outdoor exercise on occurrence and type of hock lesions of dairy cows kept in tied housing systemsFriedli, K., Wechsler, B., Wiederkehr et alInfluence of regular outdoor exercise on occurrence and type of hock lesions of dairy cows kept in tied housing systemsFriedli, K., Wechsler, B., Wiederkehr, T. U.
Disposal and disease rates in British dairy herds between April 1998 and March 2002Burrough, E., Macrae, A. I., Whitaker et alDisposal and disease rates in British dairy herds between April 1998 and March 2002Burrough, E., Macrae, A. I., Whitaker, D. A.Veterinary Record2004
Disposal and disease rates in 340 British dairy herdsKelly, J. M., Smith, S., Whitaker, D. A.Disposal and disease rates in 340 British dairy herdsKelly, J. M., Smith, S., Whitaker, D. A.Veterinary Record2000
Incidence of Lameness in Dairy-CowsKelly, J. M., Smith, E. J., Whitaker et alIncidence of Lameness in Dairy-CowsKelly, J. M., Smith, E. J., Whitaker, D. A.Veterinary Record1983
Causes of laminitis in cattle [letter; comment]Whitaker, D. A.Causes of laminitis in cattle [letter; comment]Whitaker, D. A.Veterinary Record1992
Role of ketoprofen in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.Waterman-Pearson, A. E., Webster, A. J. et alRole of ketoprofen in the modulation of hyperalgesia associated with lameness in dairy cattle.Waterman-Pearson, A. E., Webster, A. J., Whay, H. R.Vet Rec2005Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK. Forty lame dairy cows were randomly assigned to receive a course of either the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen, or sterile saline, together with conventional treatment for lameness. The effect of the ketoprofen was measured by using locomotion scoring and by testing the cows' nociceptive threshold over a period of 28 days. The locomotion score of all the cows improved but ketoprofen had no significant effect on this change. However, in the cows that received ketoprofen the hyperalgesia associated with lameness, recorded using a nociceptive threshold test, was significantly modulated on days 3, 8 and 28 after their initial examination, drug administration and treatment of lesions.
Associations between locomotion, claw lesions and nociceptive threshold in dairy heifers during the peri-partum periodWaterman, A. E., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay et alAssociations between locomotion, claw lesions and nociceptive threshold in dairy heifers during the peri-partum periodWaterman, A. E., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Veterinary Journal1997The locomotion of 15 heifers was examined at fortnightly intervals over a 4 month peri-partum period. Measurements were made of the development of gait abnormalities, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds, and severity and size of sole lesions observed in the hind claws. All heifers developed lesions at, or shortly after, parturition, and in seven animals this induced marked lameness. Abnormalities of gait were related more to the severity than to the size of the lesion. Lameness was associated with a significant increase in sensitivity to mechanical noxious stimuli applied to the lame leg but not to a thermal stimulus applied to the ear. This study demonstrated interactions between lameness, claw lesions and the development of hyperalgesia in heifers during the post-partum period.
The influence of lesion type on the duration of hyperalgesia associated with hindlimb lameness in dairy cattleO'Brien, J. K., Waterman, A. E. et alThe influence of lesion type on the duration of hyperalgesia associated with hindlimb lameness in dairy cattleO'Brien, J. K., Waterman, A. E., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Veterinary Journal1998The nociceptive thresholds of 42 sound dairy cattle were compared with 53 animals displaying hind-claw lameness. All animals in the study were lameness scored and nociceptive threshold tested. Each animal then received a routine claw trim while the lame cattle also had the cause of lameness determined and treated. Those cattle found to have a unilateral hind-claw lameness (n=42) were re-evaluated at 28 days after treatment. The lame cattle were found to have a significantly lower nociceptive threshold (P<0.001) as compared to the sound animals on day 1 and also at retesting on day 28 (P<0.001). The group which were retested on day 28 were subdivided by lesion type: sole ulcer; white line disease and acute digital tissue infection. Each lesion type caused a decreased nociceptive threshold at day 1. At re-evaluation on day 28 only the thresholds of the acute digital tissue infection group were not significantly different fr om the sound group but thresholds in sole ulcer and white line disease cows were still depressed.
Animal-based measures for the assessment of welfare state of dairy cattle, pigs and laying hens: consensus of expert opinionGreent, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER et alAnimal-based measures for the assessment of welfare state of dairy cattle, pigs and laying hens: consensus of expert opinionGreent, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Animal Welfare2003
Assessment of the welfare of dairy caftle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm recordsGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER et alAssessment of the welfare of dairy caftle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm recordsGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Veterinary Record2003
Assessment of the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm recordsGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER et alAssessment of the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm recordsGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Veterinary Record2003A protocol was developed by consultation with experts on the welfare of cattle to use direct observations of cattle and an examination of farm records to assess welfare. Fifty-three dairy farms in England were visited and assessed during the winter of 2000/01. The findings were compiled and the results of the welfare measurements were examined by 50 experts who indicated at what level they considered that improvement was required. More than 75 per cent of them considered that 32 of the 53 farms needed to take action to reduce the incidence of mastitis, and that at least 42 of the farms needed to take action to reduce the prevalence of lameness, overgrown claws, swollen and ulcerated hocks, and injuries from the environment.
An animal-based welfare assessment of group-housed calves on UK dairy farmsGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER et alAn animal-based welfare assessment of group-housed calves on UK dairy farmsGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Animal Welfare2003A series of measures of calf welfare was dei,eloped through a process of expert consultation. A welfare assessment of group-housed calves was carried out on 53 UK dairy farms during the winter of 2000/01. The assessment used animal-based measures including direct observation of the calves and examination of their health history through a review of farm records. The findings from this were compiled into a profile of calf welfare which outlined the range of results for each measure used The results fell into the three categories of respiratory health, nutrition and general appearance. A broad range of results was found across the farms visited for the measures in each of these categories. Some,farms peformed well for all measures taken, and no farms performed consistently badly across all aspects of calf welfare. The majority of farms combined aspects of both good and poor welfare performance.
Identification of issues affecting the welfare of dairy cows through expert opinionGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER et alIdentification of issues affecting the welfare of dairy cows through expert opinionGreen, L. E., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Research in Veterinary Science2001
Prioritising risk factors for dairy heifer lameness through iterative consultationBell, N.J., KNOWLES, T.G., Main et alPrioritising risk factors for dairy heifer lameness through iterative consultationBell, N.J., KNOWLES, T.G., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.13th International Symposium and 5th Conference on Lameness in Ruminants2004
“The way cattle walk.” Steps towards lameness managementMain, D. C. J., Whay, H. R.“The way cattle walk.” Steps towards lameness managementMain, D. C. J., Whay, H. R.Cattle Practice1999
MANAGING CATTLE LAMENESS: A NOVEL APPROACH USING SOCIAL MARKETING TECHNIQUESBarker, Zoe E, Bell, Anouska K, Bell et alMANAGING CATTLE LAMENESS: A NOVEL APPROACH USING SOCIAL MARKETING TECHNIQUESBarker, Zoe E, Bell, Anouska K, Bell, Nicholas J, Leach, Katharine A., Maggs, Claire M, Main, David CJ, Stokes, Jessica E, Whay, Helen R.Cattle Lameness Conference
Pain relief in cattle: A practitioners perspectiveHuxlay, J. N., Whay, H. R.Pain relief in cattle: A practitioners perspectiveHuxlay, J. N., Whay, H. R.Cattle Practice2005This paper describes the provisional results from a questionnaire survey designed to assess the attitudes of practicing cattle veterinary surgeons towards pain and the use of analgesics in cattle. Over 600 questionnaires were return from practitioners all over the UK. An understanding of the perception and attitudes towards pain by veterinary surgeons is fundamental to the understanding of the use of analgesics in cattle. The preliminary results provide a fascinating insight into how practitioners perceive and treat pain in cattle. Less than half (45.5%) of respondents feel that they have adequate knowledge in this area. Considering the huge impact that recognising and managing pain has on the welfare of the affected animal, this is a cause for concern.
Promoting farmer engagement and activity in the control of dairy cattle lamenessBarker, Z. E., Leach, K. A., Main et alPromoting farmer engagement and activity in the control of dairy cattle lamenessBarker, Z. E., Leach, K. A., Main, D. C. J., Whay, H. R.The Veterinary Journal2012Many ‘influencers’ allied to the agricultural industry support farmers to implement management changes that affect animal welfare. Developing approaches to working with farmers that achieve both engagement and subsequently management changes is critical. As an example, the generation of action points and implementation of change to control dairy cattle lameness is reported and discussed here. Action plans were generated on farms receiving both lameness monitoring and intervention support (MS group; n = 117) as part of a 3 year intervention project. At the start of year 1, MS farmers received action planning advice from a veterinary surgeon, and then at the start of years 2 and 3, farmers generated their own lameness control action plans with facilitator support. Engagement was achieved with 114 MS farmers who generated 692 action points in total. Two hundred and sixteen of these resulted from veterinary advice and 476 were generated by the farmers with facilitator support. In terms of activity, MS farms implemented a mean of 8.22 changes per farm as compared to 6.77 on farms which only received annual lameness monitoring (MO group; n = 72). While these levels of change were similar, fewer changes implemented on the MS farms (8.5%) were judged ‘likely to increase the risk of lameness’ compared to the MO farms (16.5%). Farmers generated substantial numbers of lameness control action points for their own farms aided by a facilitator and, crucially, veterinary or facilitator involvement reduced changes that were likely to compromise lameness control.
Development of a lameness control programme for dairy heifersBell, M. J., Bell, N.J., KNOWLES, T.G. et alDevelopment of a lameness control programme for dairy heifersBell, M. J., Bell, N.J., KNOWLES, T.G., Main, D. C. J., WEBSTER, A.J.F., Whay, H. R.Cattle Practice2006
The journey to animal welfare improvementWhay, H. R.The journey to animal welfare improvementWhay, H. R.Animal Welfare2007
The perception and relief of pain associated with lameness in dairy cattleWhay, H. R.The perception and relief of pain associated with lameness in dairy cattleWhay, H. R.1998
Pain in the lame cowWhay, H. R.Pain in the lame cowWhay, H. R.Irish Veterinary Journal1997
Locomotion scoring and lameness detection in dairy cattleWhay, H.Locomotion scoring and lameness detection in dairy cattleWhay, H.In Practice2002THE problem of high levels of lameness in UK dairy cattle has persisted into the 21st century and still presents a specific welfare concern. The mean prevalence of lameness seems to have changed little over the past decade and, although the relative proportions of lameness-causing lesions may have altered over time, the resulting number of lameness cases appears to have remained constant. The upsurge in farm assurance schemes has brought about the opportunity for structured veterinary involvement in the active monitoring and prevention of lameness at a herd level through the use of herd health plans which require careful record-keeping of lameness levels on farm and biannual locomotion scoring of the herd. This article discusses the role of locomotion and lameness scoring and describes how such systems might be implemented.
Nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattleLean, I. J., Westwood, C. T.Nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattleLean, I. J., Westwood, C. T.61st Conference of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Canterbury, New Zealand, June2001
Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body...de Passille, A. M., DeVries, T. J. et alLying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition scorede Passille, A. M., DeVries, T. J., Pajor, E. A., Pellerin, D., Rushen, J., Siegford, J. M., Vasseur, E., Vaughan, A., Westin, R.Journal of Dairy Science2016Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4 d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th–75th percentile = 9.7–12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th–75th percentile = 7.5–12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th–75th percentile = 58–87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the multivariable models. We concluded that only a small proportion of the variation between cows in lying time is explained by lameness, leg lesions, and BCS.
Suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx (PH III) in the bovine hoofBudras, K. D., Muelling, Ch et alSuspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx (PH III) in the bovine hoofBudras, K. D., Muelling, Ch, Westerfield, I.
Retrospective evaluation of health event data recording on 50 dairies using Dairy Comp 305Giebel, S. K., Wenz, J. R.Retrospective evaluation of health event data recording on 50 dairies using Dairy Comp 305Giebel, S. K., Wenz, J. R.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Effect of Flunixin Meglumine on the Thresholds to Mechanical Stimulation in Healthy and Lame SheepNolan, A. M., Welsh, E.M.Effect of Flunixin Meglumine on the Thresholds to Mechanical Stimulation in Healthy and Lame SheepNolan, A. M., Welsh, E.M.Research in Veterinary Science1995The antinociceptive effect of flunixin meglumine was assessed in healthy and lame sheep by using a noxious mechanical stimulus. Sheep suffering from the chronically painful condition; footrot, have previously been shown to have lower thresholds to noxious mechanical stimuli than healthy animals. In the present study, 22 sheep suffering from footrot did not have a lower mean mechanical threshold than 25 matched healthy animals, but it was significantly greater than that recorded from eight experimental sheep (5.0 [2.5], 4.9 [2.1] and 3.0 [1.0] Newtons, respectively). Doses of 1.0 or 2.0 mg kg(-1) of flunixin meglumine had no effect on the thresholds to noxious mechanical stimulation in either experimental sheep tested over six hours, or in lame sheep tested over a period of 30 minutes. The repeated administration of flunixin to sheep suffering from footrot over a period of three days reduced their thresholds to noxious mechanical stimulation.
Comparison of visual analogue scale and a numerical rating-scale for assessment of lameness, using sheep as a modelGettingby, G., Nolan, A. M., Welsh, E.M.Comparison of visual analogue scale and a numerical rating-scale for assessment of lameness, using sheep as a modelGettingby, G., Nolan, A. M., Welsh, E.M.American Journal of Veterinary Research1993
Association Between Clinical Lameness and Borrelia-Burgdorferi Antibody in Dairy-CowsBey, R. F., Knutson, K. S., Robinson et alAssociation Between Clinical Lameness and Borrelia-Burgdorferi Antibody in Dairy-CowsBey, R. F., Knutson, K. S., Robinson, R. A., Trent, A. M., Wells, S. J.American Journal of Veterinary Research1993Results of an ELISA, indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, and immunoblot analysis (western blotting) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in a sample of 216 lactating dairy cows were compared. The microscopic microtitration agglutination test for antibody to 6 serovars of Leptospira interrogans was also performed to evaluate possible cross-reactivity between B burgdorferi and L interrogans. Using western blotting as the standard test against which the ELISA and IFA test were compared, the ELISA had greater sensitivity (50% in summer and 38% in spring) with similar specificity (83 and 82%), compared with the IFA test (sensitivity, 6 and 5%; specificity, 90 and 83%). In addition, seropositivity to B burgdorferi, using the ELISA, was not found to be associated with seropositivity to L interrogans serovars. A matched case-control study evaluating the association between clinical lameness and antibody to B burgdorferi was performed in lactating dairy cows of 17 Minnesota and Wisconsin herds. Sera from case and control cows matched by herd, parity, and stage of lactation were evaluated, using an ELISA for B burgdorferi antibody during 2 seasons. High B burgdorferi antibody values were associated with clinical lameness in dairy cows (P = 0.006 in summer and P = 0.04 in spring)
Some Risk-Factors Associated With Clinical Lameness in Dairy Herds in Minnesota and WisconsinMarsh, W. E., Robinson, R. A., Trent et alSome Risk-Factors Associated With Clinical Lameness in Dairy Herds in Minnesota and WisconsinMarsh, W. E., Robinson, R. A., Trent, A. M., Wells, S. J., Williamson, N. B.Veterinary Record1995An observational study of the relationships between clinical lameness and herd-level risk factors was made in 18 dairy herds in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Lameness in the lactating cows was assessed by two observers during herd visits made in the summer of 1989 and the spring of 1990, using a uniform scoring system. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the general management, routine hoof care, nutrition, housing and flooring on the farms. Factors associated with the prevalence of clinical lameness in the summer included stall moisture, the size of the exercise area for the lactating cows and the amounts of dry concentrates and fresh forages fed to them. Factors associated with clinical lameness in the spring included the use of parlour milking facilities and the frequency with which the rations for the lactating cows were balanced
Prevalence and Severity of Lameness in Lactating Dairy-Cows in a Sample of Minnesota and Wisconsin HerdsMarsh, W. E., Robinson, R. A., Trent et alPrevalence and Severity of Lameness in Lactating Dairy-Cows in a Sample of Minnesota and Wisconsin HerdsMarsh, W. E., Robinson, R. A., Trent, A. M., Wells, S. J.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1993An epidemiologic study investigating the prevalence of lameness in lactating dairy cows was performed in 17 dairy herds in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The mean herd size was 50 cows. Cows from 14 herds were housed in stanchions or tie stalls, and cows from 3 herds in free stalls or dry lot. During visits to each farm in the summer and subsequent spring, 2 investigators simultaneously but independently evaluated the ambulation of lactating cows by use of a standardized scoring system. The lameness scoring system was reliable at the 2 visits, with 92.7 and 91.3% agreement between the 2 observers and kappa coefficients of 0.60. The prevalence of lameness detected by the investigators (''clinical'' lameness) was 13.7% (117/853) in summer and 16.7% (134/801) in spring in lactating dairy cows. These prevalences were 2.5 times higher than those estimated by the herd managers. Parity was significantly (P less-than-or-equal-to 0.03) associated with lameness, with higher prevalence of clinical lameness found in cows of higher parity
Individual Cow Risk-Factors for Clinical Lameness in Lactating Dairy-CowsMarsh, W. E., McGovern, P. G., Robinson et alIndividual Cow Risk-Factors for Clinical Lameness in Lactating Dairy-CowsMarsh, W. E., McGovern, P. G., Robinson, R. A., Trent, A. M., Wells, S. J.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1993A case-control study investigating relationships between clinical lameness and individual-cow (within herd) risk factors was performed in 17 Minnesota and Wisconsin dairy herds. Cases were defined as lactating cows found lame by either of two observers during farm visits in the summer of 1989 and spring of 1990 using a uniform scoring system. A single control cow (matched by herd, season, parity, and stage of lactation) was selected for each case at each visit. Assessments of body weight, body condition, dorsal claw angles, and limb lesions were made for each case and control animal. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed positive associations between prevalent clinical lameness and heavier body weight, lower body condition score, and shallower slope of rear lateral claw angle. Lesions associated with clinical lameness included non-tarsal rear limb superficial swellings, abnormal hoof overgrowth (including corkscrew claw), and limb lacerations. Superficial tarsal swellings, intra-synovial tarsal swellings, and carpal swellings were not associated with clinical lameness.
Effect of Long-Term Administration of a Prolonged Release Formulation of Bovine Somatotropin (Sometribove) On Clinical Lameness...Cole, W. J., Collier, R. J., Trent et alEffect of Long-Term Administration of a Prolonged Release Formulation of Bovine Somatotropin (Sometribove) On Clinical Lameness in Dairy- CowsCole, W. J., Collier, R. J., Trent, A. M., Wells, S. J.American Journal of Veterinary Research1995A matched case-control study design was used to assess the effects of long-term administration of a prolonged release formulation of bovine somatotropin (sometribove) on clinical lameness and limb lesions in dairy cows. Cows treated with sometribove for at least 2 lactations (cases) and nontreated dairy cows matched by herd, parity, age, and stage of lactation (controls) in 8 herds were evaluated for clinical lameness (as assessed by gait abnormality) and limb lesions by 2 observers, using a standardized scoring procedure at a single herd visit. Although a high proportion of the study cows were clinically lame (43%), an association was not detected between chronic administration of sometribove and prevalent lameness. Of 21 types of limb lesions identified, 2 were positively associated and 2 were negatively associated with long-term sometribove use. Superficial laceration of the tarsus (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1) and superficial swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint (OR = 4.5) were positively associated with sometribove treatment, whereas femoral lesions (on = 0.2) and superficial lacerations of the femur (OR = 0.14) were negatively associated with sometribove treatment
Clinical lameness in dairy cows in the Midwestern United States: a preliminary reportTrent, A. M., Wells, S. J.Clinical lameness in dairy cows in the Midwestern United States: a preliminary reportTrent, A. M., Wells, S. J.Proceedings of the Annual Convention American Association of Bovine Practitioners1991
Key health issues for dairy cattle–new and oldOtt, S. L., Seitzinger, A. H., Wells et alKey health issues for dairy cattle–new and oldOtt, S. L., Seitzinger, A. H., Wells, S. J.Journal of Dairy Science1998The objective of this paper is to use available information to evaluate the relative importance of various health issues affecting dairy cattle. In addition to traditional ranking using evaluation methods based on impacts to animal productivity, this paper considers zoonotic risks, international trade implications, and animal welfare concerns. Traditional production costs rank mastitis, reproductive problems, and lameness as the top dairy cattle diseases. When the other areas of importance are included, the top-ranked diseases change to include salmonella, Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhea-associated disease, and mastitis. Researchers in the dairy industry may want to reevaluate their criteria for setting research priorities to include zoonotic risks, international trade implications, and animal welfare concerns
Papillomatous digital dermatitis and associated risk factors in US dairy herdsGarber, L. P., Wagner, B. A., Wells et alPapillomatous digital dermatitis and associated risk factors in US dairy herdsGarber, L. P., Wagner, B. A., Wells, S. J.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1999The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of papillomatous digital dermatitis in the US (including regional and herd size patterns) and to evaluate specific herd-level management factors associated with high incidence of digital dermatitis in US dairy herds. The study design was a population-based cross-sectional survey. US daily operations with at least 30 cows in 20 states, representing 79% of US dairy cows, were sampled. On participant operations;a questionnaire was administered by veterinary medical officer or animal-health technicians on-farm to dairy managers. Papillomatous digital dermatitis was reported in milk cows in the previous 12 months from 43.5% of US dairy herds. Seventy-eight percent of affected herds reported that their first cases occurred in 1993 or later. Regions of the USA with the highest percent of herds affected included the Southwest, Northwest, and Northeast. Factors associated with high (>5%) incidence of papillomatous digital dermatitis included region, herd size, type of land lactating cows accessed on a daily basis, flooring type where lactating cows walked, percent of cows barn off the operation, use of a primary hoof trimmer who trimmed cows' hooves on other operations, and lack of washing of hoof-trimming equipment between cows. Papillomatous digital dermatitis has been recently reported from dairy herds across the US. This study suggests that a high percentage of herds with digital dermatitis could be prevented. Management strategies to potentially prevent or reduce incidence of digital dermatitis on dairy operations include those related to biosecurity and 'cow hoof' environmental conditions. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Health status of preweaned dairy heifers in the United StatesGarber, L. P., Hill, G. W., Wells, S. J.Health status of preweaned dairy heifers in the United StatesGarber, L. P., Hill, G. W., Wells, S. J.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1997The first national estimates of mortality and morbidity for preweaned dairy heifers in the US were generated from monitoring heifers from 906 operations in 28 states prospectively using a daily diary card system. Results indicated that the cumulative mortality incidence risk from birth to 8 weeks of life was 6.3% with a peak of 1.9% during the first week of life. Season of birth was significantly associated with cumulative mortality incidence risk, and mortality risk was highest in the periods January to March and October to December. Cumulative incidence risk of diarrhea to 8 weeks of age was 24.6% with a peak of 15.4% during the second week of life. Diarrhea incidence risk varied by region, with the West having the highest incidence risk (30.5%) and the Northeast the lowest (19.2%), as well as by herd size, with the smallest herd size having the lowest reported incidence risk of diarrhea to 8 weeks of age (18.8%). Other reported 8 week cumulative disease incidence risks included listlessness, 10.0%; respiratory disease, 8.4%; dehydration, 4.1%; lameness or joint problems, 1.1%. Weekly incidence of lameness (weeks 1-8): 0.2,0.5, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.0
Factors associated with papillomatous digital dermatitis on U.S. dairy operationsDargatz, D., Garber, L., Wagner, B. et alFactors associated with papillomatous digital dermatitis on U.S. dairy operationsDargatz, D., Garber, L., Wagner, B., Wells, S.Epidemiologie et Sante Animale1997
Physeal fracture repair using external coaptation in a heiferWatkins, J. P., Welch, R. D.Physeal fracture repair using external coaptation in a heiferWatkins, J. P., Welch, R. D.Agri-Practice1990A 2-year old Holstein-Friesian heifer suffered a Salter-Harris Type 1 fracture of the distal metatarsal III and IV physis. Under traction, fracture reduction was achieved and a full limb cast was applied. Four months postoperatively the heifer showed no signs of lameness. Nine months postoperatively, she was being shown successfully. Salter-Harris Type I and Type II fractures and their fixation are discussed
Clinicopathological aspects of multiple lameness in live stock productionHeckert, H., Hofmann, W., Weiler, H.Clinicopathological aspects of multiple lameness in live stock productionHeckert, H., Hofmann, W., Weiler, H.Israel-Journal-of-Veterinary-Medicine1997A group of 31 calves, developed 2 weeks after housing different degrees of severe lameness of the right back leg. Three of the animals were brought to the clinic for investigation. One calf was euthanised in extremis. On pathological examination, in the region of the popliteal lymph node of the right back leg adjacent to the fibular and tibial nerves, the connective tissue was found to be fibrous and nodular. Histopathological examination revealed a chronic suppurative inflammation of both nerves and severe degenerative changes in the form of myelin sheath destruction and axonal fragmentation were also found. The lesions in all cases were due to a prophylactic treatment with an intramuscular injection of antibiotic
Three different techniques of elevating an affected claw in comparison. Drei Behandlungsmethoden zur Entlastung erkrankter Klauen...Geyer, H., Landerer, R., Lischer, Ch J. et alThree different techniques of elevating an affected claw in comparison. Drei Behandlungsmethoden zur Entlastung erkrankter Klauen im VergleichGeyer, H., Landerer, R., Lischer, Ch J., Räber, M., Wehrle, M.Schweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde2000In this field study 168 limbs of dairy cows with claw lesions (sole ulcer or white line disease) were treated on alpine pastures in the Canton Uri, Switzerland. Three different techniques of elevating a claw were tested (Cowslip, traditional Technovit-Block and wedge-shaped Technovit-Block). These blocks were compared for applicability, duration of adhesion, wear and the influence on posture and gait. The elevation of an affected claw resulted four days after application in a remarkable decreasing of the lameness score. In comparison of the three different elevations the quick and easy applicability of the cowslip was outstanding but they did not last long enough and exhibited more signs of wear than the wooden blocks. Cows, which were treated with a wedge-shaped block showed a more free and secure gait compared to the cows treated with a traditional block
Claw lesions in dairy cows on Swiss alpine pastures treatment and healing processWehrle, M.Claw lesions in dairy cows on Swiss alpine pastures treatment and healing processWehrle, M.
Biomechanical changes in the suspensory apparatus of the pedal bone and development of sole and white line lesions in dairy...Tarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.Biomechanical changes in the suspensory apparatus of the pedal bone and development of sole and white line lesions in dairy heifersTarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.Research in Veterinary Science2001
Understanding lameness in the dairy cowKnott, L., Tarlton, J. F., WEBSTER et alUnderstanding lameness in the dairy cowKnott, L., Tarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.Cattle Practice2005Effective control of a disease condition requires, at best, knowledge of the primary cause or, failing that, the ability to recognise and assess the importance of its risk factors. Lameness in dairy cattle is dominated by two conditions, infectious digital dermatitis (DD) and claw horn disruption (CHD). The causative agents and environmental risk factors for DD are sufficiently well known to permit effective control. There are two categories of risk factor for CHD. The first includes inadequate housing and foot care, which increase the external stresses on the foot. The second involves systemic factors that compromise the ability of the foot to withstand the stresses. This paper describes an experiment designed to explore the relative importance of three potential hazards within the second, systemic category as measured by changes in the biomechanics and biochemistry of the suspensory connective tissue in the foot. The hazards were housing, feeding and parturition/lactation per se. The structural integrity of the connective tissue was most severely compromised by housing in cubicles. This effect was exacerbated by parturition/lactation but not significantly affected by feeding a dairy production ration. There was no evidence of laminitis. These results indicate that physiological changes inevitably associated with parturition and the onset of lactation compromise the integrity of the foot, but these effects are of short duration. Thus it is possible to prevent clinical lameness due to CHD through a strategy designed to minimise external stresses to the foot in the periparturient period only.
Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first...WEBSTER, A.J.F.Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first lactationWEBSTER, A.J.F.Veterinary Journal2001This paper describes a systematic study of the development of lesions of the claw horn (CHL, sole and white line) in heifers calving for the first time, housed either in cubicles or a straw yard and fed either a low- or high-dry-matter forage diet. The feet of all animals were inspected on five occasions, at approximately four weeks before and four, eight, 16 and 24 weeks post calving. Haemorrhagic lesions of the sole and white line were described according to a geometric lesion score for severity and a cumulative lesion score based on the product of (severity x area) for each lesion. Geometric and cumulative lesion scores increased in all groups of cattle in the first eight weeks after calving. However, the severity and persistence of the lesions were significantly greater in cattle housed in cubicle yards. Wet feeding increased the severity of CHL in the cubicle yard only. There were no association between lesion scores and body weight, body condition or foot conformation. The heels of the cattle in straw yards tended to be thick but many showed pitting erosions. In cubicles the heels were smooth but thin. This may have contributed to CHL by increasing concussive forces within the hoof. There was a highly significant (but relatively low) correlation between scores for sole lesions and lameness in individual animals. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that systemic events associated with calving and the onset of lactation may set in motion the chain of events that lead to the lesions of CHL; the extent and severity of these lesions being then determined by the externally imposed conditions of housing and feeding
Effects of wet vs. dry feeding and housing type on the pathogenesis of claw horn disruption in first lactation dairy cattleWEBSTER, A.J.F.Effects of wet vs. dry feeding and housing type on the pathogenesis of claw horn disruption in first lactation dairy cattleWEBSTER, A.J.F.2000
Effects of housing practices on the development of foot lesions in dairy heifers in early lactationWebster, A. J.Effects of housing practices on the development of foot lesions in dairy heifers in early lactationWebster, A. J.Vet Rec2002Measurements were made of sole haemorrhages and white line lesions in two groups of heifers which were either introduced to a cubicle house four weeks before they calved (group 1) or housed in a straw yard for eight weeks after calving and then moved into the cubicle house (group 2). The overall severity of the lesions was described by a cumulative score which defined the product of the severity and the area of the overall lesions in each animal. The lesions were scored on six occasions, from four weeks before to 24 weeks after parturition. Before parturition, sole lesions were absent or very small. By four weeks after calving, most of the animals had both types of lesion, but the differences between the two groups were small and statistically insignificant. There were no significant differences in the white line lesions between the two groups at any of the observations. There were, however, progressive, highly significant differences between the two groups in the severity of sole haemorrhages. By 12 weeks after calving, the median score for group 1 was 69 and that for group 2 was 11. In group 2, the sole haemorrhage score peaked at eight weeks but declined thereafter, even though these animals were moved into cubicles eight weeks after calving. By 12 weeks after calving, six of the 17 heifers in group 1 had sole ulcers but none of the 16 in group 2 had ulcers
Genetic parameters for lameness and claw and leg diseases in dairy cowsJunge, W., Stamer, E., Thaller, G. et alGenetic parameters for lameness and claw and leg diseases in dairy cowsJunge, W., Stamer, E., Thaller, G., Weber, A.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Disorders of the ruminant digitWeaver, D.Disorders of the ruminant digitWeaver, D.Veterinary Times1999
The relationship between the vet, claw trimmer, farmer and the dairy cowWeaver, D.The relationship between the vet, claw trimmer, farmer and the dairy cowWeaver, D.
Lameness above the footAndrews, A. H., Blowey, R. W., Boyd, H. et alLameness above the footAndrews, A. H., Blowey, R. W., Boyd, H., Eddy, R. G., Weaver, A.D.Bovine medicine: diseases and husbandry1992
Claw trimming: what farmers think!Weaver, A.D.Claw trimming: what farmers think!Weaver, A.D.Cattle Practice1997A postal questionnaire of 55 dairy farmers in Somerset, UK in 1995 (mean herd size 140 cows; mainly Holstein-Friesian) indicated that the annual incidence of lameness was 30% (range 5-100%). 65% regarded lameness as an important problem. The main causes were sole ulcer (75% of farms), digital dermatitis (53%), interdigital disease (15%) and laminitis (13%). All but one farm practised routine claw trimming performed by farm personnel at convenient times (54%) or at drying off (44%), usually with conventional tools. The veterinarian had assisted in instruction (passive observation in most cases) in 62% of farms though this was supplemented by self instruction (59%). Most farmers (91%) were satisfied with their results. A number of recommendations are made including a national register of paraprofessional claw trimmers and the creation of a formal UK training programme
Digital papillomatosis and digital dermatitis in cattleWeaver, A.D.Digital papillomatosis and digital dermatitis in cattleWeaver, A.D.Veterinary Annual1994
Managing Bovine Lameness – an Often Neglected Means of Decreasing Production LossesWeaver, A.D.Managing Bovine Lameness – an Often Neglected Means of Decreasing Production LossesWeaver, A.D.Veterinary Medicine1991
Lameness in cattle – investigational and diagnostic check listsWeaver, A.D.Lameness in cattle – investigational and diagnostic check listsWeaver, A.D.British Veterinary Journal1985
LamenessAndrews, A. H., Weaver, A.D.LamenessAndrews, A. H., Weaver, A.D.The health of dairy cattle2000
Advances in bovine digital diseasesDavid,, Weaver, A.Advances in bovine digital diseasesDavid,, Weaver, A.Bovine Practitioner1993
Review of disorders of the ruminant digit with proposals for anatomical and pathological terminology and recordingAndersson, L., De Laistre Banting, A et alReview of disorders of the ruminant digit with proposals for anatomical and pathological terminology and recordingAndersson, L., De Laistre Banting, A, Demerzis, PN, Knezevic, PF, Peterse, DJ, Sankovic, F., Weaver, ADVet Rec1981
Hock Lesions and Free-Stall DesignTaszkun, I., Weary, D. M.Hock Lesions and Free-Stall DesignTaszkun, I., Weary, D. M.J Dairy Sci2000We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.
Relationship between postmilking standing duration and risk of intramammary infection in freestall-housed dairy cows milked 3...Barkema, H. W., DeVries, T. J., Leslie et alRelationship between postmilking standing duration and risk of intramammary infection in freestall-housed dairy cows milked 3 times per dayBarkema, H. W., DeVries, T. J., Leslie, K. E., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Watters, M. E. A.Journal of Dairy Science
Digital dermatitis – current clinical problems and lesions involvedWatson, C. L.Digital dermatitis – current clinical problems and lesions involvedWatson, C. L.Cattle Practice1999
The Role Of Antibiotics In Arthritis And Foot DiseasesWatson, C. L.The Role Of Antibiotics In Arthritis And Foot DiseasesWatson, C. L.Cattle Practice1997
Genetic parameters of disease incidence, fertility and milk yield of first parity cows and the relation to feed intake of growing...Andersen, B. B., Boelling, D., Jensen et alGenetic parameters of disease incidence, fertility and milk yield of first parity cows and the relation to feed intake of growing bullsAndersen, B. B., Boelling, D., Jensen, J., Madsen, P., Wassmuth, R.Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A-Animal Science2000
Exploratory findings on the prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis in sheep in England and Wales during 1999 to 2000Green, L. E., Grogono, R., Moore, L. J. et alExploratory findings on the prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis in sheep in England and Wales during 1999 to 2000Green, L. E., Grogono, R., Moore, L. J., Wassink, G. J.Veterinary Record2003
The effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cowsGrohn, Y. T., Guard, C. L., Janssen, D. et alThe effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cowsGrohn, Y. T., Guard, C. L., Janssen, D., Warnick, L. D.Journal of Dairy Science2001Data were collected prospectively for 1.5 yr on two New York dairy farms to investigate the effect of lameness on milk production. The numbers of study cows (percentages treated at least once for lameness) in each herd were 1796 (52%) and 724 (40%), respectively. Lame cows were identified and treated by farm employees or a professional hoof trimmer. Weekly averages of total milk production per day were recorded based on automated milk weight measurements at each milking. The effect of lameness on milk production was analyzed separately for each herd using repeated measures ANOVA. In both herds, milk production decreased significantly for cows diagnosed lame. Milk production was 1.5 kg/d lowergtoreq2 wk after lameness compared with cows that had not yet been diagnosed lame in the current lactation in the larger herd. In the second herd, milk production of lame cows was 0.8 kg/d lower in the first and second wk after lameness and 0.5 kg/d lowergtoreq3 wk after diagnosis. The decrease in milk production associated with lameness was larger for cows in second or greater lactation and for more severe cases. In one herd, the decrease in milk production was greater for cows with sole ulcers or foot abscesses than for foot rot or foot warts. Cows with abscesses or foot rot tended to have larger decreases in milk production in the other herd. The inconsistent results between farms may have resulted from differences in the relative frequencies of specific causes of lameness in the two herds and in the way lame cows were identified and defined for the study
The relationship of clinical lameness with days in milk, lactation number and milk production in a sample of Virginia dairy herdsDilorenzo, K., Meadows, A., Pelzer, K. et alThe relationship of clinical lameness with days in milk, lactation number and milk production in a sample of Virginia dairy herdsDilorenzo, K., Meadows, A., Pelzer, K., Warnick, L., Whittier, W.Journal of Dairy Science1995
Why is lameness in dairy cows so intractable?Ward, W.R.Why is lameness in dairy cows so intractable?Ward, W.R.The Veterinary Journal2009
Lameness in dairy cattle – an overviewWard, W.R.Lameness in dairy cattle – an overviewWard, W.R.Cattle Practice1999
Recent advances in cattle lamenessWard, W.R.Recent advances in cattle lamenessWard, W.R.Cattle Practice1997
Lameness in British dairy cowsWard, W.R.Lameness in British dairy cowsWard, W.R.State Veterinary Journal1995
Recent studies on the epidemiology of lameness.Ward, W.R.Recent studies on the epidemiology of lameness.Ward, W.R.Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Disorders of the Ruminant Digit and International Conference on Bovine Lameness1994
Influence of various roughage sources, on the incidence of laminitis in dairy cattleSue, C. H., Sue, ChengHon, Wang, J. Y. et alInfluence of various roughage sources, on the incidence of laminitis in dairy cattleSue, C. H., Sue, ChengHon, Wang, J. Y., Wang, JiaYu, Yang, T. W., Yang, TeiWeiJournal of the Chinese Society of Animal Science1993
Effect of prefeeding with pangolagrass hay on the incidence of laminitis in early lactating cowsLu, S. A., Lu, ShuiAnn, Wang, J. Y. et alEffect of prefeeding with pangolagrass hay on the incidence of laminitis in early lactating cowsLu, S. A., Lu, ShuiAnn, Wang, J. Y., Wang, JiaYu, Yang, C. L., Yang, ChungLiang, Yang, T. W., Yang, TeWeiJournal of the Chinese Society of Animal Science1995Multiparous Holstein cows were separated into 2 groups of 10 each according to their calving date. The test group was fed twice daily, each meal provided in the following feed order: pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) hay 2 kg, concentrate and freshly cut pangola grass 2 kg. For the control group, the feed order was: freshly cut pangola grass 5 to 10 kg, concentrate and freshly cut pangola grass. Concentrate was given according to milk yield and pangola grass was given to appetite after the concentrate. Feeding started 8 days after calving and lasted for 3 months. Incidence of laminitis was significantly lower in the test than in the control cows, 25.8 versus 38.0%, and the difference was greatest within 4 weeks after calving. Fibre intake and rumen beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration during the first 8 weeks after calving were higher in the test cows. There were no significant differences between groups in hoof characteristics, rumen pH and rumen volatile fatty acid, and serum lactate, concentrations
Chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative metabolism in bovine macrophages exposed to a novel interdigital phlegmon (foot rot)...Morck, D. W., Walter, M. R.Chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative metabolism in bovine macrophages exposed to a novel interdigital phlegmon (foot rot) lesion isolate, Porphyromonas leviiMorck, D. W., Walter, M. R.Am J Vet Res2002OBJECTIVE: To examine the host response toward Porphyromonas levii, by evaluating chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of bovine macrophages in vitro. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cultured bovine macrophages obtained from monocytes harvested from blood samples of 15 Holstein steers. Porphyromonas levii was isolated from the foot rot lesion of an acutely affected feedlot steer. PROCEDURE: Monocytes were cultured for macrophage differentiation over 7 days. Porphyromonas levii was cultured in strict anaerobic conditions for experimentation. Chemotaxis was evaluated by quantifying macrophage migration toward P. levii in Boyden chambers. Phagocytosis was assessed by quantification of macrophages engulfing P. levii following incubation with or without anti-P. levii serum or purified IgG. Oxidative burst was measured by use of the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assay. RESULTS: Chemotaxis toward P. levii was not significantly different from control values at any of the tested bacterial concentrations. Phagocytosis of P. levii was approximately 10% at a 10:1 bacterium to macrophage ratio and did not change significantly over time. When higher proportions of P. levii were tested for phagocytosis, the 1,000:1 bacterium to macrophage ratio had a significant increase, compared with the 10:1 test group. Opsonization of P. levii with high-titeranti-P. levii serum or anti-P. levii IgG produced a significant increase in macrophage phagocytosis. Oxidative production significantly increased compared with control in the 1,000:1 test group only. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Porphyromonas levii may evade host detection by decreased chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst by macrophages. Acquired immunity may be beneficial for clearance of P. levii in foot rot lesions in cattle
Recent findings in study of papillomatous digital dermatitis [letter]Corp-Minamiji, C. S., Wallis, D. M. et alRecent findings in study of papillomatous digital dermatitis [letter]Corp-Minamiji, C. S., Wallis, D. M., Wallis, J. L., Ward, H. J.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1997
Lameness in dairy cattleWard, W.R.Lameness in dairy cattleWard, W.R.Irish Veterinary Journal2001Lameness in dairy cattle is a very common problem, although variation between farms is enormous, with an incidence of up to 55 cases per 100 cows per year, and prevalence assessed by Locomotion scoring up to 20 per cent. The most common Lesions in the UK are sole ulcers, white Line Lesions, digital dermatitis and fouls. The cows' welfare is compromised as is evident by their abnormal behaviour and increased sensitivity to pain. Economic effects are reflected through poorer fertility, a greater risk of culling and costs of treatment. The effects on milk yield are confused by the fact that higher yielding cows are more prone to Lameness. Risk factors are multiple and include foot shape, Longer toes and either high or shallow heels. Also, cows in cubicles with a hard base and high kerb tend to have more Lameness. Some bulls have daughters with a record of more Lameness and bulls who transmit shallow toe angles and hocks pointing in are Likely to have daughters susceptible to Lameness. Foot-trimming consistently improves foot shape but does not always reduce the risk of lameness. Feeding Large amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate or protein or wet silage is associated with increased risk. Head-rails or electric cow-trainers that discourage cows from defecating in the cubicle are associated with Less Lameness. However, they do restrict the cows' behaviour. It is known that rows lie down for Longer in Large, soft cubicles or in straw yards and this reduces the risk of Lameness. And, if cows are allowed to walk at their own pace, they produce a smooth cow walk and Locomotion score (which was better in herds where the farmer's knowledge, training and awareness was good) is improved. Heifers that are Lame in their first lactation are at greater risk of Lameness Later and older cows are at greater risk. Treatment of foot Lameness by applying a block to the healthy claw was more successful than bandaging, and a shoe was quicker to apply and stayed on Longer than a wooden block. Prolonged treatment and foot-bathing were successful in eradicating digital dermatitis from one herd. Ceftiofur at high doses was as successful as oxytetracycline in treating foul; in addition, severe foul was treated successfully with tylosin plus topical chlortetracycline and clindamycin.
Spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis and interdigital dermatitisLoretz, K. J., Nordhausen, R. W., Read et alSpirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis and interdigital dermatitisLoretz, K. J., Nordhausen, R. W., Read, D. H., Walker, R. L.Veterinary Microbiology1995Two groups of spirochetes were isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in dairy cattle. The two groups could be readily differentiated on the basis of morphologic and immunologic characteristics and enzymatic activity. A spirochete isolated from an interdigital dermatitis (IDD) lesion appeared morphologically and antigenically similar to spirochetes in one of the PDD groups and exhibited an identical enzyme activity pattern. The two groups of PDD spirochetes had characteristics most consistent with the genus Treponema. The PDD and IDD isolates differed morphologically from previously described bovine Treponema spp. Although spirochetes have been observed to be one of the predominant bacterial morphotypes in PDD and IDD and are found invading the stratum spinosum and dermal papillae in PDD lesions, the significance of these spirochetes in the etiopathogenesis of PDD and IDD is presently unknown.
Humoral response of dairy cattle to spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis lesionsBerry, S. L., Hird, D. W., Loretz et alHumoral response of dairy cattle to spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis lesionsBerry, S. L., Hird, D. W., Loretz, K. J., Read, D. H., Walker, R. L.American Journal of Veterinary Research1997Objective-To determine whether a humoral response against spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions is elicited in dairy cattle affected with PDD. Sample Population-41 cattle with PDD from 8 dairies (study population) and 30 cattle from 2 dairies free of PDD (control population). Additionally evaluated were 32 cattle from a dairy with a past history of PDD but no current disease, and 52 cattle from a dairy with high prevalence of PDD, 25 with and 27 without detectable lesions. Procedure-ELISA were used to evaluate the humoral response of all cattle to representative isolates from 2 groups of spirochetes of unknown species isolated from PDD lesions. Specificity of the response was evaluated, using immune sera prepared against each of the spirochetes, and by adsorption studies of immune and field sera. The potential for confounding by an antibody response to other spirochetes associated with diseases of cattle was assessed. Results-The antibody response (specific) to both PDD spirochete groups of cows with PDD was significantly increased, compared with that of cows from PDD-free dairies. There was no association between antibody response to PDD-associated spirochetes and antibody response to other spirochetal diseases of cattle. None of the cattle from the dairy with previous history of PDD but without current disease were classified as test positive by either PDD ELISA. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference in classification results for both PDD ELISA for cattle with PDD from the dairy with a high herd prevalence of PDD, compared with cattle without detectable disease from the same dairy. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The humoral response in cattle with PDD lesions was significantly different from that in cattle without detectable lesions, thus providing additional information regarding the potential role of spirochetes isolated from PDD lesions in the etiopathogenesis of PDD.
Identifying and preventing pain during and after surgery in farm animalsDuffield, Todd F., Walker, Kristen A. et alIdentifying and preventing pain during and after surgery in farm animalsDuffield, Todd F., Walker, Kristen A., Weary, Daniel M.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2011
Assessment of dairy cow locomotion in a commercial farm setting: The effects of walking speed on ground reaction forces and...Channon, A., Pfau, T., Walker, A.M. et alAssessment of dairy cow locomotion in a commercial farm setting: The effects of walking speed on ground reaction forces and temporal and linear stride characteristicsChannon, A., Pfau, T., Walker, A.M., Wilson, A.Research in Veterinary Science2010
Reproductive status of cows with disorders of the locomotory systemJovanovic, M. J., Perkovic, S. et alReproductive status of cows with disorders of the locomotory systemJovanovic, M. J., Perkovic, S., Petrujkic, T., Predojevic, M., Vukovic, D., Zupanc, D.Veterinarski Glasnik1995
Invited review: The welfare of dairy cattle—Key concepts and the role of sciencede Passille, A. M., Rushen, J. et alInvited review: The welfare of dairy cattle—Key concepts and the role of sciencede Passille, A. M., Rushen, J., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2009Concerns about the welfare of animals typically include 3 questions: is the animal functioning well (e.g., good health, productivity, etc.), is the animal feeling well (e.g., absence of pain, etc.), and is the animal able to live according to its nature (e.g., perform natural behaviors that are thought to be important to it, such as grazing)? We review examples, primarily from our own research, showing how all 3 questions can be addressed using science. For example, we review work showing 1) how common diseases such as lameness can be better identified and prevented through improvements in the ways cows are housed and managed, 2) how pain caused by dehorning of dairy calves can be reduced, and 3) how environmental conditions affect cow preferences for indoor housing versus pasture. Disagreements about animal welfare can occur when different measures are used. For example, management systems that favor production may restrict natural behavior or can even lead to higher rates of disease. The best approaches are those that address all 3 types of concerns, for example, feeding systems for calves that allow expression of key behaviors (i.e., sucking on a teat), that avoid negative affect (i.e., hunger), and that allow for improved functioning (i.e., higher rates of body weight gain, and ultimately higher milk production).
Benchmarking cow comfort on North American freestall dairies: Lameness, leg injuries, lying time, facility design, and management...Barrientos, A., Galo, E., Ito, K. et alBenchmarking cow comfort on North American freestall dairies: Lameness, leg injuries, lying time, facility design, and management for high-producing Holstein dairy cowsBarrientos, A., Galo, E., Ito, K., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2012In this paper, we describe a novel approach to corporate involvement in on-farm assessment, driven by the desire to provide a service for dairy producers and to create a vehicle for engagement on issues of dairy cow welfare. This program provides producers with feedback on animal-based (including gait score, leg injuries, and lying time) and facility-based (including freestall design, bedding practices, feed bunk design and management, and stocking density) measures that can be used to better address their management goals. The aim of this paper is to describe variation in the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries, lying behavior, facility design, and management practices for high-producing cows on freestall dairy farms in 3 regions of North America: British Columbia (BC; n = 42); California (CA; n = 39); and the northeastern United States (NE-US; n = 40). Prevalence of clinical lameness averaged (mean ± SD) 27.9 ± 14.1% in BC, 30.8 ± 15.5% in CA, and 54.8 ± 16.7% in NE-US; prevalence of severe lameness averaged 7.1 ± 5.4% in BC, 3.6 ± 4.2% in CA, and 8.2 ± 5.6% in NE-US. Overall prevalence of hock injuries was 42.3 ± 26.2% in BC, 56.2 ± 21.6% in CA, and 81.2 ± 22.5% in NE-US; prevalence of severe injuries was 3.7 ± 5.2% in BC, 1.8 ± 3.1% in CA, 5.4 ± 5.9% in NE-US. Prevalence of swollen knees was minimal in CA (0.3 ± 0.6%) but high (23.1 ± 16.3%) in NE-US (not scored in BC). Lying times were similar across regions (11.0 ± 0.7 h/d in BC, 10.4 ± 0.8 h/d in CA, 10.6 ± 0.9 h/d in NE-US), but individual lying times among cows assessed varied (4.2 to 19.5 h/d, 3.7 to 17.5 h/d, and 2.8 to 20.5 h/d in BC, CA, and NE-US, respectively). These results showed considerable variation in lameness and leg injury prevalence as well as facility design and management among freestall farms in North America. Each of the 3 regions had farms with a very low prevalence of lameness and injuries, suggesting great opportunities for improvement on other farms within the region.
Clinical and subclinical lameness in young fattening cattleMartens, H., Siering, W., Volker, H.Clinical and subclinical lameness in young fattening cattleMartens, H., Siering, W., Volker, H.Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift2000
[Clinical and subclinical lameness in young fattenin cattle]Martens, H., Siering, W., Volker, H.[Clinical and subclinical lameness in young fattenin cattle]Martens, H., Siering, W., Volker, H.Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr2000Time dependent changes of subclinical and clinical lameness were analysed in 493 fattening bulls in three different herds with a total number of 30,621 animals. In the majority of cases subclinical lameness were observed which were caused by metabolic acidosis or deficiencies in mineral intake (P and probably Ca). The activity of alkaline phosphatase in plasma exhibited an increase and the dry matter in bone (tubera coxae) a decrease before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Changes in bone composition were accompanied by alterations of plasma Ca and P concentrations, which finally led to clinical lameness. Hence the diagnosis was verified by simple laboratory methods as the precondition for successful treatment and prophylaxis of lameness caused by metabolic disorders
Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free-stall barnErb, H. N., Galton, D. M., Guard, C. L. et alEffects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free-stall barnErb, H. N., Galton, D. M., Guard, C. L., Vokey, F. J.Journal of Dairy Science2001A 15-wk 2 x 3 factorial trial in a university dairy herd compared the effects of two alley surfaces and three free-stall beds on indices of lameness. Alley surfaces were grooved concrete (Ct) or 1.9-cm-thick interlocking rubber mats (R). Stalls were deep sand (S), rubber mattresses (M), or concrete (C). Mattress and concrete stalls were bedded with sawdust. At wk 1 and 15, the hind claws and hocks of 120 primi- (n = 69) and multiparous (n = 51) cows were scored for lesions and three claw measurements (dorsal wall length, heel depth, and toe angle) were recorded. Rates of lateral and medial claw growth and wear were calculated by measuring the migration of a reference mark away from the coronet. Digital photographs of claw surfaces were used to rescore claw lesions. Clinical lameness was evaluated by assigning a locomotion score from 1 to 4 to each cow during wk 1, 5, 10, and 14. Digital dermatitis (present/not present) and interdigital dermatitis (mild, moderate, or severe) were recorded at wk 15. The number of days that cows spent in a hospital barn was recorded. Before assignment, cows were professionally foot trimmed, sorted by initial claw lesion score, and then randomized in consecutive blocks of three to stall treatments. Photograph scores were highly repeatable. Nonparametric statistical techniques were used for analyses of rank data. Claw lesion score increased significantly for all treatment groups except RC and RS; however, when early lactation cows were excluded, no differences were found between treatment groups. Hock scores increased significantly more for cows in CtC than in CtS or RS. Significantly more animals from RC spent more than 10 d in the hospital pen compared with RM and RS. Groups did not significantly differ for clinical lameness. Cows in RS and RC had significantly lower rates for lateral claw net growth than those in CtM. Having moderate or severe interdigital dermatitis at wk 15 was associated with greater increases in claw lesion score and more treatments for digital dermatitis. All claw measurements were correlated; however, toe angle was most strongly correlated with the other two. In this experiment, stall and alley configurations did not lead to significant differences in several indices of lameness.
The effect of biotin supplementation on claw health in dairy cattle under field conditionsHagermeister, H., Kuhla, S. et alThe effect of biotin supplementation on claw health in dairy cattle under field conditionsHagermeister, H., Kuhla, S., Schoenhusen, U., Voigt, J., Weber, G. M.
External Skeletal Fixation of Fractures in CattleAnderson, David E., Vogel, Susan R.External Skeletal Fixation of Fractures in CattleAnderson, David E., Vogel, Susan R.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2014
Diagnostic assessment without cut-offs: Application of serology for the modelling of bovine digital dermatitis infectionBrown, J., Carter, S. D., Demirkan, I. et alDiagnostic assessment without cut-offs: Application of serology for the modelling of bovine digital dermatitis infectionBrown, J., Carter, S. D., Demirkan, I., French, N. P., Johnson, W. O., Jones, G., Vink, W.D.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2009
Investigating the epidemiology of Bovine Digital Dermatitis: causality, transmission and infection dynamicsVink, W.D.Investigating the epidemiology of Bovine Digital Dermatitis: causality, transmission and infection dynamicsVink, W.D.2006
Anaplasma infections in ticks and reservoir host from SlovakiaChrudimský, Tomáš, Čurlík, Ján et alAnaplasma infections in ticks and reservoir host from SlovakiaChrudimský, Tomáš, Čurlík, Ján, Hviščová, Ivana, Majláthová, Viktória, Nováková, Mária, Pangrácová, Lucia, Peťko, Branislav, Stanko, Michal, Víchová, BronislavaInfection, Genetics and Evolution2014
Comparison of a three-dimensional and two-dimensional camera system for automated measurement of back posture in dairy cowsBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I. et alComparison of a three-dimensional and two-dimensional camera system for automated measurement of back posture in dairy cowsBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I., Lokhorst, C., Romanini, C. E. B., Schlageter-Tello, A., Van Hertem, T., Viazzi, S.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2014In this study, two different computer vision techniques to automatically measure the back posture in dairy cows were tested and evaluated. A two-dimensional and a three-dimensional camera system were used to extract the back posture from walking cows, which is one measurement used by experts to discriminate between lame and not lame cows. So far, two-dimensional cameras positioned in side view are used to measure back posture. This method, however, is not always applicable in farm conditions since it can be difficult to be installed. Shadows and continuous changes in the background also render image segmentation difficult and often erroneous. In order to overcome these problems, a new method to extract the back posture by using a three-dimensional camera from top view perspective is presented in this paper. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Israeli dairy farm and a dataset of 273 cows was recorded by both the three-dimensional and two-dimensional cameras. The classifications of both the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional algorithms were evaluated against the visual locomotion scores given by an expert veterinary. The two-dimensional algorithm had an accuracy of 91%, while the three-dimensional algorithm had an accuracy of 90% on the evaluation dataset. These results show that the application of a three-dimensional camera leads to an accuracy comparable to the side view approach and that the top view approach can overcome limitations in terms of automation and processing time.
Analysis of individual classification of lameness using automatic measurement of back posture in dairy cattleBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I. et alAnalysis of individual classification of lameness using automatic measurement of back posture in dairy cattleBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I., Lokhorst, C., Pluk, A., Romanini, C. E. B., Schlageter-Tello, A., Van Hertem, T., Viazzi, S.Journal of Dairy Science2013Currently, diagnosis of lameness at an early stage in dairy cows relies on visual observation by the farmer, which is time consuming and often omitted. Many studies have tried to develop automatic cow lameness detection systems. However, those studies apply thresholds to the whole population to detect whether or not an individual cow is lame. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and test an individualized version of the body movement pattern score, which uses back posture to classify lameness into 3 classes, and to compare both the population and the individual approach under farm conditions. In a data set of 223 videos from 90 cows, 76% of cows were correctly classified, with an 83% true positive rate and 22% false positive rate when using the population approach. A new data set, containing 105 videos of 8 cows that had moved through all 3 lameness classes, was used for an ANOVA on the 3 different classes, showing that body movement pattern scores differed significantly among cows. Moreover, the classification accuracy and the true positive rate increased by 10 percentage units up to 91%, and the false positive rate decreased by 4 percentage units down to 6% when based on an individual threshold compared with a population threshold.
Claw lameness in dairy cattle: New Zealand-based researchParkinson, T., Vermunt, J. J.Claw lameness in dairy cattle: New Zealand-based researchParkinson, T., Vermunt, J. J.New Zealand Veterinary Journal2002
A Scanning Electron-Microscopic Study of the Vascular System of the Bovine Hind-Limb ClawLeach, D. H., Vermunt, J. J.A Scanning Electron-Microscopic Study of the Vascular System of the Bovine Hind-Limb ClawLeach, D. H., Vermunt, J. J.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1992The vascular organisation of the hind limb claws of clinically normal cattle was studied using scanning electron micrographs of plastic corrosion casts. The microvasculature of the dermal papillae and lamellae was demonstrated. A consistent vascular pattern was observed in the dermal papillae of the periople, coronary margin, sole and bulb. Ultrastructurally, the papillar vasculature consisted of a central artery and vein surrounded by a fine network of interconnected capillaries and venules. Arteriovenous anastomoses, connecting the central artery and vein, and peripherally situated arteriovenous loops were recognised in the terminal papillae of the white zone only. Arteriovenous anastomoses, focal enlargements and distension of the capillary bed were located within the interior half of the dermal lamellae. Numerous arteriovenous anastomoses were present throughout the entire dermis of the claw and were situated predominantly at the base of the dermal papillae and lamellae. The anastomoses and focal capillary enlargements may influence the blood flow in normal conditions and may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of bovine laminitis and sole ulceration
Papillomatous digital dermatitis in a Holstein-Friesian bullHill, F. I., Vermunt, J. J.Papillomatous digital dermatitis in a Holstein-Friesian bullHill, F. I., Vermunt, J. J.New Zealand Veterinary Journal2004
Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditionsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditionsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1996
Hock angles of dairy heifers in two management systemsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Hock angles of dairy heifers in two management systemsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1996
Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditions (vol 152, pg 57, 1996)Greenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditions (vol 152, pg 57, 1996)Greenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1996
Claw conformation of dairy heifers in two management systemsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Claw conformation of dairy heifers in two management systemsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1996
Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditions [see comments] [published...Greenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditions [see comments] [published erratum appears in British Veterinary Journal 1995 May;152(3):361]Greenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1996Sole haemorrhages associated with laminitis were studied in 30 Holstein heifers in one herd housed either indoors on concrete or out of doors on a dry lot. Examinations were at 4-week intervals during a 15-month period from approximately 13 months of age to 2 months after calving. At 13 months of age, sole haemorrhages were present in 77% of the heifers. Five heifers, affected by clinical laminitis shortly after calving, developed early sole ulcers. Indoor-housed heifers had a greater number of and more severe haemorrhages than heifers managed in dry lots (P < 0.001). In both groups, hind claws were more affected than front claws (P < 0.001). Lateral claws were more affected in hind limbs (P < 0.001),whereas medial claws had more sole haemorrhages in front limbs (P < 0.01). Heifers managed in dry lots had more sole haemorrhages in right claws than in left claws (P < 0.01). The number and severity of haemorrhages differed among the six zones of the sole (P < 0.001). Overall, the abaxial white zone (zone 2) had the greatest number of haemorrhages, followed by the white zone at the toe (zone 0), the bulb (zone 5) and the sole-bulb junction (zone 4), respectively. Few haemorrhages occurred in the apex of the sole (zone 1) and the axial groove (zone 3). Zone 0 was more severely affected in heifers managed in dry lots (P < 0.001), whereas zones 2, 4 and 5 had greater numbers of haemorrhages in heifers housed indoors (P < 0.01). Time had no effect on total haemorrhages scores, but the effect of management was significant for zones 0 and 5. Total haemorrhage scores for zone 0 were greater in heifers managed in dry lots (P < 0.05), whereas zone 5 was more affected in indoor-housed heifers (P < 0.01). This study shows that sole haemorrhages do occur in the claws of dairy heifers managed either indoors or in dry lots, and permanent damage to the claws of these young cattle may already have occurred before they reach maturity
Lesions Associated with Subclinical Laminitis of the Claws of Dairy Calves in 2 Management-SystemsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Lesions Associated with Subclinical Laminitis of the Claws of Dairy Calves in 2 Management-SystemsGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1995
Structural Characteristics of the Bovine Claw – Horn Growth and Wear, Horn Hardness and Claw ConformationGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Structural Characteristics of the Bovine Claw – Horn Growth and Wear, Horn Hardness and Claw ConformationGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1995
Lesions associated with subclinical laminitis of the claws of dairy calves in two management systems [see comments]Greenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Lesions associated with subclinical laminitis of the claws of dairy calves in two management systems [see comments]Greenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1995Claws of ten 6 to 7-month-old dairy calves in two management systems were examined for lesions associated with subclinical laminitis. Sole haemorrhages were found only in claws of calves maintained out of doors. No significant differences in number and severity of haemorrhages were found between left and right or lateral and medial claws, but haemorrhages were more frequent and more severe in hind claws than in front claws (P < 0.05). More haemorrhages of greater severity were present in the white zone at the toe than in all other areas of the weight-bearing surface combined (P < 0.05). No lesions of interdigital dermatitis and heel horn erosion were found in either indoor-housed or outdoor-housed calves. All calves kept indoors on deep bedding developed overgrown claws
Structural characteristics of the bovine claw: horn growth and wear, horn hardness and claw conformationGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Structural characteristics of the bovine claw: horn growth and wear, horn hardness and claw conformationGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1995Claw quality is the product of horn characteristics, claw shape and anatomy and physiology of the inner structure. This paper aims to review some of the different approaches that have been employed to evaluate claw quality, and factors that may influence horn growth and wear. These include physiological, seasonal, nutritional, environmental, management and anatomical aspects. Horn hardness is similarly described. Claw conformation is discussed, commencing with a brief outline of the various methods used to determine claw shape and size, followed by an account of some of the factors that influence claw conformation. The clinical importance of claw conformation in cattle is considered with particular reference to lameness, longevity and production traits. Finally, the prospect of improving claw quality by selection of bulls based on claw measurements is reviewed
Predisposing Factors of Laminitis in CattleGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.Predisposing Factors of Laminitis in CattleGreenough, P. R., Vermunt, J. J.British Veterinary Journal1994
Regular claw trimming for the control of lameness–good or bad? [editorial]Vermunt, J. J.Regular claw trimming for the control of lameness–good or bad? [editorial]Vermunt, J. J.Veterinary Journal1999
Measuring claw volume–a useful tool in lameness research [editorial]Vermunt, J. J.Measuring claw volume–a useful tool in lameness research [editorial]Vermunt, J. J.Veterinary Journal1999
“Subclinical” laminitis in dairy cattleVermunt, J. J.“Subclinical” laminitis in dairy cattleVermunt, J. J.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1992
“Subclinical” laminitis in dairy cattle – what’s new?Vermunt, J. J.“Subclinical” laminitis in dairy cattle – what’s new?Vermunt, J. J.
Risk factors of laminitis – An overviewVermunt, J.Risk factors of laminitis – An overviewVermunt, J.2000
Cubicle housing systems for cattle: Comfort of dairy cows depends on cubicle adjustmentCapdeville, J., Delval, E., Veissier, I.Cubicle housing systems for cattle: Comfort of dairy cows depends on cubicle adjustmentCapdeville, J., Delval, E., Veissier, I.Journal of Animal Science2004Housing is important for the welfare of cows. Although recommendations have been proposed, abnormal movements and injury problems are still observed in cubicle houses. We conducted a survey on 70 French dairy farms that used cubicles. We examined the design of the cubicles, and the behavior, injuries, and cleanliness of the cows. Most of the cubicles did not comply with the recommendations, often being too narrow and/or too short. Difficulties in lying behavior and injuries were more common when the neck rail was high. No improvement was noted when cubicles of a recent design were used ("U.S." cubicles), apparently because these cubicles were most often cantilevered on a double head rail rather than fixed on freestanding posts. An experiment was conducted, making similar measurements, on 84 cows to compare two configurations for U.S. cubicles (cantilevered on a double head rail as observed in the survey with a high and rear neck rail vs. fixed on freestanding posts as recommended) and another recent cubicle type (Euroconfort, cantilevered on head rails, but with a large space between the rails and fixed as recommended), with and without a brisket board. In U.S. cubicles on rails, cows spent more time lying and less time fully standing inside the cubicles than in the other cubicles (percentage of time: lying, 53.9 vs. 51.5; fully standing, 7.3 vs. 8.5); in Euroconfort cubicles, they hit bars more often when getting up than in U.S. Cubicles (percentage of observations: 42.4 vs. 26.4. Without a brisket board, cows lay down more often in a fore position in U.S. cubicles than in Euroconfort ones. Somatic cell counts increased with time in U.S. cubicles on rails and decreased in the other cubicles. It is suggested that the position of the neck rail in U.S. cubicles cantilevered on rails did not leave enough space for the cow to stand inside the cubicle, thereby encouraging the cow to lie down. This could in turn favor udder contamination and/or inflammation. It is concluded that the positioning of the neck rail is of prime importance, that U.S. cubicles should be used with a brisket board and with correct positioning of the neck rail (even when a head rail is used), and that leaving a large space between head rails does not offer an adequate remedial solution for keeping a free head space in front of the cubicle.
Classification of behaviour in housed dairy cows using an accelerometer-based activity monitoring systemAmory,J.R, Barker, Z. E., Bell, N.J. et alClassification of behaviour in housed dairy cows using an accelerometer-based activity monitoring systemAmory,J.R, Barker, Z. E., Bell, N.J., Codling, E.A.,, Croft,D.P., Hodges,H.R., Vázquez Diosdado,J.A.Animal Biotelemetry2015
Sampling cows to assess lying time for on-farm animal welfare assessmentde Passille, A. M., Haley, D. B. et alSampling cows to assess lying time for on-farm animal welfare assessmentde Passille, A. M., Haley, D. B., Rushen, J., Vasseur, E.Journal of Dairy Science2012
An assessment tool to help producers improve cow comfort on their farmsde Passille, A. M., Gibbons, J. et alAn assessment tool to help producers improve cow comfort on their farmsde Passille, A. M., Gibbons, J., Lefebvre, D., Pajor, E., Pellerin, D., Rushen, J., Vasseur, E.J Dairy Sci2015Effective management and an appropriate environment are essential for dairy cattle health and welfare. Codes of practice provide dairy producers with best practice guidance for the care and handling of their cattle. New Canadian recommendations have been established for the dairy industry. The objectives of this study were to develop an on-farm assessment tool that helps producers assess how well they are meeting their code of practice and that identifies management and environment modifications that could improve dairy cow comfort on their farms. The assessment tool addressed critical areas of dairy cow comfort, including accommodation and housing (stall design, space allowance, stall management, pen management, milking parlor, and transfer alleys), feed and water (body condition scoring, nutrition), and health and welfare (lameness, claw health, and hoof-trimming). Targets of good practices were identified from the requirements and recommendations of the code of practice. Each farm received a score for each target, ranging from 0 (target not reached) to 100 (target reached). One hundred tiestall and 110 freestall farms were surveyed in 3 provinces of Canada (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta). The duration of the assessment, in 2 visits lasting, on average, 8 and 9h (range between freestall and tiestall farms) and 4 and 4.1h, was beyond the targeted 3 to 4h due mainly to the animal-based measures; strategies to reduce the duration of the assessment were discussed. Standard operating procedures were developed to ensure consistency in measuring and recording data. Periodical checks were conducted by trainers to ensure all 15 assessors remained above target agreement of weighted kappa >/=0.6. Average scores for all critical areas ranged from 25 to 89% for freestall farms and from 48 to 95% for tiestall farms. These scores need to be considered with caution when comparing farms because scores could not always be calculated the same way between housing systems. An evaluation report was provided and discussed with each producer, identifying strengths and areas for improvement that could benefit dairy cow comfort on their farms. The producers were convinced of the effectiveness of our tool for assessing cow comfort (freestall: 86%; tiestall: 95%) and in assisting them to make decisions for improvements (freestall: 83%; tiestall: 93%). Our cow comfort assessment tool served as background material for the Dairy Farmers of Canada animal care assessment program.
Monitoring cow comfort and rumen health indices in a cubicle-housed herd with an automatic milking system: a repeated measures...Bell, N.J., Fishwick, J.C., van Winden et alMonitoring cow comfort and rumen health indices in a cubicle-housed herd with an automatic milking system: a repeated measures approachBell, N.J., Fishwick, J.C., van Winden, S., Vanhoudt, A.Irish Veterinary Journal2015
Comparison of the performance of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows within three contrasting...Elliott, C. T., Ferris, C. P., Hartley et alComparison of the performance of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows within three contrasting grassland-based systems of milk productionElliott, C. T., Ferris, C. P., Hartley, H. M., Kilpatrick, D. J., Vance, E. R.Livestock Science2013
Digital Dermatitis – Report of an OutbreakTutt, C. L. C., Vanamstel, S. R. et alDigital Dermatitis – Report of an OutbreakTutt, C. L. C., Vanamstel, S. R., Vanvuuren, S.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association-Tydskrif Van Die Suid-Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging1995
Reduced test-day milk fat percentage in cows diagnosed with claw horn lesions during routine claw trimmingBar, D., Siani, I., van Straten, M.Reduced test-day milk fat percentage in cows diagnosed with claw horn lesions during routine claw trimmingBar, D., Siani, I., van Straten, M.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or BehaviorBahr, C., Pastell, M., Saeys, W., Sonck et alLameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or BehaviorBahr, C., Pastell, M., Saeys, W., Sonck, B., Thorup, V. M., Van Nuffel, A., Van Weyenberg, S., Zwertvaegher, I.Animals (Basel)2015Despite the research on opportunities to automatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are not widely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat them properly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automated measurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. In order for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cows need to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stage of the development process. Also, comparison between the different approaches is impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioral characteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or during experiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed) and by the different definitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cows are included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of also detecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensor technology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lameness are discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lameness research. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system on farms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements) are discussed.
Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or...Pastell, M., Pluym, L., Saeys, W. et alLameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or BehaviorPastell, M., Pluym, L., Saeys, W., Sonck, B., Thorup, V. M., Van Nuffel, A., Van Weyenberg, S., Zwertvaegher, I.Animals (Basel)2015Due to its detrimental effect on cow welfare, health and production, lameness in dairy cows has received quite a lot of attention in the last few decades-not only in terms of prevention and treatment of lameness but also in terms of detection, as early treatment might decrease the number of severely lame cows in the herds as well as decrease the direct and indirect costs associated with lameness cases. Generally, lame cows are detected by the herdsman, hoof trimmer or veterinarian based on abnormal locomotion, abnormal behavior or the presence of hoof lesions during routine trimming. In the scientific literature, several guidelines are proposed to detect lame cows based on visual interpretation of the locomotion of individual cows (i.e., locomotion scoring systems). Researchers and the industry have focused on automating such observations to support the farmer in finding the lame cows in their herds, but until now, such automated systems have rarely been used in commercial herds. This review starts with the description of normal locomotion of cows in order to define 'abnormal' locomotion caused by lameness. Cow locomotion (gait and posture) and behavioral features that change when a cow becomes lame are described and linked to the existing visual scoring systems. In addition, the lack of information of normal cow gait and a clear description of 'abnormal' gait are discussed. Finally, the different set-ups used during locomotion scoring and their influence on the resulting locomotion scores are evaluated.
Exploration of measurement variation of gait variables for early lameness detection in cattle using the GAITWISEDe Campeneere, S., Mertens, K. C. et alExploration of measurement variation of gait variables for early lameness detection in cattle using the GAITWISEDe Campeneere, S., Mertens, K. C., Opsomer, G., Pluym, L., Saeys, W., Van Nuffel, A., Van Weyenberg, S., Vangeyte, J.Livestock Science2013Lameness research in cattle focuses on daily or weekly variation of several typical gait features, i.e. stride time, stride length or arching of the back. In human gait research however, the variation of typical gait characteristics within one measurement is taken into account and serves as a sensitive and clinically relevant parameter in the evolution of diseases and the response to therapeutic interventions. In this paper the utility of such within measurement variation of gait variables was investigated for lameness research in cattle by comparing variables between lame cows, cows that are scored mildly lame by a trained observer but not yet noticed lame by the farmer, and cows that were scored severely lame and were noticed lame by the farmer in two case-control studies. Additionally, the repeatability of all variables was tested using eight non-lame cows. The measurements with the GAITWISE were found to be highly repeatable and are therefore suited for cow gait characterization. The new set of inconsistency variables was able to distinguish between non-lame and becoming lame (mildly lame but not yet noticed by the farmer) cows. These results suggest the usefulness of such variables of stride-to-stride-fluctuation for early detection of lameness. Whether they are more sensitive for early lameness detection compared to the more conventionally used averaged gait variables should be confirmed in longitudinal studies with non-lame cows and cows that develop lameness. All cows that were selected in the case control studies were mildly or severely lame in the left hind leg. Cows that were severely lame on their left hind leg put less force and take shorter steps with that sore leg increasing stance times on the right side. In addition, their stride to stride fluctuations of ‘stance times on the left front leg’ and ‘step length between left hind and right front leg’ significantly increase for the cows that were mildly lame but not yet noticed lame by the farmer. This strong relationship between the localization of the lameness and the significantly changed variables, suggest that the variables measured by the GAITWISE are promising in defining which leg is developing lameness in cows.
Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systemsDe Ketelaere, B., Mertens, K. C. et alEnvironmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systemsDe Ketelaere, B., Mertens, K. C., Opsomer, G., Saeys, W., Sonck, B., Van De Gucht, T., Van Nuffel, A., Van Weyenberg, S., Vangeyte, J.Animal2016To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow locomotion will help in reducing the number of false alerts for lameness detection systems under development. However, further research is necessary in order to better understand these and many other possible influencing factors (e.g. trimming, conformation) of non-lame and hence 'normal' locomotion in cows.
Variables of gait inconsistency outperform basic gait variables in detecting mildly lame cowsDe Ketelaere, B., Mertens, K. C., Saeys et alVariables of gait inconsistency outperform basic gait variables in detecting mildly lame cowsDe Ketelaere, B., Mertens, K. C., Saeys, W., Sonck, B., Van Nuffel, A., Van Weyenberg, S., Vangeyte, J.Livestock Science2015To support herdsmen in finding the lame cows on their herds, several automated systems that measure lameness related cow features such as gait patterns, are being developed. Most of these systems are able to distinguish between non-lame and severely lame cows. Detecting mildly lame cows in an early stage of lameness however seems challenging. Inspired by the approach used in human gait research, new variables that measure the inconsistency in stride-to-stride variables were tested using cow gait and were able to show differences between a group of non-lame and a group of mildly lame cows. In order to investigate the added value of these inconsistency variables in detecting mildly lame cows, two new lameness detection models were build: one using solely basic gait variables and a second model using both basic and the new gait inconsistency variables. The second model using the gait inconsistency variables outperformed the model based on only basic gait variables by far in detecting the mildly lame cows with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 87%. These results support the suggestion of incorporating such gait inconsistency variables into lameness detection models. Further validation of these gait inconsistency variables should be investigated using longitudinal studies where cows developing lameness and recovering from it are monitored daily.
Utilization of heterogeneity of regression to delineate effects of Zn-, Mn-, and Cu-proteinates on milk somatic cell counts, milk...De Groot, W., Shearer, J., Van Horn, H. et alUtilization of heterogeneity of regression to delineate effects of Zn-, Mn-, and Cu-proteinates on milk somatic cell counts, milk yields, and cow mobility in research conducted onfarmDe Groot, W., Shearer, J., Van Horn, H., Wilcox, C.Journal of Dairy Science1994
Automatic lameness detection based on consecutive 3D-video recordingsAlchanatis, Victor, Antler, Aharon et alAutomatic lameness detection based on consecutive 3D-video recordingsAlchanatis, Victor, Antler, Aharon, Bahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel, Halachmi, Ilan, Lokhorst, Kees, Maltz, Ephraim, Romanini, Eduardo C. B., Schlageter-Tello, Andres A., Steensels, Machteld, Van Hertem, Tom, Viazzi, StefanoBiosystems Engineering2014Manual locomotion scoring for lameness detection is a time-consuming and subjective procedure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to optimise the classification output of a computer vision based algorithm for automated lameness scoring. Cow gait recordings were made during four consecutive night-time milking sessions on an Israeli dairy farm, using a 3D-camera. A live on-the-spot assessed 5-point locomotion score was the reference for the automatic lameness score evaluation. A dataset of 186 cows with four automatic lameness scores and four live locomotion score repetitions was used for testing three different classification methods. The analysis of the automatic scores as independent observations led to a correct classification rate of 53.0% on a 5-point level scale. A multinomial logistic regression model based on four individual consecutive measures obtained a correct classification rate of 60.2%. When allowing a 1 unit error on the 5-point level scale, a correct classification rate of 90.9% was obtained. Strict binary classification to Lame vs. Not-Lame categories reached 81.2% correct classification rate. The use of cow individual consecutive measurements improved the correct classification rate of an automatic lameness detection system.
The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cowsAntler, A., Bahr, C., Berckmans, D. et alThe effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cowsAntler, A., Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I., Lokhorst, C., Maltz, E., Parmet, Y., Romanini, C. E. B., Schlageter-Tello, A. A., Steensels, M., Van Hertem, T., Viazzi, S.Journal of Dairy Science2014The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer twice per year on the entire herd. In total, 288 cows spread over 6 groups with varying production levels were used for the analysis. Cow behavior was measured continuously with a commercial neck activity logger and a ruminating time logger (HR-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Milk yield was recorded during each milking session with a commercial milk flow sensor (Free Flow, SCR Engineers Ltd.). A trained observer assigned on the spot 5-point locomotion scores during 19 nighttime milking occasions between 22 October 2012 and 4 February 2013. Behavioral and performance data were gathered from 1 wk before hoof trimming until 1 wk after hoof trimming. A generalized linear mixed model was used to statistically test all main and interactive effects of hoof trimming, parity, lactation stage, and hoof lesion presence on ruminating time, neck activity, milk yield, and locomotion score. The results on locomotion scores show that the proportional distribution of cows in the different locomotion score classes changes significantly after trimming. The proportion of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 increases from 14% before to 34% directly after the hoof trimming. Two months after the trimming, the number of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 reduced to 20%, which was still higher than the baseline values 2 wk before the trimming. The neck activity level was significantly reduced 1 d after trimming (380 ± 6 bits/d) compared with before trimming (389 ± 6 bits/d). Each one-unit increase in locomotion score reduced cow activity level by 4.488 bits/d. The effect of hoof trimming on ruminating time was affected by an interaction effect with parity. The effect of hoof trimming on locomotion scores was affected by an interaction effect with lactation stage and tended to be affected by interaction effects with hoof lesion presence, indicating that cows with a lesion reacted different to the trimming than cows without a lesion did. The results show that the routine hoof trimming affected dairy cow behavior and performance in this farm.
Lameness detection based on multivariate continuous sensing of milk yield, rumination, and neck activityAntler, A., Bahr, C., Berckmans, D. et alLameness detection based on multivariate continuous sensing of milk yield, rumination, and neck activityAntler, A., Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I., Lokhorst, C., Maltz, E., Romanini, C. E. B., Schlageter-Tello, A., Van Hertem, T., Viazzi, S.Journal of Dairy Science2013The objective of this study was to develop and validate a mathematical model to detect clinical lameness based on existing sensor data that relate to the behavior and performance of cows in a commercial dairy farm. Identification of lame (44) and not lame (74) cows in the database was done based on the farm’s daily herd health reports. All cows were equipped with a behavior sensor that measured neck activity and ruminating time. The cow’s performance was measured with a milk yield meter in the milking parlor. In total, 38 model input variables were constructed from the sensor data comprising absolute values, relative values, daily standard deviations, slope coefficients, daytime and nighttime periods, variables related to individual temperament, and milk session-related variables. A lame group, cows recognized and treated for lameness, to not lame group comparison of daily data was done. Correlations between the dichotomous output variable (lame or not lame) and the model input variables were made. The highest correlation coefficient was obtained for the milk yield variable (rMY = 0.45). In addition, a logistic regression model was developed based on the 7 highest correlated model input variables (the daily milk yield 4 d before diagnosis; the slope coefficient of the daily milk yield 4 d before diagnosis; the nighttime to daytime neck activity ratio 6 d before diagnosis; the milk yield week difference ratio 4 d before diagnosis; the milk yield week difference 4 d before diagnosis; the neck activity level during the daytime 7 d before diagnosis; the ruminating time during nighttime 6 d before diagnosis). After a 10-fold cross-validation, the model obtained a sensitivity of 0.89 and a specificity of 0.85, with a correct classification rate of 0.86 when based on the averaged 10-fold model coefficients. This study demonstrates that existing farm data initially used for other purposes, such as heat detection, can be exploited for the automated detection of clinically lame animals on a daily basis as well.
Lameness detection in dairy cattle: single predictor v. multivariate analysis of image-based posture processing and behaviour and...Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I. et alLameness detection in dairy cattle: single predictor v. multivariate analysis of image-based posture processing and behaviour and performance sensingBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Halachmi, I., Lokhorst, C., Maltz, E., Romanini, C. E., Schlageter-Tello, A., Steensels, M., Van Hertem, T., Viazzi, S.Animal2016The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in Belgium. Human locomotion scoring was used as reference for the model development and evaluation. Cow behaviour and performance was measured with existing sensors that were already present at the farm. A prototype of three-dimensional-based video recording system was used to quantify automatically the back posture of a cow. For the single predictor comparisons, a receiver operating characteristics curve was made. For the multivariate detection models, logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were developed. The best lameness classification model was obtained by the multi-sensor analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC)=0.757+/-0.029), containing a combination of milk and milking variables, activity and gait and posture variables from videos. Second, the multivariate video-based system (AUC=0.732+/-0.011) performed better than the multivariate milk sensors (AUC=0.604+/-0.026) and the multivariate behaviour sensors (AUC=0.633+/-0.018). The video-based system performed better than the combined behaviour and performance-based detection model (AUC=0.669+/-0.028), indicating that it is worthwhile to consider a video-based lameness detection system, regardless the presence of other existing sensors in the farm. The results suggest that Theta2, the feature variable for the back curvature around the hip joints, with an AUC of 0.719 is the best single predictor variable for lameness detection based on locomotion scoring. In general, this study showed that the video-based back posture monitoring system is outperforming the behaviour and performance sensing techniques for locomotion scoring-based lameness detection. A GLMM with seven specific variables (walking speed, back posture measurement, daytime activity, milk yield, lactation stage, milk peak flow rate and milk peak conductivity) is the best combination of variables for lameness classification. The accuracy on four-level lameness classification was 60.3%. The accuracy improved to 79.8% for binary lameness classification. The binary GLMM obtained a sensitivity of 68.5% and a specificity of 87.6%, which both exceed the sensitivity (52.1%+/-4.7%) and specificity (83.2%+/-2.3%) of the multi-sensor logistic regression model. This shows that the repeated measures analysis in the GLMM, taking into account the individual history of the animal, outperforms the classification when thresholds based on herd level (a statistical population) are used.
A study on cow comfort and risk for lameness and mastitis in relation to different types of bedding materialsHouwers, D. J., van Eerdenburg et alA study on cow comfort and risk for lameness and mastitis in relation to different types of bedding materialsHouwers, D. J., van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M., van Gastelen, S., Westerlaan, B.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Cow characteristics and management factors on locomotion in HolsteinsBoettcher, P., Kelton, D., Schaeffer et alCow characteristics and management factors on locomotion in HolsteinsBoettcher, P., Kelton, D., Schaeffer, L. R., Shoukri, M. M., Van Dorp, T. E.Journal of Dairy Science2002
Genetic parameters for claw disorders in dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traitsde Jong, G., Ellen, E., Holzhauer, M. et alGenetic parameters for claw disorders in dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traitsde Jong, G., Ellen, E., Holzhauer, M., Kamphuis, C., van der Waaij, E. H.Journal of Dairy Science2005Impaired claw health is one of the major problems causing production loss and reduced animal welfare in dairy cattle. In response, the Dutch Animal Health Service (GD) Ltd. initiated this study, in which claws of lactating and near-term cows and heifers in 430 herds were trimmed by hoof trimmers and the health status of the rear claws recorded. Only herds with >75% of the animals having feet trimmed were considered, resulting in records on 21,611 animals. Eight claw disorders were scored: digital dermatitis (DD), interdigital dermatitis/heel horn erosions (IDHE), sole hemorrhage (SH), chronic laminitis (CL), sole ulcer (SU), white line disease (WLD), interdigital hyperplasia (HYP), and interdigital phlegmona (IP). The prevalence varied from 0.6% (IP) to 39.9% (SH). More than 70% of the animals had at least one claw disorder. Conformation traits and locomotion were recorded once during the animal's first lactation by trained classifiers of the Royal Dutch Cattle Syndicate and completely independent of the moment of claw trimming. Heritabilities were estimated using a sire model, and ranged from <0.01 (IP) to 0.10 (DD and HYP). Genetic correlations of incidences of claw disorders with locomotion were variable, ranging from 0.13 (SH) to -0.91 (CL). Genetic correlations with the rear leg conformation traits were lower, ranging from 0.04 (ID with rear leg side view) to -0.69 (IP with rear leg rear view).
The effect of preventive trimming on weight bearing and force balance on the claws of dairy cattleBack, W., Braam, C. R., Metz, J. H. M. et alThe effect of preventive trimming on weight bearing and force balance on the claws of dairy cattleBack, W., Braam, C. R., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., van der Beek, S. S., van der Tol, P. P. J., Weijs, W. A.Journal of Dairy Science2004Claw disorders and lameness in dairy cattle are an increasing problem of the modern dairy industry. To prevent claw disorders from evolving from the subclinical to the clinical stage, trimming is the management practice most routinely applied. The goal of preventive trimming (Toussaint-Raven method) is to promote natural loading by increasing the weight-bearing contact area of the claws and improving the balance between the medial and lateral claw. The biomechanical effect of preventive claw trimming was investigated with the aid of pressure distribution and ground reaction force recordings of the standing cow sampled simultaneously at 250 Hz. It appeared that preventive trimming of the hind limbs (n = 10) brought the claws slightly more in balance. Before trimming, 80% of the total force is taken up by the lateral claw and 20% by the medial claw. After trimming, this becomes 70 to 30%, respectively. Thereby, a significant increase in the weight-bearing contact area from 27.5 to 40.0 cm(2) was achieved, resulting in a significant decrease in average pressure. However, the claws remained subjected to unaltered, high maximum pressures after trimming. The suggestion was made that the main focus of claw trimming should not be force balance; instead, a reduction of local maximum pressures at the contact area should be targeted in such a way that the strongest parts of the claw capsule (i.e., the wall) will be subjected to the highest pressures.
The pressure distribution under the bovine claw during square standing on a flat substrateBack, W., Braam, C. R., Metz, J. H. M. et alThe pressure distribution under the bovine claw during square standing on a flat substrateBack, W., Braam, C. R., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., van der Tol, P. P. J., Weijs, W. A.Journal of Dairy Science2002
Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimmingBovenhuis, H., Vallée, A. A. A. et alGenetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimmingBovenhuis, H., Vallée, A. A. A., van Arendonk, J. A. M., van der Spek, D.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Claw health index for Dutch dairy cattle based on claw trimming and conformation datade Jong, G., Eding, H., Koenen et alClaw health index for Dutch dairy cattle based on claw trimming and conformation datade Jong, G., Eding, H., Koenen, E. P. C., van der Linde, C.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Digital dermatitis: report of an outbreakTutt, C. L., van Amstel, S. R. et alDigital dermatitis: report of an outbreakTutt, C. L., van Amstel, S. R., Van Vuuren, S.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association1995An outbreak of digital dermatitis in a dairy herd in the Gauteng province of South Africa is described in which 72% of the lactating herd was affected. Many of the affected cows showed a severe lameness and a drop in milk production. Other complications included heel horn erosion, under-running of heel horn and boxy claws. The diagnosis was made on the typical clinical appearance of the condition and the presence of spirochaetes on histopathological sections from biopsy material. The condition responded to spraying affected feet with an oxytetracycline mixture after cleaning with water using a high pressure hose. The prevalence was reduced to 28% after one month of therapy. A repeat outbreak occurred on the same farm 7 months later during which time 37% of the lactating herd was affected. Of the cows affected, 48% represented new cases, whereas the rest were reinfections
Moisture Content, Thickness, and Lesions of Sole Horn Associated with Thin Soles in Dairy CattlePalin, F. L., Shearer, J. K. et alMoisture Content, Thickness, and Lesions of Sole Horn Associated with Thin Soles in Dairy CattlePalin, F. L., Shearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.J Dairy Sci2004Thin soles and resulting lameness are often associated with increased culling rates in large dairy operations. The moisture content of the sole horn may cause the horn to be softer, thus predisposing it to an increased rate of wear. For that reason, the first objective of this study was to determine the moisture content of the sole horn of thin-soled cows. The second objective was to document physical changes of the claw associated with thin soles. Twenty-six adult Holstein cows showing signs of thin soles, and 16 normal cows were used in the study. Selection criteria for thin-soled cows included a dorsal wall length of less than 7.5 cm and the following clinical signs: painful gait, arched back, and specific leg lameness. Sixteen normal adult cows with dorsal wall length in excess of 7.5 cm were randomly selected. For thin-soled cows, the moisture contents of sole horn were 37.1 {+/-} 0.7% for front claws and 40.5 {+/-} 0.7% for rear claws. These values were significantly different from each other. Moisture contents of sole horn from normal cows were 31.08 {+/-} 0.93% for front claws and 33.1 {+/-} 0.9% for rear claws, which were significantly different from each other and different from thin-soled cows. Rear claws had higher moisture contents than front claws. Mean sole horn thickness was 4.23 {+/-} 0.18 mm for the rear lateral claws and 5.15 {+/-} 0.18 mm for the rear medial claws. The average dorsal wall lengths were 66.8 {+/-} 3.94 mm for rear lateral claws and 69.1 {+/-} 7.25 mm for rear medial claws. Thirty percent of rear feet with thin soles had pathological claw horn lesions including sole/white line separation (72%) and sole ulcers (28%). Of the affected claws, 13% had more than one lesion. Seventy-seven percent of claw lesions occurred in the lateral claw.
Review of Pododermatitis Circumscripta (Ulceration of the Sole) in Dairy CowsShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Review of Pododermatitis Circumscripta (Ulceration of the Sole) in Dairy CowsShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.J Vet Intern Med2006
Toe abscess: a serious cause of lameness in the U.S. dairy herdShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Toe abscess: a serious cause of lameness in the U.S. dairy herdShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.
Anatomical measurement of sole thickness in cattle following application of two different trimming techniquesPalin, F. L., Robinson, B. F., Shearer et alAnatomical measurement of sole thickness in cattle following application of two different trimming techniquesPalin, F. L., Robinson, B. F., Shearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Bovine Practitioner2002Thin soles with complications and lameness have become a major problem in large dairies within the US. The cause is multifactorial, including excessive removal of sole horn during maintenance claw trimming procedures. This study compared sole horn thickness after trimming, using two commonly practiced trimming methods. Results showed that an adaptation of the Dutch trimming method resulted in significantly fewer thin soles as compared to the second method where the white line was used as an appraisal for sole horn thickness
Case report – clinical response to treament of pododermatitis circumscripta (ulceration of the sole) in dairy cowsvan Amstel, S. R.Case report – clinical response to treament of pododermatitis circumscripta (ulceration of the sole) in dairy cowsvan Amstel, S. R.Bovine Practitioner2003
Osseous sequestration in cattle: 110 cases (1987-1997)Adams, S. B., Anderson, D. E., Cohen et alOsseous sequestration in cattle: 110 cases (1987-1997)Adams, S. B., Anderson, D. E., Cohen, N. D., Desroches, A., Huhn, J., Kersting, K., Lopez, M. J., Mueller, P. O. E., St Jean, G., Valentino, L. W.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association2000
Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systemsVaarst et alSole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systemsVaarst, Mette Hindhede Jens Enevoldsen CarstenJournal of Dairy Research1998Records of claw trimmings were analysed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole disorders was analysed separately for cows in first lactation and for cows in later lactations. Three different responses (acute haemorrhage, sole ulcer in one leg and sole ulcer in two or more legs) were analysed using three binomial logistic regression analyses for each group. Herd analysed as a fixed effect was a strong risk factor for all kinds of sole ulcer. Lactation stage was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in both groups of cows, and for sole ulcer in first parity cows. In general, there was a strong positive association between the period 61-120 d post partum and the presence of sole disorders. Breed was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and later parities, and sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows in an interaction with lactation stage in both conditions. Danish Friesian cows were strongly associated with sole disorder, although the combination of lactation stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December to January most strongly associated with acute haemorrhage. Previous disease treatment was a risk factor for sole ulcer in two or more legs in second and later parities. Udder related disorders and disorders other than reproductive problems were positively associated with the occurrence of sole ulcer. Body weight at calving was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and subsequent parities. Body weight lower than the mean herd level by > 50 kg was negatively associated with acute haemorrhage
Claw disorders among dairy cows in organic and in deep bedded pack barn systems in DenmarkEnevoldsen, C., Vaarst, M.Claw disorders among dairy cows in organic and in deep bedded pack barn systems in DenmarkEnevoldsen, C., Vaarst, M.
Ten points in the science and craft of hoof trimming (hoof care)Uzuta, Y.Ten points in the science and craft of hoof trimming (hoof care)Uzuta, Y.Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan1993
Abnormalities of hoof growth and developmentShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Abnormalities of hoof growth and developmentShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract2001The normal development of the horn capsule (epidermis), with its dermal support (corium), is described. Abnormalities of horn growth may be caused by changes in blood flow (laminitis), the biomechanics of weight bearing, heritable developmental conditions, and other changes of unknown cause
Scanning electron microscopy of the epidermis and dermis of the sole of the bovine hoofAndo, Y., Kotani, T., Nakade, T. et alScanning electron microscopy of the epidermis and dermis of the sole of the bovine hoofAndo, Y., Kotani, T., Nakade, T., Numata, Y., Takeuchi, H., Uchida, Y.Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association1991Electron microscopy of the epidermis and dermis of 29 normal soles and 3 soles with pododermatitis circumscripta showed abnormalities in all the latter and 16 of the former. The abnormalities included hyperextension, curvature and hypertrophy of the dermal papillae, vascularization and vasodilation in the epidermis and dermis, and cracks in the epidermis, and in the clinically normal soles represented the first stages of pododermatitis circumscripta brought about by intensive feeding, abnormal hoof length, or stress from pregnancy or parturition
Observer bias in animal behaviour research: can we believe what we score, if we score what we believe?Ampe, B., de Graaf, S., Heerkens et alObserver bias in animal behaviour research: can we believe what we score, if we score what we believe?Ampe, B., de Graaf, S., Heerkens, J. L. T., Jacobs, L., Nalon, E., Ott, S., Stadig, L., Tuyttens, F. A. M., Van Laer, E.Animal Behaviour2014
Metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in cattleTulleners, E. P.Metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in cattleTulleners, E. P.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice1996Metacarpal and metatarsal fractures are usually amenable to external coaptation using a short or full limb polyurethane resinimpregnated knitted fiberglass fabric cast. The prognosis for long-term pain-free survival is excellent for closed fractures and fair to good for open fractures managed in the manner. Surviving animals generally are not lame and do not demonstrate significant limb deformity or limb shortening and generally become completely productive. Even considering the narrow profit margin involved when treating cattle with serious injuries, this method of fracture management is usually economically and technically feasible
Brisket Boards Reduce Freestall UseTucker, C. B., Weary, D. M., Zdanowicz et alBrisket Boards Reduce Freestall UseTucker, C. B., Weary, D. M., Zdanowicz, G.J Dairy Sci2006We examined how the presence of a brisket board influenced cow preference, stall use, and position within the stall. When given a choice between stalls with or without a brisket board, 15 nonlactating cows spent 68% of their time lying in the stalls without a brisket board, indicating that they preferred this option. When 13 cows had access to either stalls with a brisket board or ones without, they spent, on average, 1.2 h/d more time lying down in stalls without a brisket board. Resting cows positioned themselves relatively forward in the stalls in 98 {+/-} 5% (mean {+/-} SE) of lying bouts when the brisket board was absent, compared with 67 {+/-} 5% of bouts when the board was present. Longer cows were more likely than shorter cows to move forward in the stalls without a brisket board. Cows also had longer lying bouts in stalls without the brisket board (absent: 1.7 {+/-} 0.08; present: 1.5 {+/-} 0.08 h/bout). Although it seems likely that the brisket board helps keep stalls clean by positioning cows closer to the curb, our results indicate that brisket boards also make stalls less comfortable for cows. Stall features designed to reduce stall maintenance may compromise cow comfort. We suggest that new approaches to cow housing are now required.
Cow comfort in tie-stalls: Increased depth of shavings or straw bedding increases lying timeBeauchemin, K. A., Tucker, C. B. et alCow comfort in tie-stalls: Increased depth of shavings or straw bedding increases lying timeBeauchemin, K. A., Tucker, C. B., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Influence of Neck-Rail Placement on Free-Stall Preference, Use, and CleanlinessFraser, D., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.Influence of Neck-Rail Placement on Free-Stall Preference, Use, and CleanlinessFraser, D., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.J Dairy Sci2005Three experiments examined how the presence of a neck rail at different heights and locations influenced dairy cattle behavior and stall cleanliness. Experiment 1 compared 4 levels of neck-rail height (102, 114, and 127 cm and no neck rail; presented at 160 or 180 cm from the curb) in a preference test. Cows (n = 10) showed no consistent preference based on neck-rail height, regardless of the horizontal position of the neck rail. When cows were restricted to each treatment in turn, however, time spent standing fully (with all 4 hooves) in the stall was least in the stall with the lowest neck rail (mean, 22 min/24 h) and was greatest in the stall with no neck rail (mean, 83 min/24 h). A second experiment examined the effect of a neck rail placed at 3 distances from the curb (140, 175, and 233 cm) when height was held constant (131 cm; n = 12). Time spent standing fully in the stall was least when the neck rail was close to the curb (140 cm; mean, 11 min/24 h) and was greatest when the neck rail was furthest from the curb (233 cm; mean, 86 min/24 h). When the neck rail was far from the curb, the cows were more likely to soil the stall by defecating while standing fully in the stall. Experiment 3 compared soiling of the stall by 14 cows with and without a neck rail at a height of 124.5 cm. When the neck rail was removed, cows were more than twice as likely to soil the stall by defecating while standing fully in the stall compared with when the neck rail was present (1.3 vs. 0.5 defecations/24 h). Thus, restrictive neck-rail placement prevents cows from standing in stall, but helps keep stalls clean. Access to more comfortable flooring surfaces outside the stall may help mitigate the negative effects of restrictive neck rails.
Free-Stall Dimensions: Effects on Preference and Stall UsageFraser, D., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.Free-Stall Dimensions: Effects on Preference and Stall UsageFraser, D., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.J Dairy Sci2004In 2 experiments, free-stall dimensions were examined to determine how they affected stall preference, usage, cleanliness, and milk production in Holstein dairy cattle. In experiment 1, stall width (112 or 132 cm) and stall length (229 and 274 cm from curb to wall) were compared in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of stall treatments using 15 individually housed, non-lactating animals. Cows showed no clear preference for stall size as measured by lying time. When animals had no choice between stalls, average lying time was higher in the wide stalls than in the narrow stalls (10.8 vs. 9.6 {+/-} 0.3 h/24 h). Both length and width affected time spent standing with only the front hooves in the stall; total stall area is best explained by the variation associated with this behavior. In experiment 2, 27 lactating dairy cattle were alternately housed with access to stalls of 106, 116, or 126 cm in width using a cross-over design with exposure to each treatment lasting 3 wk. Animals spent an additional 42 min/24 h lying in stalls measuring 126 cm in width compared with stalls with only 106 cm between partitions. Free-stall width influenced the time spent standing with the front 2 hooves in the stall; animals averaged 58 min/24 h in the widest stalls and 85 min/24 h in the narrowest stalls. The amount of time spent standing with all 4 hooves in the stall tended to be longer in wider stalls, and these stalls were also most likely to become soiled with feces. Stall width did not affect the number of lying events or milk production. In conclusion, animals spent more time lying down, and less time was spent standing with only the front hooves in larger stalls, but larger stalls were also more likely to become soiled.
Effects of Three Types of Free-Stall Surfaces on Preferences and Stall Usage by Dairy CowsFraser, D., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.Effects of Three Types of Free-Stall Surfaces on Preferences and Stall Usage by Dairy CowsFraser, D., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.J Dairy Sci2003One important criterion in choosing appropriate housing systems for dairy cattle is that the freestall provides a comfortable surface for the cow. This paper describes two experiments testing the effects of commonly used lying surfaces on stall preference and stall usage by Holstein cows. In both experiments, 12 cows were housed individually in separate pens. Each pen contained three free stalls with a different surface: deep-bedded sawdust, deep-bedded sand, and a geotextile mattress covered with 2 to 3 cm of sawdust. The animals were restricted to each surface in turn, in a random order for either 2 (Experiment 1) or 3 d (Experiment 2). Both before and after this restriction phase, the animals were allowed access to all three surfaces, and preference was determined, based on lying times. Of the 12 cows used in Experiment 1, 10 preferred sawdust before and nine after the restriction phase. During the restriction phase, average lying times and number of lying events during the restriction phase were significantly lower for the sand-bedded stalls (P [<=] 0.05), and standing times were higher on mattresses (P [<=] 0.05), compared with sawdust. Although these cows had some experience with all three surfaces during the experiment, they had been housed in sawdust-bedded stalls during their previous lactation. Cows used in Experiment 2 had spent their previous lactation in sand bedded stalls. In this experiment, about half the cows preferred sand and half sawdust, after the restriction phase. During the restriction phase of experiment, lying times and number of lying events were lower, and standing times were higher when the animals were restricted to the mattresses compared to either sand or sawdust (P [<=] 0.05). These results indicate that (1) free stall surface can affect both stall preferences and stall usage, and (2) mattresses are less preferred.
Flooring in Front of the Feed Bunk Affects Feeding Behavior and Use of Freestalls by Dairy CowsCampbell, B., de Passille, A. M. et alFlooring in Front of the Feed Bunk Affects Feeding Behavior and Use of Freestalls by Dairy CowsCampbell, B., de Passille, A. M., Rushen, J., Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.J Dairy Sci2006In 2 experiments we assessed how preferences, time budgets, and feeding behavior of dairy cows change in response to flooring surfaces in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, 12 nonlactating dairy cattle were individually housed with access to 2 standing platforms filled with either concrete or sawdust. In Experiment 2, 24 nonlactating dairy cattle were given access to either concrete or Animat rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, cows preferred the sawdust to the concrete flooring. In both experiments, cows provided with a softer floor in front of the feed bunk spent more time standing near the feed bunk without eating (Experiment 1: 67 vs. 40 min/d on sawdust vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 5.6 min/d; Experiment 2: 176 vs. 115 min/d on Animat vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 20.5 min/d) compared with when they were kept on concrete. The increased time spent at the feed bunk was due to a combination of more frequent eating and standing bouts, indicating that cows were more willing to move on nonconcrete flooring. Total time spent eating was significantly greater on the softer floor in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1 (Exp. 1: 289 vs. 275 min/d on sawdust and concrete, respectively, SEM = 7.3 min/d; Exp. 2: 330 vs. 289 min/d on Animat and concrete, respectively, SEM = 15.4), although feed intake was increased on the sawdust treatment in Experiment 1. Cows spent significantly more time lying in the feed alley when the flooring was rubber (219 vs. 53 min/d on Animat and concrete, SEM = 53.6 min/d), perhaps because the lying area in Experiment 2 was inadequate. In conclusion, cows prefer to stand on softer flooring in front of the feed bunk, and are more willing to move on and spend more time standing in front of the feed bunk when provided with softer flooring. These results indicate that cows find softer flooring surfaces more comfortable to stand on than concrete, and highlight the importance of evaluating the comfort of the entire facility.
Bedding on Geotextile Mattresses: How Much is Needed to Improve Cow Comfort?Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.Bedding on Geotextile Mattresses: How Much is Needed to Improve Cow Comfort?Tucker, C. B., Weary, D. M.J Dairy Sci2004The objective of our study was to evaluate how the amount of sawdust bedding on mattresses affects dairy cattle behavior and preferences. Eleven nonlactating, multiparous cows were housed individually in pens with access to 3 free stalls. Each stall was fitted with a geotextile mattress covered with either 0, 1, or 7.5 kg of kiln-dried sawdust. The experiment began with 7 d of acclimatization to all 3 stalls. Cows were then allowed access to only 1 of the 3 stalls at a time, each for 3 d (restriction phase). At the end of this restriction phase, cows were allowed free access to all 3 stalls for 3 d (free-choice phase). Time spent lying and the number of lying bouts increased significantly with the amount of bedding, from 12.3 {+/-} 0.53 h lying and 8.5 {+/-} 0.62 bouts per 24 h on bare mattresses to 13.8 {+/-} 0.53 h lying and 10.0 {+/-} 0.62 bouts per 24 h on mattresses with 7.5 kg of sawdust. In addition, the animals spent less time standing with only the front hooves in the stalls when more sawdust was present. When allowed free access to all 3 options, all 11 animals spent a majority of their time lying and standing in the 7.5-kg option. In conclusion, cows preferred mattresses bedded with 7.5 kg of sawdust, on which they spent more time lying down and less time standing with only the front hooves in stalls. These results indicate that more sawdust bedding improves cow comfort in stalls with geotextile mattresses.
Laterality of lying behaviour in dairy cattleCox, Neil Ralph, Špinka, Marek, Tucker et alLaterality of lying behaviour in dairy cattleCox, Neil Ralph, Špinka, Marek, Tucker, Cassandra Blaine, Weary, Daniel MartinApplied Animal Behaviour Science2009Dairy cattle spend, on average, between 8 and 15 h/d lying down. Our objective was to describe the laterality of lying behaviour and assess several internal and external factors that may affect laterality. Internal factors included time spent and time since eating or lying before choosing to lie down again. External factors included the slope and the amount of bedding on the of the lying surface. The dependent variables were the proportion of time spent lying on left versus right sides (as affected by eating and by the slope of stalls) and the probability of switching sides between two consecutive lying bouts (as influenced by previous lying bouts and the amount of bedding). The proportion of time on the left and right sides matched the mixed pattern in the literature; some groups of cows (n = 35, non-lactating, freestall housed) spent more time (56 ± 3.0%, P = 0.042) on their left side, while other groups (n = 151, housed either in a freestall barn or at pasture) showed no preference for lying on one side versus the other (50 ± 1.2% on left side, P ≥ 0.308). Laterality while lying was not influenced by eating behaviour or by the slope of the lying surface. Overall, cattle switched sides in 64% of consecutive lying events, more than 50% expected by chance (SE = 0.8%, P < 0.001). Switching sides was influenced by previous lying behaviour: cattle were more likely to switch sides if the previous lying bout was either long or recent (1.5 ± 0.33 and 1.1 ± 0.21% change in probability of switch for every 10 min in the last lying bout and for every 10 min since previous lying event, respectively, P < 0.001). Cows were more likely to switch sides when housed on mattresses with more bedding (switched sides in 68, 77, and 97 ± 10.8% lying events for 0, 1 and 7.5 kg of sawdust bedding, mean ± SE, P = 0.042), possibly because cows had more lying events with shorter intervals between these events when the stall surface was well bedded. The probability of terminating a lying bout was also influenced by the duration of the bout. For example, during the first 10 min of a lying bout, the probability of standing up was only 5% but climbed to approximately 25% when the bout lasted 80 min or more. In conclusion, overall laterality in lying behaviour is shifted to the left in some groups but not others. Eating behaviour has little effect on time spent lying on either side. Cows switched sides between consecutive lying bouts and switching was more likely if the previous bout was either recent or long. Finally, continuous lying may become uncomfortable when bouts are longer than 80 min, and cows may switch sides to alleviate this discomfort.
Quantitative evaluation of bone development of the distal phalanx of the cow hind limb using computed tomographyImagawa, T., Minami, S., Okamoto, Y. et alQuantitative evaluation of bone development of the distal phalanx of the cow hind limb using computed tomographyImagawa, T., Minami, S., Okamoto, Y., Ooshita, K., Osaki, T., Sugiyama, A., Tsuka, T.Journal of Dairy Science2012Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 400 claws (200 inner and 200 outer claws) of 100 pairs of bovine hind limbs to investigate the etiological theory that an exacerbating factor for ulceration is exostosis of the tuberculum flexorium within the distal phalanx. A variety of morphological changes of the tuberculum flexorium of bovine hind limb claws was visualized by 3-dimensional CT, and the geometry of these claws suggested a growth pattern of bone development with respect to the assumed daily loading patterns. This growth occurs initially at the abaxial caudal aspect of the distal phalanx and is followed by horizontal progression toward the axial aspect. The length of downward bone development on the solar face of the distal phalanx was 2.73 ± 1.32 mm in the outer claws, significantly greater than in the inner claws (2.38 ± 0.96 mm). Ratios of downward (vertical) bone development to the thickness of the subcutis and the corium (VerBD ratios) did not differ between the outer and inner claws (36.7 vs. 38.3%, respectively). Ratios of horizontal bone development to the axial-to-abaxial line of the tuberculum flexorium (HorBD ratios) were approximately 60% for both outer and inner claws. These quantitative measures regarding horizontal and vertical bone development within the distal phalanx were positively correlated with age and VerBD ratios (r = 0.53 and r = 0.36 for the inner and outer claws, respectively). Correlations between claw width of the outer claw and length of vertical bone development (r = 0.43), the HorBD ratio (r = 0.51), and the VerBD ratio (r = 0.42) suggested that the relative size difference between the inner and outer claws enhances bone development in the outer claw. Correlation coefficients between VerBD and HorBD ratios (r = 0.52 and 0.63 for the inner and outer claws, respectively) suggested that horizontal and vertical bone development occurs as a synchronized process within the tuberculum flexorium. This age-related progress of bone development within the tuberculum flexorium is associated with increased exposure to several exacerbating factors and the laminitic process.
Quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dorsal wall length, sole thickness, and rotation of the distal phalanx in the...Azuma, K., Imagawa, T., Ito, N. et alQuantitative evaluation of the relationship between dorsal wall length, sole thickness, and rotation of the distal phalanx in the bovine claw using computed tomographyAzuma, K., Imagawa, T., Ito, N., Murahata, Y., Okamoto, Y., Osaki, T., Tsuka, T.Journal of Dairy Science2014Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 800 untrimmed claws (400 inner claws and 400 outer claws) of 200 pairs of bovine hindlimbs to investigate the relationships between dorsal wall length and sole thickness, and between dorsal wall length and the relative rotation angle of distal phalanx-to-sole surface (S-D angle). Sole thickness was 3.8 and 4.0 mm at the apex of the inner claws and outer claws, respectively, with dorsal wall lengths <70 mm. These sole thickness values were less than the critical limit of 5 mm, which is associated with a softer surface following thinning of the soles. A sole thickness of 5 mm at the apex was estimated to correlate with dorsal wall lengths of 72.1 and 72.7 mm for the inner and outer claws, respectively. Sole thickness was 6.1 and 6.4 mm at the apex of the inner and outer claws, respectively, with dorsal wall lengths of 75 mm. These sole thickness values were less than the recommended sole thickness of 7 mm based on the protective function of the soles. A sole thickness >7 mm at the apex was estimated to correlate with a dorsal wall length of 79.8 and 78.4 mm for the inner and outer claws, respectively. The S-D angles were recorded as anteversions of 2.9° and 4.7° for the inner and outer claws, respectively, with a dorsal wall length of 75 mm. These values indicate that the distal phalanx is likely to have rotated naturally forward toward the sole surface. The distal phalanx rotated backward to the sole surface at 3.2° and 7.6° for inner claws with dorsal wall lengths of 90–99 and ≥100 mm, respectively; and at 3.5° for outer claws with a dorsal wall length ≥100 mm. Dorsal wall lengths of 85.7 and 97.2 mm were estimated to correlate with a parallel positional relationship of the distal phalanx to the sole surface in the inner and outer claws, respectively.
A motion and image analysis method for automatic detection of estrus and mating behavior in cattleHuang, Ching-Ying, Tsai, Du-MingA motion and image analysis method for automatic detection of estrus and mating behavior in cattleHuang, Ching-Ying, Tsai, Du-MingComputers and Electronics in Agriculture2014
Characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in dairy cattleAlt, D. P., Goff, J. P., Moeller, M. R. et alCharacterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in dairy cattleAlt, D. P., Goff, J. P., Moeller, M. R., Trott, D. J., Walker, R. L., Wannemuehler, M. J., Waters, W. R., Zuerner, R. L.Journal of Clinical Microbiology2003Four spirochete strains were isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Iowa dairy cattle and compared with two previously described spirochete strains isolated from dairy cattle in California. These six strains shared an identical 16S ribosomal DNA sequence that was 98% similar to Treponema phagedenis and 99% similar to the uncultivated PDD spirochete sequence DDLK-4. The whole-cell protein profiles resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of these six strains were similar. However, these strains showed differences in the antigenic diversity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Genetic diversity was also detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA digests, revealing differences among five of the six strains. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies from dairy cattle with active PDD lesions reacted with the LPS of all but one PDD spirochete strain. Likewise, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cattle with active PDD lesions produced blastogenic responses to one of the two California isolates. Both antibody and lymphocyte blastogenic responses were reduced in convalescent dairy cattle, suggesting the immune response to these spirochetes has short duration. These results demonstrate genetic and antigenic diversity among T. phagedenis-like treponemes and provide further evidence for the involvement of these spirochetes in the pathogenesis of PDD.
Management of a radial fracture in an adult bullBrown, C. E., Hanson, P. D., Trostle et alManagement of a radial fracture in an adult bullBrown, C. E., Hanson, P. D., Trostle, S. S., Wilson, D. G.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1995An 823-kg 4-year-old Holstein bull was examined because of acute lameness of the left forelimb. Radiography revealed a closed, comminuted, spiral fracture of the radius that extended from the distal portion of the diaphysis to the antebrachiocarpal joint. The fracture was repaired with combination of internal fixation (2 compression plates, 1 of which incorporated a condylar screw and both of which were luted) and external coaptation (full-limb cast and Thomas-Schroeder splint). The development of larger implants and the combination of internal and external fixation methods provides hope that certain fractures in cattle that were once thought irreparable can now be treated
Clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome in cattle with osteochondrosis: 29 cases (1986-1996)Forrest, Lisa J., Markel, Mark D. et alClinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome in cattle with osteochondrosis: 29 cases (1986-1996)Forrest, Lisa J., Markel, Mark D., Nicoll, Robert G., Trostle, Steven S.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1997Objective-To summarize the radiographic and clinical findings, treatment, and outcome in cattle with osteochondrosis diagnosed radiographically. Design-Retrospective case series. Sample Population-29 cattle with radiographic evidence of osteochondrosis. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed, and owners or referring veterinarians were contacted for outcome assessment. Data were analyzed for potential interactions between osteochondrosis classification (osteochondritis dessicans vs subchondral cyst- like lesions), clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome, using Fisher's exact test and descriptive statistics. Results-Osteochondrosis was associated with young, male, purebred cattle, clinical evidence of lameness, and radiographic evidence of concurrent degenerative joint disease. Osteochondritis dissecans and subchondral cyst-like lesions had similar clinical findings and outcomes but varied significantly in their radiographic distribution among joints. Osteochondrosis often manifests clinically as a unilateral condition, but bilateral lesions were often found (88%) when limbs were radiographically examined. Cattle managed conservatively tended to be culled (within 6 months of diagnosis because of lameness) more often than those managed surgically, despite the lack of treatment bias. Clinical Implications- Osteochondrosis in cattle is often associated with lameness or degenerative joint disease. Conservative management does not result in a favorable clinical prognosis for long-term, lameness-free survival, and more studies need to be completed to evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of osteochondrosis in cattle
Bovine osteochondrosisForrest, L. J., Markel, M., Nicoll et alBovine osteochondrosisForrest, L. J., Markel, M., Nicoll, R. G., Nordlund, K., Trostle, S. S.Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian1998
The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herdsBennett, T., Dopfer, D., Tremblay, M.The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herdsBennett, T., Dopfer, D., Tremblay, M.Prev Vet Med2016Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among Cow Types, signs of chronicity, scorers or pens. The DD Check App also provides a list of cows that should be treated augmented by individual Cow Types to help guide treatment and determine prognoses. Producers can be proactive instead of reactive in controlling DD in a herd by using this app. The DD Check App serves as an example of how technology makes knowledge and advice of veterinary epidemiology widely available to monitor, control and prevent this complex disease.
Synovial sarcoma in an Ayrshire heiferDesrochers, A., Dubreuil, P., Girard et alSynovial sarcoma in an Ayrshire heiferDesrochers, A., Dubreuil, P., Girard, C., Lanevschi, A., Tremblay, C.Vet Pathol2000An 8-month-old Ayrshire heifer had a rapidly growing mass in the axillary region of the left thoracic limb. The mass surrounded the distal humerus and entrapped nerves of the brachial plexus, causing an abnormal gait. Histologically, the mass was composed of clusters and cords of round to polygonal cells with scattered, spindle-shaped cells. The neoplastic cells stained positively for vimentin and cytokeratin. No staining was found with S-100 protein, kappa and lambda light chains, or T-cell markers by immunohistochemistry. On electron microscopic evaluation, the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained few organelles, principally rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. This synovial sarcoma has histologic and ultrastructural features characteristic of the poorly differentiated subtype of synovial sarcoma in the human classification system
A Longitudinal-Study of the Hooves of Non-Lame CowsMorris, R. S., Tranter, W. P. et alA Longitudinal-Study of the Hooves of Non-Lame CowsMorris, R. S., Tranter, W. P., Williamson, N. B.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1991A longitudinal study of the feet of cows from a seasonal dairy herd was conducted over a 12 month period to measure the occurrence of subclinical hoof lesions. Eleven 2-year-old cows, entering the herd for the first time, and eleven mature cows were randomly selected from a herd of 415 cows at the end of winter (July 1989) prior to calving. The incidence of lameness in the herd over the 12 months was 2%. None of the trial cows became lame during the study. Cows were examined monthly. The type, severity and location of any hoof lesions were recorded. Sole haemorrhage, erosion of the heel bulb and minor white line separation were the most commonly observed lesions. These lesions were observed with specific claw distributions in the cow and at specific times of the year and breeding season, with waves of each type of lesion passing through the herd at a particular time. White line separation was observed commonly during spring (up to 37% of digits affected), disappeared almost completely over the dry summer months, and reappeared in autumn, increasing to 40% again over winter. Lesions were more commonly observed in the lateral digits, with fore feet being more commonly affected than hind feet. Erosion of the heel bulbs was common in August (65% of digits affected, more common in mature cows than 2-year-olds), disappeared quickly during spring, and reappeared in all cows during the following winter (88% of digits; no age differences). There were no differences in distribution between digits. Sole haemorrhages were concentrated over the mid-sole and abaxial sole zones. They were more common in the hind feet than the front feet and more common in the outside claws (p < 0.001). Haemorrhages were not observed prior to or soon after calving, appeared in October and reached a peak of 40% in December, then gradually disappeared by the time of drying-off in May. The 2-year-olds were more frequently affected than the mature cows (p < 0.001).
Hoof Growth and Wear in Pasture-Fed Dairy-CattleMorris, R. S., Tranter, W. P.Hoof Growth and Wear in Pasture-Fed Dairy-CattleMorris, R. S., Tranter, W. P.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1992Hoof growth and wear studies were conducted on ten spring-calving cows over 12 months. The rates of hoof wall growth and wear were lower in autumn and winter than during spring and summer. Both were greater in 2-year-old than in mature cows (p < 0.05). Sole wear occurred most rapidly along the abaxial edge of the weight-bearing surface, less quickly in the toe and heel areas, and most slowly in the mid-sole region. Both hoof wall wear and sole wear were greater in lateral digits than in medial digits (p < 0.01). Sole concavity, measured using a profile gauge, was greater in 2- year-olds prior to calving than in mature-aged cows (p < 0.05) but this difference disappeared soon after calving as concavity was lost in the younger cows. Medial digits almost always had greater concavity than lateral digits. Sole concavity measurements were also made on the hind digits of 24 autumn-calving cows on four occasions at 2-monthly intervals. Prior to calving, concavity was much greater in these cows than in the spring-calving cows. However, concavity was lost rapidly following calving and concavity measurements were soon similar to those found in the spring-calvin cows
A Case-Study of Lameness in 3 Dairy HerdsMorris, R. S., Tranter, W. P.A Case-Study of Lameness in 3 Dairy HerdsMorris, R. S., Tranter, W. P.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1991All cases of lameness that occurred in cows from three dairy herds between August 1989 and July 1990 were examined every 2 weeks from the onset of lameness until the lesions resolved. The incidences of herd lameness were 38%, 22% and 2%. Some 186 clinical lesions were identified in 134 cases of lameness in 120 cows. Sole bruising (42%) and white line separation (39%) were the most frequently diagnosed conditions. Lateral digits of the hind limbs were the most affected. The mean time from the onset of lameness to clinical recovery was 27 days and to lesion recovery was 35 days. The peak incidence of lameness occurred during winter for autumn-calving cows and during the late spring for spring-calving cows. The onset of lameness was associated with the stage of lactation and wet weather conditions. Survival analysis revealed that the probability of an individual cow lasting in the milking herd for any specified period of time without becoming lame was highly associated with both her herd environment and her age. Total lactation yields of milk, milk fat and milk protein were lower for cows suffering from lameness than for herd-mates matched on age and proximity of calving date (p < 0.05). Reproductive performance was also poorer in lame cows than in their herd-mates.
A case-control study of lameness in dairy cowsDohoo, I., Morris, R., Tranter, W. et alA case-control study of lameness in dairy cowsDohoo, I., Morris, R., Tranter, W., Williamson, N.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1993A case-control study was conducted to compare the physical hoof properties of digits responsible for clinical lamenses with those of other digits on the same cows and with those of equivalent digits on non-lame control cows. The control cows were herd-mates matched by age, breed and stage of lactation. Hoof moisture, hoof hardness and sole concavity were measured on- farm. The resilience, compressive strength and elastic modulus of both sole and wall hoof were measured on biopsy samples collected from both case and control digits. White line disease, sole bruising and septic prododermatitis accounted for 92% of the clinical lameness lesions in the case digits examined. Less severe forms of white line disease and hoof haemorrhage were also observed frequently in the non-lame digits of both the case and control cows. Independent variables were screened for unconditional associations with case- control status using Student's paired t-test and Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. Conditional logistic regression analysis was finally used to identify which risk factors were associated with lameness. When equivalent digits on the matched cows were used as controls, sole and heel moisture, sole hardness, sole concavity and wall colour were selected for inclusion in the model derived to explain differences between the physical properties of lame and control digits. Values for each of these properties were lower in the lame digits than in the controls. The control digits had a higher percentage of black coloration than the lame digits. Sole hardness and sole concavity (both lower in the lame digits) were also selected for inclusion in the conditional logistic regression model derived when the adjoining digits on the same legs of the lame cows were used as controls. None of the physical hoof properties measured were asssociated with lameness when attempts were made to fit a model using the equivalent digits on the opposite legs of the lame cows as controls. Production of the lame cows was also compared with that of matched herd-mates. Total lactation yields of milk, milk fat and milk protein were lower for the lame cows than for the control cows (P lt 0.05)
Necrotic chronic ulcer in cattle’s digitTozzo, M.Necrotic chronic ulcer in cattle’s digitTozzo, M.
Cattle footcare and claw trimmingToussaint Raven, E.Cattle footcare and claw trimmingToussaint Raven, E.1985
Are cows more likely to lie down the longer they stand?Haskell, Marie J., Langford, Fritha M. et alAre cows more likely to lie down the longer they stand?Haskell, Marie J., Langford, Fritha M., Morgan, Colin A., Roberts, David J., Tolkamp, Bert J.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2010
Proteomics: A new tool in bovine claw disease researchAndersen, Pia H., Bendixen, Emøke et alProteomics: A new tool in bovine claw disease researchAndersen, Pia H., Bendixen, Emøke, Codrea, Marius C., Danscher, Anne Mette, Tølbøll, Trine H.The Veterinary Journal2012
Evaluation of ultrasonography for measuring solar soft tissue thickness as a predictor of sole ulcer formation in...Cincović, M., Ivetić, V., Potkonjak et alEvaluation of ultrasonography for measuring solar soft tissue thickness as a predictor of sole ulcer formation in Holstein–Friesian dairy cowsCincović, M., Ivetić, V., Potkonjak, A., Spasojevic, J., Stevančević, M., Toholj, B.The Veterinary Journal2014
Genetic analysis of reproduction traits and their relationship with conformation traits in Holstein cowsMoradi Shahrbabak, Mohammad, Shadparvar et alGenetic analysis of reproduction traits and their relationship with conformation traits in Holstein cowsMoradi Shahrbabak, Mohammad, Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad, Taromsari, Mohammad Dadpasand, Toghiani Pozveh, SajjadLivestock Science2009
Treatment of peculiar dermatitis in dairy cattle, using Himax ointmentGowda, R. N. S., Setty, D. R. L. et alTreatment of peculiar dermatitis in dairy cattle, using Himax ointmentGowda, R. N. S., Setty, D. R. L., Thyagaraja, P. R.Pashudhan1997An analysis of epidemiological data of 61 cases of leg dermatitis found in cattle from the milk-shed areas of Karnataka Milk Federation (KMF), India, was made. The disease was characterised by progression of the dermatitis (with erectophili, erythema and crust formation) upwards from the interdigital joint to the carpal joint in the fore leg and to the stifle joint in the hind leg, with occasional presence in the udder and groin area. It was more prevalent during monsoons, in high humidity and in animals reared on concrete floors, fed with commercial concentrates or infested with biting flies. Haematological tests showed moderate neutrophilia and eosinophilia. Four cases had sarcoptic and 2 had chorioptic mange. Staphylococcus hyicus was found in 41 cases, S. hyicus and fungal elements in 17 cases and S. hyicus and yeast in 3 cases. Only S. hyicus and Aspergillus, Mucor and Absidia spp. were isolated. Streptopenicillin injection plus local application of Himax ointment/lotion was the most common treatment, resulting in gradual reduction of dermatitis by the 7th day and normal health by the 10th day. It is suggested that the bactericidal, fungicidal and fly-repellent properties of Himax assisted in hastening healing
Lameness Affects Cow Feeding But Not Rumination Behavior as Characterized from Sensor DataFriggens, N. C., Giger-Reverdin, S. et alLameness Affects Cow Feeding But Not Rumination Behavior as Characterized from Sensor DataFriggens, N. C., Giger-Reverdin, S., Konka, J., Michie, C., Nielsen, B. L., Robert, P. E., Thorup, V. M.Front Vet Sci2016Using automatic sensor data, this is the first study to characterize individual cow feeding and rumination behavior simultaneously as affected by lameness. A group of mixed-parity, lactating Holstein cows were loose-housed with free access to 24 cubicles and 12 automatic feed stations. Cows were milked three times/day. Fresh feed was delivered once daily. During 24 days with effectively 22 days of data, 13,908 feed station visits and 7,697 rumination events obtained from neck-mounted accelerometers on 16 cows were analyzed. During the same period, cows were locomotion scored on four occasions and categorized as lame (n = 9) or not lame (n = 7) throughout the study. Rumination time, number of rumination events, feeding time, feeding frequency, feeding rate, feed intake, and milk yield were calculated per day, and coefficients of variation were used to estimate variation between and within cows. Based on daily sums, using each characteristic as response, the effects of lameness and stage of lactation were tested in a mixed model. With rumination time as response, each of the four feeding characteristics, milk yield, and lameness were tested in a second mixed model. On a visit basis, effects of feeding duration, lameness, and milk yield on feed intake were tested in a third mixed model. Overall, intra-individual variation was <15% and inter-individual variation was up to 50%. Lameness introduced more inter-individual variation in feeding characteristics (26-50%) compared to non-lame cows (17-29%). Lameness decreased daily feeding time and daily feeding frequency, but increased daily feeding rate. Interestingly, lameness did not affect daily rumination behaviors, fresh matter intake, or milk yield. On a visit basis, a high feeding rate was associated with a higher feed intake, a relationship that was exacerbated in the lame cows. In conclusion, cows can be characterized in particular by their feeding behavior, and lame cows differ from their non-lame pen-mates in terms of fewer feed station visits, faster eating, less time spent feeding, and more variable feeding behavior. Further, daily rumination time was slightly negatively associated with feeding rate, a relationship which calls for more research to quantify rumination efficiency relative to feeding rate.
Lameness detection via leg-mounted accelerometers on dairy cows on four commercial farmsErhard, H. W., Friggens, N. C. et alLameness detection via leg-mounted accelerometers on dairy cows on four commercial farmsErhard, H. W., Friggens, N. C., Munksgaard, L., Robert, P. E., Thomsen, P. T., Thorup, V. M.Animal2015Lameness in dairy herds is traditionally detected by visual inspection, which is time-consuming and subjective. Compared with healthy cows, lame cows often spend longer time lying down, walk less and change behaviour around feeding time. Accelerometers measuring cow leg activity may assist farmers in detecting lame cows. On four commercial farms, accelerometer data were derived from hind leg-mounted accelerometers on 348 Holstein cows, 53 of them during two lactations. The cows were milked twice daily and had no access to pasture. During a lactation, locomotion score (LS) was assessed on average 2.4 times (s.d. 1.3). Based on daily lying duration, standing duration, walking duration, total number of steps, step frequency, motion index (MI, i.e. total acceleration) for lying, standing and walking, eight accelerometer means and their corresponding coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each week immediately before an LS. A principal component analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the variables. The effects of LS and farm on the principal components (PC) and on the variables were analysed in a mixed model. The first four PC accounted for 27%, 18%, 12% and 10% of the total variation, respectively. PC1 corresponded to Activity variability due to heavy loading by five CV variables related to standing and walking. PC2 corresponded to Activity level due to heavy loading by MI walking, MI standing and walking duration. PC3 corresponded to Recumbency due to heavy loading by four variables related to lying. PC4 corresponded mainly to Stepping due to heavy loading by step frequency. Activity variability at LS4 was significantly higher than at the lower LS levels. Activity level was significantly higher at LS1 than at LS2, which was significantly higher than at LS4. Recumbency was unaffected by LS. Stepping at LS1 and LS2 was significantly higher than at LS3 and LS4. Activity level was significantly lower on farm 3 compared with farms 1 and 2. Stepping was significantly lower on farms 1 and 3 compared with farms 2 and 4. MI standing indicated increased restlessness while standing when cows increased from LS3 to LS4. Lying duration was only increased in lame cows. In conclusion, Activity level differed already between LS1 and LS2, thus detecting early signs of lameness, particularly through contributions from walking duration and MI walking. Lameness detection models including walking duration, MI walking and MI standing seem worthy of further investigation.
The Influence of the Claw Trimming Procedure According to the Farriers Method On Milk-Yield, Somatic-Cell Count and...Schoder, G., Stanek, C., Thonhauser et alThe Influence of the Claw Trimming Procedure According to the Farriers Method On Milk-Yield, Somatic-Cell Count and Bacteriological Status of Milk Samples in Dairy-CattleSchoder, G., Stanek, C., Thonhauser, M. M.Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift1994In 45 dairy cattle of one herd (mean age 3.5 yrs.) in the last third of lactation the influence of the claw trimming procedure using the farriers method on the milk yield, the somatic cell count and clinical udder status was determined. After a pretesting phase of 7 to 10 days the claw trimming was carried out on 4 subsequent days, trimming 8 - 13 cows daily. After claw trimming the parameters were determined over a period of 22 days. A statistical significant decrease of milk yield of 10 % was observed, whereas the increase of somatic cell count was not significant. In 12 cows a positive bacteriological finding was evident in milk samples in the period after claw trimming. One cow exhibited an acute catarrhalic mastitis. Part of the milk depression was also caused by the disturbance in the stable and not only by the claw trimming procedure itself
Locomotion scores and lying behaviour are indicators of hoof lesions in dairy cowsMunksgaard, Lene, Sørensen, Jan Tind et alLocomotion scores and lying behaviour are indicators of hoof lesions in dairy cowsMunksgaard, Lene, Sørensen, Jan Tind, Thomsen, Peter T.The Veterinary Journal2012Locomotion scoring, lying behaviour and lesion recording during hoof trimming are all ways of evaluating hoof health in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between these measures in a random sample of 1340 cows from 42 Danish dairy herds. The hypothesis was that locomotion scoring and/or the monitoring of lying behaviour could be used as tools to identify cows with hoof lesions, either of the horn or of the skin. Cows were locomotion scored, lying behaviour recorded and data on hoof lesions seen during hoof trimming collected. The results were analysed using logistic regression with hoof lesion as the outcome and locomotion score (1–5), mean duration of lying bouts, parity and lactation stage as explanatory variables. This analysis was undertaken for all types of lesions, for hoof horn lesions only and for skin lesions only. Odds of all hoof lesions and of skin lesions increased with increasing locomotion score and increasing mean duration of lying bouts. Odds of horn lesions also increased with increasing locomotion score, but there was no significant association between horn lesions and the mean duration of lying bouts. It was concluded that locomotion scoring and duration of lying bouts may be used as tools in the management of hoof health in dairy herds.
Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cowsErsbøll, Annette Kjær, Sørensen et alShort communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cowsErsbøll, Annette Kjær, Sørensen, Jan Tind, Thomsen, Peter T.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Differences in attitudes of farmers and veterinarians towards pain in dairy cowsAnneberg, Inger, Herskin, Mette S. et alDifferences in attitudes of farmers and veterinarians towards pain in dairy cowsAnneberg, Inger, Herskin, Mette S., Thomsen, Peter T.The Veterinary Journal2012Attitudes towards pain and the use of analgesics in dairy cows were evaluated based on a questionnaire answered by 137 Danish veterinarians and 189 Danish dairy farmers. Respondents were asked to score the perceived pain associated with a number of diseases in dairy cows on a scale from 1 (no pain) to 10 (very painful) assuming that no analgesics were used. Additionally, they were asked whether they agreed or disagreed with a number of statements regarding pain and use of analgesics in cows. A large variability in pain scores for individual diseases was found among both farmers and veterinarians. The same disease was scored as ‘very painful’ by some respondents and as ‘not painful’ by others; however, farmers and veterinarians generally agreed which diseases were painful and which were not. Farmers considered most of the disease conditions to be slightly more painful than veterinarians but were less likely to use analgesics.
Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis—Where is the evidence?Thomsen, Peter T.Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis—Where is the evidence?Thomsen, Peter T.Journal of Dairy Science2015Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven.
Rapid screening method for lameness in dairy cowsThomsen, P. T.Rapid screening method for lameness in dairy cowsThomsen, P. T.Veterinary Record2009
Osteitis of the apex of the third phalanx following foot trimming in a dairy cowThompson, P. N.Osteitis of the apex of the third phalanx following foot trimming in a dairy cowThompson, P. N.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association-Tydskrif Van Die Suid-Afrikaanse Veterinere Vereniging1998An adult Ayrshire cow was presented with bilateral hind-limb lameness 5 weeks after routine claw trimming. Examination under intravenous regional anaesthesia revealed ulceration of the sole at the toe of both the right lateral and left medial claws of the hind limbs. Radiographic examination showed osteolysis and pathological fractures of the 3rd phalanx of both affected claws. Wooden blocks were fixed to the 2 healthy claws and the bone fragments were removed using a different technique for each claw. Full recovery followed within 11 weeks. The aetiological factors and treatment options for this condition, which was considered to be caused primarily by incorrect claw trimming, are discussed.
Recovery of chronically lame dairy cows following treatment for claw horn lesions: a randomised controlled trialBell, N.J., Bollard, N.J., Burrows, A. et alRecovery of chronically lame dairy cows following treatment for claw horn lesions: a randomised controlled trialBell, N.J., Bollard, N.J., Burrows, A., Huxley, J.N., Mason, C., Remnant, J. G., Thomas, H. J., Whay, H. R.Vet Rec2016A positively controlled, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken to test recovery of cows with claw horn lesions resulting in lameness of greater than two weeks duration. Cows on seven commercial farms were mobility scored fortnightly and selected by lameness severity and chronicity. Study cows all received a therapeutic trim then random allocation of: no further treatment (trim only (TRM)), plastic shoe (TS) or plastic shoe and NSAID (TSN). Recovery was assessed by mobility score at 42 (+/-4) days post treatment by an observer blind to treatment group. Multivariable analysis showed no significant effect of treatment with an almost identical, low response rate to treatment across all groups (Percentage non-lame at outcome: TRM--15 per cent, TS--15 per cent, TSN--16 per cent). When compared with results of a similar RCT on acutely lame cows, where response rates to treatment were substantially higher, it can be concluded that any delay in treatment is likely to reduce the rate of recovery, suggesting early identification and treatment is key. Thirty-eight per cent of animals treated in this study were lame on the contralateral limb at outcome suggesting that both hindlimbs should be examined and a preventive or if necessary a therapeutic foot trim performed when lameness is identified particularly if the duration of lameness is unknown.
Evaluation of four treatments for claw horn lesions in dairy cowsArcher, S. C., Bell, N.J., Bollard et alEvaluation of four treatments for claw horn lesions in dairy cowsArcher, S. C., Bell, N.J., Bollard, N.J., Huxley, J.N., Mason, C., Maxwell, O.J.R, Miguel-Pacheco, G.G., Remnant,J.G., Sleeman, P, Thomas,H.J., Whay, H. R.Journal of Dairy Science2014
Investigation of early and effective treatment interventions for claw horn lesions in UK dairy cowsArcher, SC, Bell, NJ, Bollard, N, Mason et alInvestigation of early and effective treatment interventions for claw horn lesions in UK dairy cowsArcher, SC, Bell, NJ, Bollard, N, Mason, C., Maxwell, O, Miguel Pacheco, G, Remnant, J, Sleeman, P, Thomas, HJ, Whay, HRCattle Practice2013
An unusual case of foreign body in the knee joint of a cowGanesh, R., Rameshkumar, B., Thilagar et alAn unusual case of foreign body in the knee joint of a cowGanesh, R., Rameshkumar, B., Thilagar, S.Indian Veterinary Journal1999
Remote Noninvasive Assessment of Pain and Health Status in CattleAmrine, David E., Theurer, Miles E. et alRemote Noninvasive Assessment of Pain and Health Status in CattleAmrine, David E., Theurer, Miles E., White, Brad J.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2013
Effect of pen size, group size, and stocking density on activity in freestall-housed dairy cowsTalebi, A., Telezhenko, E. et alEffect of pen size, group size, and stocking density on activity in freestall-housed dairy cowsTalebi, A., Telezhenko, E., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cowsBergsten, C., Magnusson, M., Nilsson et alEffect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cowsBergsten, C., Magnusson, M., Nilsson, C., Telezhenko, E.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Efficacy of formalin, copper sulfate, and a commercial footbath product in the control of digital dermatitisBicalho, R. C., Caixeta, L. S., Machado et alEfficacy of formalin, copper sulfate, and a commercial footbath product in the control of digital dermatitisBicalho, R. C., Caixeta, L. S., Machado, V. S., Pereira, R. V., Teixeira, A. G. V.Journal of Dairy Science2010
The development of a SoftSeparator™ for a lameness diagnostic systemRajkondawar, P. G., Tasch, U.The development of a SoftSeparator™ for a lameness diagnostic systemRajkondawar, P. G., Tasch, U.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2004Lameness in dairy herds is a critical economic factor and a crucial animal welfare issue. The authors, along with other scientists, developed an automatic lameness detection system named reaction force detection (RFD) system. The RFD performs lameness analysis based on measurements of ground reaction forces (GRF) as the animal walks freely through the system. This technology-based lameness analysis system is in its advanced commercialization stages, and it may prove to be a valid alternative to current animal scoring schemes that are observer dependent. The main outputs of the RFD are GRF and limb/floor contact locations of individual limbs. These GRF and limb/floor location records were used in the past to distinguish lame from sound cows. This paper further demonstrates that the very same records can be used to separate the RFD outputs, generated when a group of n cows walks through, into n files of a single animal in each. This file separation is a software-based algorithm that is based on induction. The induction-based animal separation process enables one to separate the records of any number, n, of animals that walk through as a single group. RFD outputs of a group of two and four animals are rewritten into multiple files, each one containing the records of a single animal. This animal separation algorithm could eliminate the need for gates that result in slowing down animal traffic.
Biochemical, histopathological and biomechanical mechanisms of lameness associated with first calvingTarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.Biochemical, histopathological and biomechanical mechanisms of lameness associated with first calvingTarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.Cattle Practice2003
Biomechanical and histopathological changes in the support structures of bovine hooves around the time of first calvingEvans, K. M., Holah, D. E., Jones, S. et alBiomechanical and histopathological changes in the support structures of bovine hooves around the time of first calvingEvans, K. M., Holah, D. E., Jones, S., Pearson, G. R., Tarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.Veterinary Journal2002
Biomechanical and biochemical analyses of changes in the supportive structure of the bovine hoof in maiden heifers and around the...Evans, K. M., Pearson, G. R., Tarlton et alBiomechanical and biochemical analyses of changes in the supportive structure of the bovine hoof in maiden heifers and around the time of first calvingEvans, K. M., Pearson, G. R., Tarlton, J. F., WEBSTER, A.J.F.
Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: Virulence factors, pathogenic mechanisms and control measures.CHEGAPPA, M.M., NAGARAGA, T.G., TAN et alFusobacterium necrophorum infections: Virulence factors, pathogenic mechanisms and control measures.CHEGAPPA, M.M., NAGARAGA, T.G., TAN, Z.L.,Veterinary research communication1996
Corkscrew claw in cows. A reviewNiemi, J., Tamminen, J.Corkscrew claw in cows. A reviewNiemi, J., Tamminen, J.Suomen Elainlaakarilehti1997This review covers the economic impact of the condition which appears to be increasing in dairy herds, and its treatment. The condition is considered to hereditary and is incurable, however frequent claw trimming can ease the problem
Outbreak of lameness in cattle [letter]Anderson, K. W., McCreath, C. F. et alOutbreak of lameness in cattle [letter]Anderson, K. W., McCreath, C. F., Talbot, A. C., Woodcock, S.Veterinary Record1992
Changes in hind claw shape and development of subclinical sole lesions after foot trimming in dairy cattle housed in a cubicle...Iketaki, T., Ohtani, M., Taguchi, K. et alChanges in hind claw shape and development of subclinical sole lesions after foot trimming in dairy cattle housed in a cubicle systemIketaki, T., Ohtani, M., Taguchi, K., Yamada, H., Yamagishi, N., Yamashita, M.Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association199947 cattle (11 heifers, 11 first-calf heifers, 13 second-calf cows and 12 mature cows) housed in a cubicle system from one week after calving, were examined for changes in the hind claws monthly from 2 months before to 3 months after calving. All the feet were trimmed at 2 months before calving. The abaxial wall of the outer claw increased in length and the weight bearing surface of the inner claw decreased in area significantly at 2 months after calving, resulting in a distinct difference between the inner and the outer claw shape. A high prevalence of the white line defect and heel erosion was detected at calving and persisted up to 3 months after calving. Sole haemorrhage was most prevalent 2 to 3 months after calving, being significantly higher at the outer claw. The occurrence of foot diseases seemed to be due to the subclinical sole lesions and lack of hoof trimming after calving
Relationship between outward rotation of hind feet and subclinical sole lesions in lactating dairy cowsSagawa, S., Soehartono, R. H., Taguchi et alRelationship between outward rotation of hind feet and subclinical sole lesions in lactating dairy cowsSagawa, S., Soehartono, R. H., Taguchi, K., Yamada, H., Yamagishi, N.Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association1999The relationship between outward rotation of hind feet and subclinical sole lesions was analysed in 117 lactating Holstein cows housed in free stalls. The outward rotation was visually classified as score 1 (none to slight rotation) and score 2 (moderate to severe rotation), and the degree of external rotation, dimensions of medial and lateral claws and sub-clinical sole lesions of the right hind feet were measured. The prevalence and severity of haemorrhage in the sole were higher in the lateral claws with rotation score 2 than those with rotation score 1, while the dimensions of the medial and lateral claws were not different. It is suggested that moderate to severe rotation of the hind feet may be related to the prevalence and severity of haemorrhage in the sole of the lateral claw
Effects of a monthly foot-care program (lameness screening and hoof trimming) on dairy cattle housed in cubiclesIketaki, T., Ohtani, M., Taguchi, K. et alEffects of a monthly foot-care program (lameness screening and hoof trimming) on dairy cattle housed in cubiclesIketaki, T., Ohtani, M., Taguchi, K., Yamada, H.Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association2002
Prevalence of lameness in cows from 50 dairy herds in southern ChileHettich, E., Tadich, N. A., van Schaik et alPrevalence of lameness in cows from 50 dairy herds in southern ChileHettich, E., Tadich, N. A., van Schaik, G.Archivos De Medicina Veterinaria2005In order to determine the prevalence of lameness, the type of the lesions and the degree of cow's lameness a study was carried out in 50 dairy farms from three provinces (Valdivia, Osomo and Llanquihue) of the Xth Region (Southern Chile). The farms were visited once between April and July, 2003. In each visit all the cows milked at the time of the visit were observed during locomotion. In lame cows all four feet were examined. The degree of lameness was scored in a scale of 1 to 4, being 1 slightly lame and 4 very lame. The data were recorded in an individual recording sheet for each cow. All the data recorded were introduced in an EXCEL data sheet as numerical variables and analysed using the statistical program SPSS 8.0. The farm, province and regional prevalence of lameness were determined, as well as the farm prevalence and total prevalence for each cause of lameness. A total of 7.501 dairy cows were observed. The mean total prevalence was (9.1%). The four most frequent lesions were chronic lesions of the hoof (19.8%), white line lesions (15.9%), lesions of the wall (10.9%) and overgrowth of the sole horn (10.0%). In relationship to the severity of the lesions found in this study, 53.4% of the cows had a lameness score of 1; 31.86% score 2; 11.9% score 3 and 2.8% score 4. In 43.7% of the cows the hind right foot was the most affected; in 38.4% of the cows it was the left hind foot, in 10.7% the fore right foot and in 7.2% the fore left foot. The most affected toe was the right lateral hind toe with 27%, followed by the left lateral hind toe with 25.8%. The total prevalence found in this study was lower than the prevalence reported in previous national studies and similar to the prevalence described in countries with similar management and climatic conditions as Chile. It is necessary to educate farmers on the effect of lameness on production and animal welfare.
Nociceptive threshold, blood constituents and physiological values in 213 cows with locomotion scores ranging from normal to...Bastias, S., Green, L. E., Rosenfeld et alNociceptive threshold, blood constituents and physiological values in 213 cows with locomotion scores ranging from normal to severely lameBastias, S., Green, L. E., Rosenfeld, C., Tadich, N., Tejeda, C.The Veterinary Journal2013
Associations between hoof lesions and locomotion score in 1098 unsound dairy cowsFlor, Efrén, Green, Laura, Tadich et alAssociations between hoof lesions and locomotion score in 1098 unsound dairy cowsFlor, Efrén, Green, Laura, Tadich, NéstorThe Veterinary Journal2010
Cryosurgical therapy of digital lesions in cattleTabatabaei Naeini, A.Cryosurgical therapy of digital lesions in cattleTabatabaei Naeini, A.
Trauma-induced severe lameness in calvesFowlie, G., Logue, D., Patterson, T. et alTrauma-induced severe lameness in calvesFowlie, G., Logue, D., Patterson, T., Ritchie, C., Synge, B.Veterinary Record2001
Fluoride intoxication in bovines due to industrial pollutionDey, S., Dwivedi, S. K., Ray, S. K. et alFluoride intoxication in bovines due to industrial pollutionDey, S., Dwivedi, S. K., Ray, S. K., Swarup, D.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences1998A survey conducted in the vicinity of an aluminium smelter revealed occurrence of fluoride intoxication in the cattle population. Affected animals exhibited lameness, reluctance to move, thickening of metatarsal, metacarpal rib and mandibular bones with the presence of palpable bony exostoses. Moderate to severe dental lesions were also observed in most of the animals. Overall incidence of disease was 42.31%. The highest incidence (58.27%) was within 3 km of the factory which declined exponentially with the distance from the smelter. Biochemical examination of serum, revealed significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (22.08¤2.12 KA unit/dl), inorganic phosphorus (5.15¤0.24 mg/dl) and creatinine (1.88¤0.26 mg/dl) and decreased levels of triiodothyronine (0.59¤0.14 ng/ml) in the affected animals than in healthy animals. Fluoride levels in the urine of affected cattle averaged 26.45¤3.28 ppm in the close vicinity of smelter. Contamination of pasture from smelter smoke was considered to be the most likely source of the fluoride intoxication
Clinico-epidemiological observations of industrial bovine fluorosis in IndiaAli, S. L., Dey, S., Dwivedi, S. K. et alClinico-epidemiological observations of industrial bovine fluorosis in IndiaAli, S. L., Dey, S., Dwivedi, S. K., Patra, R. C., Swarup, D.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences2001Clinical examination of cattle population in 4 villages around (<3 km) super phosphate fertilizer units in Udaipur district (India) in the month of July for 2 consecutive years (1998 and 1999) revealed occurrence of fluorosis. Prevalence rate of the disease was 27.1% during 1998, which increased to 46.8% in 1999. Lameness, bony exostosis and dental lesions with varying frequency clinically manifested the disease. Debility, inability to walk and defective mastication were also seen in severely affected animals. Exostosis of metatarsal and metacarpal bones was the most frequently observed sign in the first year, whereas exostosis of ribs was more common sign in the next year. Affected animals had higher concentration of fluoride in serum (range 0.31-1.07 mg/litre in 1998 and 0.13-2.02 mg/litre) and urine (range 5.10-89.10 mg/litre in 1998 and 7.64-51.10 mg/litre in 1999). The serum activity of aminotransferases and amylase enzymes and concentrations of creatinine and cholesterol were within normal range in the affected animals, but they had higher level of serum urea (7.84+-0.65 mmol/litre). High fluoride level in fodder (534.4+-74.9 mg/kg) and surface water (0.782+-0.249 mg/litre in 1998 and 1.186+-0.286 mg/litre in 1999) contaminated from fertilizer manufacturing units, was suggested as the possible source of excess fluoride ingestion by animals. The study concluded that morbidity and mortality pattern rather than concentration of fluoride in serum or urine are better indicators of continuous exposure of animals to fluoride
A study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing...Brenig, B., Floren, C., Pijl, R. et alA study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene and sole hemorrhage in Holstein cattleBrenig, B., Floren, C., Pijl, R., Schöpke, K., Swalve, H. H., Wensch-Dorendorf, M., Wimmers, K.Journal of Dairy Science2014
Laminitis in young dairy calves fed a high starch diet and with a history of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infectionBergsten, C., Svensson, C.Laminitis in young dairy calves fed a high starch diet and with a history of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infectionBergsten, C., Svensson, C.Veterinary Record1997Six of the 33 calves born in a Swedish dairy herd during a period of four months developed laminitis when they were eight to 12 weeks old. The clinical signs included difficulty in rising, a stiff gait, overgrown claws and haemorrhages in the sole horn. Samples of blood were taken from four of the calves when they had shown signs of laminitis for two to seven weeks; the serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase, and the patterns of serum proteins were within their normal ranges. The feet of the same four calves were examined after slaughter; the third phalanx of each calf was rotated and its distal end osteolytic. Histologically there was separation and degeneration of the squamous cells of the white line, and thromboses and vasculitis in the fine vessels of the corium. Four of the six affected calves were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus and one had antibodies against the virus. From six weeks of age the calves had been fed rye wheat, a hybrid seed rich in starch, and this may have contributed to the outbreak of laminitis
Comparison of topical application of three products for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cattleSwann Britt et alComparison of topical application of three products for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cattleSwann Britt, Jenks Gaska Jerome Garrett Edward Frank Konkle Darlene Mealy MarthaJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1996Objective: To test the effectiveness of 3 topical sprays for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) in dairy cattle. Design: Prospective field trial. Animals: 48 lactating cows with PDD randomly assigned to 4 groups of 1 2 cows each. Procedure: For 3 weeks, cows in each group were treated topically with oxytetracycline solution (100 mg/ml), acidified ionized copper solution, acidified sodium chlorite solution, or a placebo (tap water). Cows were milked 3 times daily, and at each milking, lesions were washed with a pressure hose and treatment solutions were sprayed on the lesions. Degree of lameness was graded before and after 3 weeks of treatment. Results: Mean lameness score decreased (i.e., cows were less lame) for all 3 treatment groups, but increased for the control group. Clinical Implications: Daily application of topical solutions was effective in decreasing degree of lameness associated with PDD in cattle tested
Analysis of Mineral Elements, Metabolism, and Inflammation Indexes in the Plasma of Dairy Cows Suffering from Different Degrees...Chen, J., Gao, J., Gu, C., Guo, D., Li et alAnalysis of Mineral Elements, Metabolism, and Inflammation Indexes in the Plasma of Dairy Cows Suffering from Different Degrees of LamenessChen, J., Gao, J., Gu, C., Guo, D., Li, C., Qu, Y., Sun, D., Wang, J., Wang, X., Wei, S., Wu, R.Biol Trace Elem Res2015In the plasma of dairy cows with 1-5 points of lameness, the mineral elements [calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iodine (I), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and chromium (Cr)], the energy metabolic indicators [triglyceride (TG), glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (CHO), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), lactate (LA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)], and inflammatory indexes [bovine haptoglobin (BoHp), histamine (HIS), and immunoglobulin G (IgG)] were measured, respectively. Furthermore, the correlations of the measured indicators with the degrees of lameness were analyzed. The results showed that in the plasma of dairy cows with 2/3-5 points of lameness, for the mineral elements' levels, Ca, Cu, I, Se, and Fe significantly decreased, Cr significantly increased, and Mo showed a decreasing trend; for levels of the energy metabolism indicators, NEFA and BHBA significantly decreased, BUN and LA significantly increased, and Glu, CHO, and TG showed an increasing trend; for inflammation indexes, the concentrations of HIS, BoHp, and IgG all significantly increased; and further analysis indicated that the Mo, Fe, NEFA, BUN, BHBA, IgG, Ca, and Se had a significant correlation with the degrees of lameness. Resulting data revealed the changes of mineral elements, metabolism, and inflammation indexes in the plasma of dairy cows suffering from different degrees of lameness, which will provided basic knowledge for in-depth understanding of lameness in dairy cows.
Footbaths on Dairy Farms in England and WalesDavies, R. C., Sumner, J.Footbaths on Dairy Farms in England and WalesDavies, R. C., Sumner, J.Veterinary Record1984
Digital dermatitis treponemes associated with a severe foot disease in dairy goatsCarter, S. D., Clegg, S.R., Duncan et alDigital dermatitis treponemes associated with a severe foot disease in dairy goatsCarter, S. D., Clegg, S.R., Duncan, J. S., Evans, N.J, Grove-White, D., Horsfield, J. E., Sullivan, L. E.Vet Rec2015A UK dairy goat herd was assessed after reports of a severe lameness problem of unknown aetiology. A lameness prevalence estimate was produced and individual clinical examination of 15 randomly selected lame goats was performed. Fifteen animals had foot lesions closely resembling contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) in sheep. Eight of the goats examined presented with typical CODD lesions and seven showed what appeared to be a more severe CODD with under-running of the sole. Ten biopsy samples were obtained from the foot lesions and tested by PCR for the three previously isolated digital dermatitis (DD) Treponema phylogroups and culture of treponemes was attempted. Ninety per cent of the biopsy samples were positive for Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like spirochaetes and Treponema phagedenis-like DD spirochaetes and 80per cent were positive for Treponema pedis. Spirochaetes were successfully isolated from 50 per cent of lesion samples. Three isolates were identified as belonging to the T. phagedenis-like spirochaetes and two were identified as T. pedis. The frequent isolation of similar treponemes to those isolated from bovine digital dermatitis and CODD lesions and the identification of these DD-associated phylotypes in the vast majority of lesions support the hypothesis that this novel foot condition is associated with infection by DD treponemes, and given the similarities to CODD, it suggests a causal role.
A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious...Blowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Clegg et alA molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesionsBlowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Clegg, S.R., Duncan, J. S., Evans, N.J, Grove-White, D. H., Sullivan, L. E.Veterinary Microbiology2015Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n = 34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n = 38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. “Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like”, “Treponema phagedenis-like” and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission.
High-level association of bovine digital dermatitis Treponema spp. with contagious ovine digital dermatitis lesions and presence...Angell, J. W., Bell, J., Blowey, R. W. et alHigh-level association of bovine digital dermatitis Treponema spp. with contagious ovine digital dermatitis lesions and presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosusAngell, J. W., Bell, J., Blowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Clegg, S.R., Duncan, J. S., Evans, N.J, Grove-White, D. H., Murray, R. D., Newbrook, K., Sullivan, L. E.J Clin Microbiol2015Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like," "Treponema phagedenis-like," and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD.
Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipmentAngell, J. W., Blowey, R. W., Carter et alPresence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipmentAngell, J. W., Blowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Duncan, J. S., Evans, N.J, Grove-White, D. H., Iveson, T., Page,P., Sullivan, L. E.Veterinary Record2014
Digitalis Dermatitis – Considerations with an Evaluation of an Intensive TherapyLam, Tjgm, Merkens, H. W. et alDigitalis Dermatitis – Considerations with an Evaluation of an Intensive TherapyLam, Tjgm, Merkens, H. W., NoordhuizenStassen, E. N., Suichies, H. R.Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde1993A piece of clinical research was performed to illustrate the recovery process of Digital Dermatitis on a chronically contaminated cattle farm. The combined effect of intensive individual treatment and an antibiotic foot-bath was examined. In addition to the classical condition recognized as Mortellaro's disease we found an aspecific form of Digital Dermatitis which failed to respond adequately to the currently recommended therapy.
Digital dermatitis in cattle and an evaluation of intensive therapyLam, Tjgm, Merkens, H. W. et alDigital dermatitis in cattle and an evaluation of intensive therapyLam, Tjgm, Merkens, H. W., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., Suichies, H. R.Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde1993Plantar and/or dorsal dermatitis of digital skin just proximal to the coronary border, as described by C. M. Mortellaro in 1974 [see VB 51, 6882; 60, 4948], affected 32 feet in 22 cows of a 65-cow herd. It was treated by cleaning the claws, applying a spray of chlortetracycline and gentian violet at 10-day intervals, and using a chlorteracycline foot bath. After 35 days the condition had improved in 22 feet and had resolved in 5 feet. Five cases which failed to respond may have been an atypical form of dermatitis
Performance traits, hoof mineral composition, and hoof characteristics of bulls in a 112-day postweaning feedlot performance testBrown, A. H., Johnson, Z. B., Kellogg et alPerformance traits, hoof mineral composition, and hoof characteristics of bulls in a 112-day postweaning feedlot performance testBrown, A. H., Johnson, Z. B., Kellogg, D. W., Perkins, J. L., Phillips, J. M., Sugg, J. L.American Journal of Veterinary Research1996Objective-To evaluate relations between hoof and performance data from bulls fed in a 112-day standardized postweaning feedlot performance test. Animals and Design-Breeds included were Angus (n = 20), Brangus (n = 19), Hereford (n = 31), and Simmental (n = 53). Hoof measurements, scores, and a 0.5-g hoof tissue sample were obtained from the right fore-foot of bulls on days 1 and 112 of 4 tests conducted in 3 locations in Arkansas. Data were analyzed, using least squares ANOVA. The model used included an overall mean, breed, farm of origin within breed, initial age, and initial weight within breed and residual. Residual and canonical correlations of the traits studied were calculated. Results-Residual correlations were found between some hoof minerals. Canonical correlations between performance traits and hoof minerals, between hoof characteristics and hoof minerals, and between hoof characteristics and performance traits were 0.62 and 0.45 (P < 0.05), 0.54 and 0.40 (P < 0.05), and 0.56 (P < 0.01) and 0.26 (P > 0.05), respectively. Conclusions-These data suggest that a relation exists between performance traits and hoof mineral composition and hoof characteristics and mineral composition. The visual scoring system for these data did not genetically separate bulls on the basis of claw quality. Clinical Implications-By selecting bulls with high claw quality, cattle producers are decreasing the chances of premature culling because of hoof laminitis. Therefore, by obtaining hoof measurements and mineral composition in a feedlot performance test, producers should have the tools to select bulls for increased lifetime performance
Change in Hoof Phosphorus-Content For Bulls in a 112-Day Postweaning Feedlot Performance-TestBrown, A. H., Johnson, Z. B., Kellogg et alChange in Hoof Phosphorus-Content For Bulls in a 112-Day Postweaning Feedlot Performance-TestBrown, A. H., Johnson, Z. B., Kellogg, D. W., Perkins, J. L., Phillips, J. M., Sugg, J. L.Nutrition Research1993Hoof samples for mineral analysis from four breed groups of bulls-- Angus (n=20), Brangus (n=19), Hereford (n=31) and Simmental (n=53)-- obtained during a 112-d postweaning feedlot performance test were used to study effects on the change in hoof phosphorus (P) concentrations. Hoof samples were obtained for mineral analysis from the right front foot of all bulls on d 1 and 112 of four tests conducted in three locations in Arkansas. Data were analyzed using least-squares analysis of variance. The model included terms for common element, an effect due to test, breed, farm of origin within breed, hoof pigment, initial age and residual error. Breed means were separated using repeated t-test. Residual correlations between P and other hoof minerals were obtained. Breed was the only significant source of variation on the change in hoof P. The model explained 45% of the variation (R 2) . Breed means for the change in P showed both Angus and Brangus bulls significantly different (P < .05) from Simmental bulls. Residual correlation for the change in P with the change in K was -.48 (P < .001). Residual correlations for the change in P with the changes in Mg (-.28), Ca (-.27), Na (-.28), Mn (-.28) and Cu (.23) were significant at P < .05. Results from this study suggest there are breed effects on the change in the P concentration of hooves and that P changes are correlated to changes in other hoof minerals
Radiographical aspects of foot lesions of zebu beef cattle (Bos indicus)Bergamo, R. A., Pardo, P. E., Scudeller et alRadiographical aspects of foot lesions of zebu beef cattle (Bos indicus)Bergamo, R. A., Pardo, P. E., Scudeller, P. S. O., Sturion, D. J.UNIMAR Ciencias1997
Quantifying Transitions Between Levels Of Mobility Score In Dairy CowsBell, N.J., Groenevelt, M., Main,D.C.J. et alQuantifying Transitions Between Levels Of Mobility Score In Dairy CowsBell, N.J., Groenevelt, M., Main,D.C.J., Stoye, S.C.Veterinary Record2014
Synchronized lying in cattle in relation to time of dayPorter, Mason A., Stamp Dawkins, Marian et alSynchronized lying in cattle in relation to time of dayPorter, Mason A., Stamp Dawkins, Marian, Stoye, SophieLivestock Science2012Postural synchrony, in which cattle lie down or stand up at the same time as other members of their herd, occurs both in animals housed indoors when enough resources are available and in those out at pasture, but the mechanisms by which such synchrony is achieved are poorly understood. We report a study of 6 groups of young cattle (Bos taurus) at pasture in which our aim was to study postural synchrony at different times of day and in relation to the postures of neighbouring cattle. All of the observed groups exhibited a high degree of synchrony in lying/standing, as 70% of animals in a group exhibited the same posture over 93% of the time. Time of day had a significant effect (P≈0.0046): cattle were least synchronized in the middle of the day and most synchronized in the morning and evening. With the increasing use of synchrony of lying as a measure of welfare in cattle, such temporal effects need to be taken into account. Cattle were more synchronized with the posture of a near neighbour than they were with that of a randomly chosen member of the herd (P≈0.016), suggesting that cattle were actively synchronizing their postures with that of their neighbours. These results indicate that a full understanding of the mechanisms of postural synchronization in cattle herds will need to incorporate both collective (allelomimetic) and concurrent (individual) responses.
Including lameness and mastitis in a profit index for dairy cattleBrotherstone, S., Coffey, M. P., Stott et alIncluding lameness and mastitis in a profit index for dairy cattleBrotherstone, S., Coffey, M. P., Stott, A. W.Animal Science2005The objective of this work was to establish economic values (EVs) of mastitis and lameness in order to enhance the current UK dairy profit index (poundPLI) by including these health traits. The EVs of traits currently in poundPLI were also re-evaluated to account for changes in costs/returns over time and to determine their sensitivity to changes in some of the basic assumptions used in their derivation. Predicted transmitting abilities (PTAs) for mastitis are not available in the UK. Instead, PTAs for somatic cell count (SCC), which has a strong genetic correlation with clinical mastitis, were used to predict clinical mastitis. Similarly, PTAs for locomotion and (for bulls with no locomotion PTA) the 'legs and feet' composite were used to predict lameness. The EV of mastitis was estimated at pound0.83 per percent incidence, giving an index weight for SCC PTA of pound0.20. The EV of lameness was estimated at pound0.99 per percent incidence, giving an index weight for locomotion PTA of pound1.28. The associated index weight for the 'legs and feet' composite was estimated to be pound1.50. Economic values for all traits (production, lifespan, mastitis and lameness) were found to be sensitive to their associated price assumption but not to price assumptions of other traits in the index or to other production parameters in the model. Better information is needed on the influence of cow age (parity) on incidence of disease and on the probability of involuntary culling to determine the appropriate balance between the EVs for longevity and health. Currently, 16% of the weight in poundPLI is attributable to non-production traits. In our revised index this weight increased to 23%. Even so, selection using this index is still predicted to result in an increase in mastitis and lameness, albeit at a very low rate. This situation may be changed by the introduction of fertility into poundPLI and through better information about health traits. Incorporation of consumer preference into poundPLI may require traits associated with health and welfare of the cow to receive more weight than their EV would suggest in order to maintain or improve health traits in national selection programmes.
Clinical report – Atypical rabies in a cowJones, Tyler Rupprecht Charles, Shirely et alClinical report – Atypical rabies in a cowJones, Tyler Rupprecht Charles, Shirely, Larry A., Stoltenow, Charles L.Bovine Practitioner1999A six year old cow with decreased appetite and a stiff gait of seven days duration was examined by its owner and veterinarian. Clinical signs were non-specific and a definitive diagnosis was not made. The cow died 19 days after first being noticed as ill. Because of a previous news story about rabies, the owner had the cow's brain tested for rabies and it was positive. The owner underwent post-exposure prophylaxis. The news story about rabies was effective in educating the public about rabies. However, continuing education may be necessary to improve the veterinarian's understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of rabies in cattle
Lameness in feedlot cattleEdwards, T., Griffin, D., Grotelueschen et alLameness in feedlot cattleEdwards, T., Griffin, D., Grotelueschen, D. M., Lechtenberg, K., MacGregor, S., Perino, L. J., Smith, R. A., Stokka, G. L., Voss, K.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2001
The reliability of detecting digital dermatitis in the milking parlourLeach, K. A., Main, D. C. J., Stokes et alThe reliability of detecting digital dermatitis in the milking parlourLeach, K. A., Main, D. C. J., Stokes, J. E., Whay, H. R.The Veterinary Journal2012Digital dermatitis (DD) is currently the most problematic infectious skin disease in dairy cattle associated with lameness. Reducing the disease prevalence through early detection and treatment is an essential management tool. The traditional detection method involves lifting and inspecting the feet in a cattle crush, but this is a time intensive and costly practice and impractical for regular detection of individual cases or monitoring herd prevalence. This study aimed to establish the accuracy of detecting and classifying DD lesions in traditional (pit) milking parlours compared with a borescope, and a gold standard lifted foot inspection. With the exception of one lesion, parlour screening was as accurate as the lifted foot inspection in determining the presence of 86 DD lesions on 160 hind feet (99% agreement; κ 0.99; sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.99). Describing lesions by colour, depth or stage of lesion in the parlour or using the borescope reached substantial agreement with the gold standard. The stage of lesion was closely linked to colour and depth descriptors. There was greater agreement when categorising more advanced stages of disease progression. Borescope and parlour inspections led to both over and under recording of actual size, particularly in smaller lesions. Screening cows in traditional milking parlours for the presence of DD was found to be an accurate and practical means of detecting lesions. This method should be considered for on farm use to evaluate DD prevention and treatment strategies.
An investigation into the use of infrared thermography (IRT) as a rapid diagnostic tool for foot lesions in dairy cattleLeach, K. A., Main, D. C. J., Stokes et alAn investigation into the use of infrared thermography (IRT) as a rapid diagnostic tool for foot lesions in dairy cattleLeach, K. A., Main, D. C. J., Stokes, J. E., Whay, H. R.The Veterinary Journal2012Previous research has suggested that temperature at the coronary band increases in the presence of claw horn lesions in dairy cattle. However the reliability of using infrared thermography (IRT) as a method of distinguishing between lesions has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of IRT as a non-invasive tool for rapidly screening for the presence of digital dermatitis (DD). Eighty-two cows which either had no skin lesions on the hind feet (controls, n = 41 feet) or a DD lesion on one or both feet were selected during milking. Following selection, each cow was moved into the farm crush where thermal images were taken from the plantar aspect of each foot at the pastern when the foot was dirty, cleaned and raised for visual inspection. Following recording of thermal images each hind foot was trimmed and the presence of any lesion recorded. It was found that the temperature did not differ significantly between feet with DD lesions and other skin or claw horn lesions, regardless of whether the feet were dirty, clean or raised for inspection. As IRT was not sensitive enough for lesion specific detection, the reliability of setting a temperature threshold above which any type of lesion causing lameness could be detected was investigated. The optimal trade off between sensitivity and specificity could be reached without having to either clean or lift the feet. Setting the threshold for disease at 27 °C for dirty feet identified 80% of feet with lesions and 73% of feet without lesions correctly. In conclusion, IRT was reliable in detecting elevated temperature associated with foot lesions. Future research investigating the development of lesions may identify a temperature threshold for early treatment intervention. This technique may also be useful to quantify the effectiveness of early treatment by tracking recovery and recurrence of cases.
Investigating novel and existing methods of preventing, detecting and treating digital dermatitis in dairy cowsStokes, J. E.Investigating novel and existing methods of preventing, detecting and treating digital dermatitis in dairy cowsStokes, J. E.Clinical veterinary science2011Digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful skin condition currently considered to be the leading cause of infectious lameness in dairy cattle. The overall objective of this project was to investigate novel and existing methods of detecting DD to be used by farmers and researchers to monitor the disease, and to investigate the impact of farmers’ prevention and treatment strategies on disease prevalence. Visual inspection of lesions in the parlour was found to be a practical and reliable method for detecting and classifying DD. In addition, thermography was identified as a potential tool for the detection of cattle foot disorders. Validating such methods for detecting DD is important because locomotion scoring alone was not found to be sufficiently sensitive to identify cows with DD. In a further study a novel ethogram approach validated several specific behaviours associated with DD. A telephone survey was carried out to establish the nature and scope of management strategies farmers use to control DD. The two main strategies identified in the survey were 1) whole herd footbathing and 2) an individual treatment approach. A one year observational study on fifteen farms used the inspection method developed in the parlour to investigate the impact these two approaches had on disease prevalence. It was found that as herd size increased, footbathing became less effective in maintaining a low prevalence than treating cows individually. Farmers use a variety of methods in an attempt to control DD on their farms, with different levels of emphasis placed on the priority and regularity of prevention and treatment. An outcome of this study is a DD monitoring approach farmers can use, to routinely assess the effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies. In addition, results indicate that as herd size and disease prevalence increase, individual treatment is imperative for therapeutic resolution of DD.
New Treatment For Bovine Panaritium Using Urotovet CreamBozovic, V., Bresjanac, D., Jovanovic et alNew Treatment For Bovine Panaritium Using Urotovet CreamBozovic, V., Bresjanac, D., Jovanovic, A., Milcic, D., Stojicevic, S.Vet Glas1990The major health problem in large bovine flocks are diseases of the locomotive organs, especially hooves. A great many etiological factors may cause damage to horn tissue of the hoof, however, the most frequent are lack of proper care, inadequate base and rough surface, poor hygienic conditions in stall objects, inappropriate diet, etc. The usual therapy involved copper sulphate, oleum gyrodali, zinc vitamin cream, etc., which have all been used more or less successfully. In addition to other steps such as the regular care of the hooves, timely treatment and the like, the use of Urotovet cream to treat panaricium may help towards reduction of the number of hooves diseased and towards healing of changes already incurred. A single application of the Urotovet produced healing effect in 75.7% of cases while in 24.3% of cases the treatment had to be repeated two or more times
Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle:...Belsham, Graham J., Stenfeldt, CarolinaDetection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistenceBelsham, Graham J., Stenfeldt, CarolinaVeterinary Microbiology2012
Ulcerative lymphangitis and coronet lesions in an Israeli dairy herd infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosisElad, D., Shpigel, N. Y., Steinman, A.Ulcerative lymphangitis and coronet lesions in an Israeli dairy herd infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosisElad, D., Shpigel, N. Y., Steinman, A.Veterinary Record1999
Stationary manure removal equipment in cattle and pig farming. Technical execution details and correct use govern functional...Keck, M., Steiner, B.Stationary manure removal equipment in cattle and pig farming. Technical execution details and correct use govern functional competenceKeck, M., Steiner, B.FAT Berichte, Switzerland1999Flawless functioning of manure removal systems depends on the execution of dung channels and their drainage. In order to maintain good claw health, dung channels should be rather dry and have good grip. Most often, high amounts of manure cause blockages, and loose housing has to be cleaned more often as a consequence. For efficient separation of liquid and solid wastes, gaps between slats have to correspond to the manure composition. In open air or cold housing systems, manure removal depends on the impact of frost. Suitable construction and running of manure removal systems under can guarantee functioning down to a temperature of -10oC
Arthroscopic lavage and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for treatment of chronic septic arthritis in...Hirsbrunner, G., Miserez, R., Steiner et alArthroscopic lavage and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for treatment of chronic septic arthritis in cattleHirsbrunner, G., Miserez, R., Steiner, A., Tschudi, P.Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology1999The object of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of arthroscopic lavage and debridement, followed by intra-articular implantation of resorbable gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges (GICS) for treating chronic (_seven days) septic arthritis in cattle. 14 cattle suffering from chronic septic monarthritis refractory to previous treatment were included in this study. Age ranged from one month to 7 years (mean=34 months) and bodyweight from 58 to 640 kg (mean=422 kg). The degree of lameness and characteristics of synovial fluid were evaluated before and at days #10 and 20 after the initial operation. The standard surgical procedure consisted of arthroscopic "through-and-through" lavage of the affected joint with a physiological Ringer's solution, partial synovectomy, and curettage of the articular cartilage when considered necessary, followed by the intra-articular administration of GICS. The aftercare included administration of procaine penicillin, phenylbutazone, and stall confinement. The progress of the cases was monitored at three to 24 months after the initial operation. The tarsocrural joint was affected in six cases, the antebrachiocarpal joint in five and the metacarpophalangeal joint in three cases. The degree of lameness, total nucleated cell count and total protein of synovial fluid significantly decreased within 10 days after the operation. Treatment was successful in 12 of 14 animals (86%). It was therefore concluded that the implantation of GICS after routine "through-and-through" lavage is a valuable alternative technique for the treatment of chronic septic arthritis in cattle. A subsequent second operation for implant removal was not necessary, as GICS are fully absorbable. The tarsocrural joint is associated with the least favourable prognosis of the joints treated in this study
Diseases of the Tendons and Tendon SheathsAnderson, David E., Desrochers, André et alDiseases of the Tendons and Tendon SheathsAnderson, David E., Desrochers, André, Steiner, AdrianVeterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2014
Fenestration of the abaxial hoof wall and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for the treatmnet of septic...Steiner, A.Fenestration of the abaxial hoof wall and implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges for the treatmnet of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 7 cattleSteiner, A.
Digital dermatitis in cattleBom, J. Y., Christensen, M. B. et alDigital dermatitis in cattleBom, J. Y., Christensen, M. B., Hesselholt, M., Kristiansen, K. K., Mortensen, L. L., Nielsen, O. L., Steffensen, M.Dansk Veterinaertidsskrift2000
Claw health and behaviour of cows observed on a grooved floor and on conventional slatted floorStefanowska, J., Swiestra, D.Claw health and behaviour of cows observed on a grooved floor and on conventional slatted floorStefanowska, J., Swiestra, D.
Do Cows Prefer a Barn Compartment with a Grooved or Slotted Floor?Metz, J. H. M., Stefanowska, J. et alDo Cows Prefer a Barn Compartment with a Grooved or Slotted Floor?Metz, J. H. M., Stefanowska, J., Swierstra, D., van den Berg, J. V.Journal of Dairy Science2002Cow preferences for one of two compartments with different floors were tested in a barn with two symmetrical, connected compartments, each intended for 16 cows. Compartments were identical except for the floor. One floor was grooved longitudinally to the feeding barrier and the other was slotted perpendicular to that barrier. Sixteen pregnant, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were used. After 14 d of habituation, cow behavior was videotaped for 10 full 24-h d, spread over 22 d. Their daily time budget spent on different activities performed in both compartments was analyzed, as was their relocation and use of the concentrate dispenser in each compartment. On average, cows spent 120 min longer per day in the slotted floor compartment than in the grooved floor compartment, and performed all activities in the daily time budget significantly longer in this compartment. However, testing the preference of individuals revealed that, although five cows significantly preferred the slotted floor compartment, two cows significantly preferred the other compartment, and nine cows had no preference. On the slotted floor, cows ate longer at the feeding barrier and more often drank front-on to the water trough; on the grooved floor they more often drank standing parallel to the water trough. Thus, they seemed to prefer to stand parallel to the slots. Relocation of cows, indicated by index of movement, was not significantly different between the floors. Relocation seemed to be stimulated more by the presence of concentrate dispensers in both compartments than by floor profile. Although one floor type was not clearly preferred over the other, the findings and methods of this study have implications for design and implementation of future preference tests for testing husbandry systems and their components.
Cow behaviour on a new grooved floor in comparison with a slatted floor, taking claw health and floor properties into accountBraam, C. R., Hendriks, M. M. W. B. et alCow behaviour on a new grooved floor in comparison with a slatted floor, taking claw health and floor properties into accountBraam, C. R., Hendriks, M. M. W. B., Stefanowska, J., Swierstra, D.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2001The objective of this study was to compare the behaviour of cows on a grooved floor with that of cows kept on a slatted floor. The trial was carried out with two groups of 12 Holstein–Friesian cows kept in a cowshed with two symmetrical halves, identical except for the floor. One floor was grooved longitudinally to the feeding fence (width of grooves 35 mm) and the other was slatted (gaps 35 mm wide) perpendicular to the feeding fence. Both floors had scrapers to remove manure. After 3 weeks of being kept on these two floors, cows were switched between floors for 3 weeks. In the third week of each 3-week-period, behavioural observations of cows related to their time budget over 24 h, relocation on each floor indicated by index of movement and specific behaviours (aggression, self maintenance) performed on the floors were executed. The health of claws was examined before the trial and 6 weeks later, after the trial. The grooved floor influenced the cows’ daily time budget: cows kept on the grooved floor stood less (P<0.05) with four legs inside the cubicles (group 1: 36 min, group 2: 39 min) than cows kept on the slatted floor (group 1: 57 min, group 2: 60 min). Neither the specific behaviours of cows nor their movement performed on both floors were different. After switching from the grooved floor to the slatted floor, cows lay for 669 min a day (in comparison to 746 min a day while kept on the grooved floor, P<0.05) and they stood parallel to the feeding fence for 174 min a day (in comparison to 126 min a day while kept on the grooved floor, P<0.05). Given that both groups of cows on the grooved floor and the group that began on the slatted floor had a similar daily time budget, it is possible that the different time budget of the remaining group, which started off on the grooved floor, was a reaction (pleasure or disappointment) induced by returning to the familiar floor. The grooved floor was more fouled with faeces (P<0.05) than the slatted floor. The grooved floor can be evaluated as being equal to the slatted floor with a scraper in terms of the behaviour performed on it. There were hardly any slip incidents on it (during 64 h of observations, two slip incidents on the grooved floor, four slip incidents on the slatted floor). However, the occurrence of stumble incidents involving the manure scraper (66 cases on the grooved floor and 48 on the slatted floor during 64 h of observations) and the occurrence of foot lesions (probably of traumatic origin) suggests that the functioning of the manure scraper, which is indispensable on grooved floors, needs to be optimised.
Serological evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi infection associated with clinical signs in dairy cattle in SlovakiaCiganek, J., Cislakova, L., Derdakova et alSerological evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi infection associated with clinical signs in dairy cattle in SlovakiaCiganek, J., Cislakova, L., Derdakova, M., Kysel'ova, J., Pet'ko, B., Stefancikova, A., Stepanova, G., Strojny, L., Travnicek, M.Veterinary Research Communications2002In the course of epizootological research on Lyme borreliosis in domestic and farm animals, the serological evidence for the occurrence of this zoonosis in cattle was screened. An ELISA showed that 25.2% of cattle from seven geographical areas in Slovakia were positive for anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies. In particular localities, the seroprevalence ranged from 0.6% to 34.3%. Of 33 cases with clinical signs, 20 ELISA-positive samples were also confirmed in Western blots. The most frequent clinical signs were lameness and swollen joints, but most of the cases were asymptomatic. The occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies and suspected clinical signs in cattle of Slovak regions indicates that veterinarians should pay attention to this disease in their clinical practice and include it within the differential diagnosis.
Lying patterns of high producing healthy dairy cows after calving in commercial herds as affected by age, environmental...Antler, Aharon, Bahr, Claudia et alLying patterns of high producing healthy dairy cows after calving in commercial herds as affected by age, environmental conditions and productionAntler, Aharon, Bahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel, Halachmi, Ilan, Maltz, Ephraim, Steensels, MachteldApplied Animal Behaviour Science2012An animal expresses its physiological and well-being status by its behaviour. Changes in behaviour can be associated with health, production or well-being problems and therefore with the profitability of the farm. The objectives of the present study were to analyse lying patterns of healthy cows, collected with a commercial behaviour sensor, in early lactation in relation to environmental conditions, age of the cow and production performance. In future, these results may be used as a ‘baseline’ for detection of alterations in behaviour that indicate health problems. The study involved 210 healthy multiparous Israeli Holstein cows in three commercial dairy farms. Only healthy cows during the first 28 days after calving were included in this study. Data were analysed in relation to calving season, age of cows and correlation between milk production and lying time. The results show that lying time increased significantly with age and is significantly (P < 0.05) higher in winter than in summer (summer lactation 2: 491 ± 17 min/day (mean ± SD), summer lactation 3 and more: 520 ± 25 min/day, winter lactation 2: 531 ± 25 min/day, winter lactation 3 and more: 579 ± 38 min/day). The proportion of positively and negatively milk production and lying time correlated cows is affected by calving season. This study indicates that behaviour variables in early lactation are affected by calving season, lactation number and type of correlation between milk production and lying time.
The effect of treatment with long-acting antibiotic at postweaning movement on respiratory disease and on growth in commercial...Dingwell, R. T., Kelton, D. F., LeBlanc et alThe effect of treatment with long-acting antibiotic at postweaning movement on respiratory disease and on growth in commercial dairy calvesDingwell, R. T., Kelton, D. F., LeBlanc, S. J., Leslie, K. E., Millman, S. T., Stanton, A. L., Wormuth, J.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Treatment of complicated septic disorders of the bovine digit, using a combination of surgical therapy and application of...Kofler, J., Stanek, ChTreatment of complicated septic disorders of the bovine digit, using a combination of surgical therapy and application of sodium-ceftiofurKofler, J., Stanek, ChTierarztliche Praxis.Ausgabe G, Grosstiere Nutztiere1998The use of sodium-ceftiofur (Excenel), 1 mg/kg body mass, i.m. was evaluated in the therapy of complicated claw diseases, like septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint, septic tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath or complicated inter-digital necrosis. Sodium-ceftiofur was applied in 34 dairy cattle in addition to surgical intervention. 14 cattle of the control group received only surgical intervention without additional antibiotic therapy. Application of the cephalosporin proved to be necessary, with the untreated animals exhibiting far more disturbance of the re-convalescence course in the postoperative phase. Treated animals had a decreasing duration of the postoperative stay at the clinic. Sodium-Ceftiofur was an effective antibiotic in the therapy, an application over a 5-to 10-day-period is recommended in complicated digital diseases. As a side effect five cows exhibited slight diarrhoea, which disappeared without additional treatment
On the classification of radiological changes in septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattle: Comparison of...Kofler, J., Stanek, C.On the classification of radiological changes in septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattle: Comparison of two scoring systemsKofler, J., Stanek, C.Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift1995The radiological changes of 184 cases of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 182 cattle were analysed in a retrospective study (1985 - 1995). Age, sex and breed of the animals, affected limb, primary disease and grade of lameness were evaluated and correlated with the severity of the radiological changes. Widening of the joint space and osteolysis predominantly of the distal phalanx and the sesamoidal bone are the first signs of septic arthritis, followed by periosteal reactions mainly on the middle phalanx. Two classification systems basing on extent of osteolytic changes and periosteal reactions are compared
Housing and nutrition related claw diseases of dairy cattleStanek, C.Housing and nutrition related claw diseases of dairy cattleStanek, C.Israel-Journal-of-Veterinary-Medicine1997A short survey of various claw diseases affected by housing and nutrition is presented and the affect of various housing systems, such as tie stalls and loose box systems common in central Europe, is discussed. Special emphasis is put on different pathological claw types, laminitis, solar ulcer and other typical claw conditions
Uncomplicated and complicated diseases of the deeper structures of the claws in cattleStanek, ChUncomplicated and complicated diseases of the deeper structures of the claws in cattleStanek, Ch
Incidence and costs of health problems in Swiss dairy cattle and their calves (1993-1994)Audige, L., Danuser, J., Frei, P. P. et alIncidence and costs of health problems in Swiss dairy cattle and their calves (1993-1994)Audige, L., Danuser, J., Frei, P. P., FreiStaheli, C., Gottstein, B., Kihm, U., Nicolet, J., Pfeiffer, D.U., Stark, K. D. C., Strasser, M.Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde1997Between July 1993 and July 1994 morbidity and management information related to dairy cows and their calves up to the age of 8 weeks were recorded in 113 randomly selected dairy herds. Also recorded were any costs incurred through disease and prevention. Blood and faeces were analysed with respect to selected pathogens. The health problems most frequently diagnosed in cows were reproductive and udder diseases. Calves suffered most often from diarrhea, omphalitis and pneumonia. The directly disease related costs per cow-year on average amounted to CHF 139.44 and CHF 4.18 per calf. For prevention, farmers spent on average CHF 10.18 per cow-year. Results from the laboratory analyses indicate that in 68.1% of the farms antibodies against Leptospira hardjo and in 61.9% against Coxiella burnetii were detected. In 8.0% of the farms anti bodies against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were found. Antibodies against BVD virus was present in 99.1% of the farms. Cows from 63.7% farms were infected with gastrointestinal strongylids. Veterinary assistance was required on average 1.96 times per cow-year. In almost all reproductive and puerperal disease cases a veterinarian was consulted while lameness in the majority of cases was treated by the owner. The veterinary profession was hardly ever involved in disease prevention.
Intramedullary Pinning of Femoral Diaphyseal Fractures in Neonatal Calves 12 Cases 1980-1990Constable, P. D., Debowes, R. M., Hull et alIntramedullary Pinning of Femoral Diaphyseal Fractures in Neonatal Calves 12 Cases 1980-1990Constable, P. D., Debowes, R. M., Hull, B. L., St Jean, G.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1992Medical records of 12 calves .ltoreq. 1 month old, with fracture of the femoral diaphysis, were reviewed. Ten calves were within 1 week of birth at the time of diagnosis. Open reduction was accomplished by use of a lateral approach. Retrograde intramedullary pinning was accomplished in all calves, using 2 (n = 4 calves) or 3 (n = 8 calves) pins. Cerclage wire was used to supplement fixation in 7 calves. A closed continuous suction drain was placed along the lateral aspect of the femur in every calf. Postsurgical complications included seroma formation over the middle gluteal musculature (n = 5 calves), pin migration (n = 6 calves), and osteomyelitis (n = 1 calf). Pin migration was observed in 4 calves that had been treated with nonthreaded trochar point pins. Fractures in 10 of 12 calves (83%) were considered to have healed satisfactorily. One calf was euthanatized because of septic osteomyelitis of the femur. One calf was euthanatized because of persistent lameness and pin migration. Pins were removed in 8 of 12 calves (67%) between the 13th and 90th postoperative days. Results of this study indicate that application of intrameduillary pins may be a useful solution for management of femoral diaphyseal fracture in young calves
A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performanceHostetler, D. E., Kaneene, J. B. et alA lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performanceHostetler, D. E., Kaneene, J. B., Sprecher, D. J.Theriogenology1997Lameness has contributed to reproductive inefficiency and increased the risk of culling in dairy cows. We developed a 5-point lameness scoring system that assessed gait and placed a novel emphasis on back posture. Our objective was to determine if this system predicted future reproductive performance and the risk of culling. The study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm with a history of declining reproductive efficiency and an increasing prevalence of lameness. A total of 66 primipara and pluripara calved, received an initial lameness score, and completed their 60-d voluntary waiting period. The overall prevalence of lameness (mean lameness score >2) was 65.2%. Scoring continued at 4-wk intervals and ceased with conception or culling. The percentage of cows confirmed pregnant and culled was 77.3 and 22.7, respectively. For each reproductive endpoint, a 2 x 2 table was constructed with lameness score >2 as the positive risk factor and either performance greater than the endpoint mean or being culled as the positive disease or condition. Positive and negative predictive values, relative risk, Chi-square statistic and regression analysis were used to evaluate the data. The positive predictive values for days to first service, days open, breeding herd days, services per pregnancy and being culled were 58, 68, 65, 39 and 35%, respectively. Similarly, the negative predictive values were 79, 96, 100, 96 and 100%, respectively. Except for one reproductive endpoint, the total number of services, all linear regressions were significant at P < 0.01. Having a lameness score >2 predicted that a cow would have extended intervals from calving to first service and to conception, spend or be assigned to (explained herein) more total days in the breeding herd, require more services per pregnancy and be 8.4 times more likely to be culled. We believe that this lameness scoring system effectively identifies lame cows. Observation of the arched-back posture in a standing cow (greater than or equal to LS 3) should trigger corrective interventions. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc.
Effectiveness of different footbathing frequencies using copper sulfate in the control of digital dermatitis in dairy cowsFinney, G. A., Logue, D. N., McBride et alEffectiveness of different footbathing frequencies using copper sulfate in the control of digital dermatitis in dairy cowsFinney, G. A., Logue, D. N., McBride, J., O'Connell, N. E., Speijers, M. H. M., Watson, S.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Effectiveness of different footbath solutions in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cowsBaird, L. G., Finney, G. A., Kilpatrick et alEffectiveness of different footbath solutions in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cowsBaird, L. G., Finney, G. A., Kilpatrick, D. J., Logue, D. N., McBride, J., O'Connell, N. E., Speijers, M. H. M.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Prevention and treatment of foot diseases in dairy cowsSoukup, L.Prevention and treatment of foot diseases in dairy cowsSoukup, L.Veterinarstvi2000
Effect of lameness on estrous behavior in crossbred cowsNanda, A. S., Sood, P.Effect of lameness on estrous behavior in crossbred cowsNanda, A. S., Sood, P.Theriogenology2006Lameness, a common disease in crossbred dairy cows, badly affects their fertility. To elucidate, if estrous behavior, comprising of duration and expression of certain estrous behavioral sign(s) (EBS), is involved, an estrous expression score system was applied to objectively compare estrous behavior during 27 and 58 estrous periods, respectively, in 17 normal and 37 lame cows kept in a group of 200 cows under loose housing system in tropical India. The cows were detected in estrus and were closely watched daily for 30 min at 0630, 1030, 1430 and 1830 h from the beginning to the end of estrus. The duration of estrus was similar in the normal and the lame cows (18.7 +/- 1.2 h versus 17.2 +/- 0.9 h) and almost similar EBS were shown by two types of cows, albeit with varying frequency. Standing to be mounted, the highest ranking EBS was shown by equal proportions of the cows in both the groups (76.4% versus 73.0%). A lower proportion of lame cows showed head side mounting (35% versus 53%; P < 0.05). The frequency of standing to be mounted events was lower in the lame than in the normal cows (2.4 +/- 0.4 versus 8.0 +/- 2.5; P < 0.05). The lame cows earned non-significantly lower than normal estrous behavior score (1100 179 versus 1610 357). Further, the presence of more than one cow simultaneously in estrus enhanced the estrous behavior score in the normal (406.4 +/- 63.0 for one cow in estrus versus 793.0 +/- 146.0 for three cows simultaneously in estrus; P < 0.05), but not in the lame cows. Lameness appeared to have suppressed the playful behavior during estrus probably owing to pain related stress. It is concluded that mildly lame cows appear to have normal physiological estrus. However, some of the EBS remain subdued which prone them to remain undetected for timely breeding. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Exemplary sloped floor housing for dairy cattleSontgerath, B.Exemplary sloped floor housing for dairy cattleSontgerath, B.Landtechnik1991The suitability of sloping floor systems for dairy cattle housing is discussed. Advantages of the system include the facts that this is a loose housing system with litter and gives good claw health, is ecologically acceptable and easy to install. Problems may arise with lack of movement by dairy cows, preventing treading of the manure towards the dung channel, and lack of udder cleanliness, causing milk hygiene problems. Space requirements per cow, labour requirements and investment costs are considered
Automatic detection of lameness in dairy cattle—Vision-based trackway analysis in cow’s locomotionBerckmans, Daniel, Leroy, Toon et alAutomatic detection of lameness in dairy cattle—Vision-based trackway analysis in cow’s locomotionBerckmans, Daniel, Leroy, Toon, Maertens, Willem, Sonck, Bart, Song, Xiangyu, Vranken, ErikComputers and Electronics in Agriculture2008The occurrence of lameness in dairy cattle is of increasing importance in herd health management and herd productivity. Current practice, involves visual observation by human experts to score cow's locomotion in order to estimate the lameness in the herd. The trackway defined as “hind hoof compared to fore hoof position” is one of the main components to score the locomotion. However, because of the time-consuming observation method, lame cows are undiagnosed until the problem has become severe. Up till now there is no automatic (visual) method for detecting lameness in dairy cattle. The objective of our study was to make an automatic system for continuous on-farm detection and prediction of lameness in the farm by using vision techniques. The current focus was on demonstrating the possibility of capturing cow's hoof locations by vision and strong correlation between automatically calculated hoof trackway and visual locomotion scores. Fifteen selected lactating cows were scored visually by four trained observers at the Gent University Research Farm. Scoring varied from 1 (normal walking) to 5 (extremely lame). Side-view images with resolution of 1024 × 768 pixels were recorded when cows passed an experimental set-up freely. Recorded videos were split into sequences of bitmap images. After background subtraction, binary image operations, calibration and hoof separation, the trackway information containing hoof location in the real world and its related time in the video was calculated. The accuracy of automatically captured results was checked by comparing with the output from manually labeled hoof locations. The mean correlation coefficient of all measurements was 94.8%. Hence, the results suggest that the automatic method by vision analysis is feasible to present the cows’ real locomotion situations. The first result showed a positive linear relationship between cows’ trackways overlap and locomotion scores by human visualization. This research proved that vision techniques have great potential to be used for continuous quantification of lameness in cows.
Preference test for free stall surface material for dairy cowsDaelemans, J., Langenakens, J., Sonck et alPreference test for free stall surface material for dairy cowsDaelemans, J., Langenakens, J., Sonck, B.This paper describes the results of a comparative cow preference test with 11 types of mattresses. The products included in the trial were: a Kraiburg rubber mat, Supercomfort cow mattress, Pasture Mat, Blister Mattress, Kraiburg Soft Bed System, Enkamat K2000, Comfy Cushion, Alfa Laval Comfort Mat, Alanta Waterbed, Agritarp Mattress and as reference a concrete layer littered with sawdust. The comfort of the cows increased after the installation of the mattresses in a free stall barn. This can be concluded on the basis of a higher average lying time and of the lower average standing time, which is an important factor in preventing claw and leg lameness. Comparison of the diurnal pattern of cows between the phases (before and after the use of the mattresses) did not show clear differences. Cows demonstrated a definite preference for certain mattresses, namely Supercomfort Cow Mattress, Kraiburg Bed System, Pasture Mat and Comfort Mat. The occupancy level was >50%. These mattresses were more compressible than the Enkamat K2000. Agritarp and Kraiburg rubber mat. The study demonstrated that cow preference became more distinct during the experiment
The effect of Lameness before and during the breeding season on fertility in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herdsDoherty, M. L., Huxley, J., Lorenz, I. et alThe effect of Lameness before and during the breeding season on fertility in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herdsDoherty, M. L., Huxley, J., Lorenz, I., O'Grady, L., Somers, J. R.Ir Vet J2015BACKGROUND: The effects of lameness on fertility have been documented frequently but few data are available from seasonally breeding, pasture-based herds (such as those used in Ireland) where cows are housed during the winter months but managed at pasture for the remainder of the year. This study determined the prevalence of lameness in a group of 786 cows in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herds before, during and after the breeding season and assessed the relationship between lameness and the reproductive performance in these herds through serial locomotion scoring during the grazing period. RESULTS: Lameness prevalences of 11.6 % before, 14.6 % during and 11.6 % after the breeding season were found and these compared favourably to results from housed cattle and are similar to other studies carried out in grazing herds. A Cox proportional hazards model with locomotion score as time varying covariate was used. After controlling for the effect of farm, month of calving, body condition score at calving, body condition score loss after calving and economic breeding index, cows identified as lame during the study were less likely to become pregnant. Cows lame before the earliest serve date but no longer lame during the breeding season, cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows identified lame both before and after this date were respectively 12 %, 35 % and 38 % less likely to become pregnant compared to cows never observed lame during the study. However, these findings were only significant for cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows lame both before and after the start of breeding. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the reproductive efficiency was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in cows becoming lame during the breeding season and cows lame before and during the breeding season compared to non-lame cows. Cows no longer lame during the breeding season had a lower Submission Rate to first serve within 3 weeks of earliest serve date. However, the Pregnancy Rate was not significantly (p > 0.05) lower in these animals compared to cows never diagnosed as lame. In addition to lameness status, nutritional status and genetics were found to influence the reproductive performance in pasture-based Irish dairy herds.
Development of claw traits and claw lesions in dairy cows kept on different floor systemsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M. et alDevelopment of claw traits and claw lesions in dairy cows kept on different floor systemsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., Schouten, W. G. P., Somers, JgcjJournal of Dairy Science2005Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a straw yard (SY). Twenty cows per farm were selected and stratified by parity. Information on claw traits was recorded on right lateral hind claws between October 2002 and May 2003. In addition, lesion development of interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis ( DD) was studied in both rear feet. No differences in claw traits were detected among groups on different floor types, with the exception of claw angle. Claw angles were smallest in cows on SY. Claws of cows on SC were steeper than those on SL and GR. The study provided no evidence that floor-related differences in claw lesions were related to differences in horn growth, wear, and resulting claw shape. Lesions of IDHE developed gradually over time and did not differ among flooring types. Cows in SY had the smallest lesion scores for DD, whereas cows on SL had significantly less DD than cows on SC and GR. Incidence of DD fluctuated over time. Development of different stages of DD was monitored in-depth. Both early and healed stages were rather changeable and often turned into other disease stages. Classical ulcerative lesions (stage M2) persisted for a long time, with 20% of the initially unaffected claws having active lesions of DD within 5 mo. The M2 lesions generally did not cure effectively after claw trimming, and frequent use of footbaths resulted in a poor prognosis for recovery.
Foot lesions in lame cows on 10 dairy farms in IrelandO'Grady, L., Somers, J.Foot lesions in lame cows on 10 dairy farms in IrelandO'Grady, L., Somers, J.Ir Vet J2015BACKGROUND: Little is known about foot lesions in dairy cattle in Ireland, managed under a pasture based system with housing during the winter and grazing for the rest of the year. Ten Irish dairy herds, with a lameness prevalence ranging from 9 to 17 % were locomotion scored routinely during the 2013 grazing season. Lame cows were foot trimmed and foot lesions recorded. FINDINGS: 11.8 % and 89.6 % of cows had lesions recorded on front and hind feet respectively. No lesions were found in 6.9 % of cows. Sole haemorrhage and white line disease were the most prevalent lesions, and overall 76.8 % of lesions affecting the claw horn were diagnosed on the lateral hind claw. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment success, as measured by improved LS post treatment, was not significantly affected by the LS prior to foot trimming, the presence of lesions or the type of lesion identified. Exposure to both risk factors for lameness at housing and pasture may have resulted in the development of a combination of foot lesions typically associated with zero-grazing or all-year-round grazing management systems.
Risk factors for interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The NetherlandsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M. et alRisk factors for interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The NetherlandsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., Somers, JgcjPreventive Veterinary Medicine2005Risk factors concerning both the pasture and housing seasons for interdigital dermatitis and heel-horn erosion (IDHE) were studied in dairy cows in a cross-sectional study in The Netherlands. The study population included 2326 cows (41 herds) and 2751 cows (46 herds) for the pasture and housing seasons, respectively. Of these animals, 545 (23%) showed serious lesions of IDHE (stages 2 and 3) at the end of the pasture season and 1269 (46%) during housing. Logistic regression of the pasture study indicated that increased parity, solid concrete floor, restricted grazing time, and herd trimming at long intervals were associated with an increased odds of IDHE, while dry cows and lactating cows within 30 days after calving as well as cows on a slatted floor with manure scraper, and grassland with mixed type of soil were associated with lower odds. In the housing study, odds of IDHE increased with parity, administering low- or medium-energy roughage, and introduction of dry cows into the lactating herd at >2 weeks before calving. The presence of long cubicles, knee-bumpers installed in cubicles as well as rearing calves and heifers within the dairy cows' accommodation decreased the odds of IDHE. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Risk factors for digital dermatitis in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The NetherlandsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M. et alRisk factors for digital dermatitis in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The NetherlandsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., Somers, JgcjPreventive Veterinary Medicine2005The presence of digital dermatifis (DD) in dairy cows has increased considerably over the last 10 years in The Netherlands, resulting in a current prevalence of similar to 30% in cows kept in cubicle houses. Our objective was to evaluate a diversified sample of cow- and herd-related risk factors for DD in dairy cows housed in cubicle houses with different flooring systems. Associations were analysed in random-effects logistic-regression models using 2134 cows (37 herds) and 2892 cows (47 herds) in the pasture and housing studies, respectively. At cow-level, the odds of having DD were increased in the case of lower parity and lactation. Important risk factors at herd-level were: restricted grazing time, fast rise in concentrate amount after calving, feeding by-products, herd trimming only at long intervals, and introduction of dry cows into the lactating herd before calving. The odds for DD were lower if cows were housed on a slatted floor with manure scraper and provided long and wide cubicles, and if calves were reared in the dairy cows' accommodation. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systemsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M. et alPrevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systemsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., Somers, JgcjJournal of Dairy Science2003Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and severity of claw disorders during hoof trimming events at the end of the pasture (P-study) and housing period (H-study). The number of cows in each study was 3078 (49 herds) and 3190 (47 herds), respectively. Due to a different hoof trimming strategy, data collected during both observation periods in SY herds (638 cows; 16 herds) were combined. Cows in straw yards (SY) had by far the lowest numbers of claw disorders. Over 80% of cows exposed to concrete flooring had at least one claw disorder at the time of observation, whereas on SY surfaces, this percentage was between 55 and 60. Cows on SL-SCR were less frequently affected by interdigital dermatitis/heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) than cows on SL (reference floor system). Little difference in claw health was found between SF and SL. The ZG cows were at higher risk (OR > 2) for most claw disorders in the P-study, whereas in the H-study, ZG cows showed less IDHE, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer. All herds on concrete flooring (SL, SL-SCR, SCF, ZG) were infected by DD, resulting in an average cow level prevalence of 30%. This indicates that the level of DD infection has increased considerably over the last 10 yr in The Netherlands.
Effectiveness of a standardized footbath protocol for prevention of digital dermatitisBarkema, H. W., Orsel, K., Pickel, C. et alEffectiveness of a standardized footbath protocol for prevention of digital dermatitisBarkema, H. W., Orsel, K., Pickel, C., Solano, L.Journal of Dairy ScienceABSTRACT A footbath is the most common herd-level approach to control digital dermatitis (DD) in intensive dairy farming. However, wide variation in footbath design and protocols suggests a gap between evidence-based management practices and on-farm implementation. The objective was to evaluate effectiveness of a standardized footbath protocol in decreasing prevalence of active DD lesions in lactating dairy cattle. The protocol was based on current scientific literature, including footbath design and management. The M-stage classification system was used to score DD lesions. Scores were also combined into a simplified scoring system: no lesions (M0), active lesions (M1, M2, and M4.1), and chronic lesions (M3 and M4). A controlled intervention trial was conducted on 9 farms over 22 wk. Each farm served as its own control with data collected for 10 wk before and 12 wk after intervention. A total of 1,978 lactating cattle were assessed biweekly for DD lesions and leg cleanliness in the milking parlor. Lactating cattle were also inspected in the trimming chute at 3 time points: start, intervention, and end of trial. Intervention consisted of implementing an automated footbath that measured 3 m long, 0.50 m wide, held a fluid depth of 0.15 m, along with a weekly footbath protocol using 5% CuSO4 for 4 consecutive milkings, with footbath content replaced at a maximum of 200 cow passes. Multilevel logistic regression models for repeated measures were used to evaluate effects of the standardized footbath protocol in preventing active DD lesions. For the purpose of analysis, farms' within-herd prevalence of active DD lesions (at baseline) was assessed and categorized as low (<15%) or high (≥15%). Farms with low or high within-herd prevalence of active DD lesions at trial outset had a mean cow-level prevalence of active DD lesions of 8% (range, 2 to 13) and 31% (range, 18 to 43), respectively. At milking parlor inspections, apparent prevalence of active DD lesions decreased from the time of footbath intervention, but this effect interacted with the farms' baseline prevalence of active DD lesions. In that regard, on farms with high prevalence of active DD at baseline, apparent prevalence of active DD lesions decreased after intervention, whereas on farms with low prevalence of active DD at baseline, apparent prevalence of active DD lesions did not change. At the cow level, poor leg cleanliness was associated with higher prevalence of active DD lesions. At trimming chute inspections, prevalence of active DD lesions decreased from start to the end of the trial (22 and 14%, respectively); concurrently, prevalence of feet with no DD lesions (M0) increased (39 and 48%). We concluded that on farms with high DD prevalence, implementation of proper footbath design and improvement of footbathing management will decrease prevalence of active DD lesions and increase prevalence of feet without DD lesions. In addition, improving cow cleanliness will further result in control of active DD lesions.
Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barnsBarkema, H. W., de Passille, A. M. et alAssociations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barnsBarkema, H. W., de Passille, A. M., Haley, D. B., LeBlanc, S. J., Mason, S., Nash, C. G., Orsel, K., Pajor, E. A., Pellerin, D., Rushen, J., Solano, L., Vasseur, E.J Dairy Sci2016Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys >/= 350 cm wide or stalls >/= 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time >/= 14 h/d, /= 110 min/bout, or standard deviations of bout duration over 4 d >/= 70 min had 3.7, 1.7, 2.5, and 3.0 higher odds of being lame, respectively. Factors related to comfort of lying and standing surfaces significantly affected lying behavior. Finally, we inferred that automated measures of lying behavior could contribute to lameness detection, especially when interpreted in the context of other factors known to affect lying behavior, including those associated with the individual cow (e.g., parity and stage of lactation) or environment (e.g., stall surface).
Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, CanadaBarkema, H. W., LeBlanc, S. J., Mason et alPrevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, CanadaBarkema, H. W., LeBlanc, S. J., Mason, S., Orsel, K., Pajor, E. A., Solano, L.J Dairy Sci2016The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot lesions and associated cow- and herd-level risk factors in dairy cows in Alberta, Canada. Foot lesion data were recorded electronically by 7 hoof trimmers on 28,607 cows in 156 dairy farms from June 2009 to November 2012. Foot lesion prevalence estimates differed between farms that had the whole herd trimmed at once (>/=80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=69 farms and 8,020 cows) and farms on which part of the herd was trimmed (selection of cows was determined by farmer and <80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=87 and 20,587 cows). Estimates were consistently higher for the latter likely because farmers presumably prioritized lame cows in partial-herd trims. On farms with whole-herd trims, digital dermatitis was the most common lesion among all housing types, present in 15% of cows and 94% of herds. Sole ulcers and white line disease were detected in 6 and 4% of the cows and 92 and 93% of herds, respectively. Other infectious and claw horn lesions each affected 1 to 2% of cows and 62 to 78% of herds. Intraclass correlation coefficients for hoof trimmers ranged from 0.01 to 0.20 for all lesions, indicating some clustering of recorded lesions by trimmer. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including hoof trimmer as fixed and farm as random effects) for the 3 most frequently identified lesions. Prevalence of digital dermatitis decreased with increasing parity, but this effect interacted with days in milk (DIM); primiparous cows had higher odds of digital dermatitis in mid lactation (100-199 DIM) and late lactation (>/=200 DIM) compared with cows at other stages of lactation. In contrast, prevalence of sole ulcers and white line disease increased with increasing parity; compared with cows in parity 1, those in parity 4 had 5 or 7 times higher odds of having these lesions, respectively. Cows in mid lactation and late lactation had higher odds of sole ulcers and white line disease than cows at other stages of lactation, regardless of parity. Digital dermatitis prevalence was 2 times higher in herds housed in barns with access to an exercise area. The odds of sole ulcers and white line disease were >/=2 times higher in cows housed in freestalls than those housed in deep-bedded packs. Therefore, preventive measures for control of digital dermatitis merit emphasis, especially in primiparous cows and on farms with exercise areas. In addition, improving housing environment by providing a deep-bedded area for older cows in mid lactation or late lactation could reduce prevalence of claw horn lesions. We inferred that foot lesion data recorded by hoof trimmers can provide useful information not only to develop effective foot health programs at herd level, but also for disease surveillance and genetic improvement at regional and national levels.
Standard measurements relating to the care of bovine claws, derived from the internal structure of hind claws of German Black...Sohrt, J. T.Standard measurements relating to the care of bovine claws, derived from the internal structure of hind claws of German Black Pied cattle, with reference to the lesions of laminitisSohrt, J. T.1999
Bovine claw and limb disorders related to reproductive performance and production diseasesFjeldaas, T., Sogstad, A. M., Østerås et alBovine claw and limb disorders related to reproductive performance and production diseasesFjeldaas, T., Sogstad, A. M., Østerås, O.Journal of Dairy Science2006
Locomotion score and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows, assessed by claw trimmersFjeldaas, T., Sogstad, A. M., Østerås et alLocomotion score and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows, assessed by claw trimmersFjeldaas, T., Sogstad, A. M., Østerås, O.Livestock Science2012
Improved hooves through improved trace mineral nutritionJohnson, A. B., Socha, M. T., Tomlinson et alImproved hooves through improved trace mineral nutritionJohnson, A. B., Socha, M. T., Tomlinson, D. J.
Bovine immunodeficiency virus associated with encephalitis, mastitis, footrot and other secondary infections in cattleGonda, M., Jenny, B., Luther, D. et alBovine immunodeficiency virus associated with encephalitis, mastitis, footrot and other secondary infections in cattleGonda, M., Jenny, B., Luther, D., Snider, T.Bovine Practitioner1996
Prevalence of Digital Disorders in Zero-Grazing Dairy-CowsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M. et alPrevalence of Digital Disorders in Zero-Grazing Dairy-CowsFrankena, K., Metz, J. H. M., Noordhuizen, Jptm, Smits, M. C. J.Livestock Production Science1992The prevalence of clinical and subclinical digital disorders in 2121 pure breed and crossbreed Holstein Friesian and Dutch Friesian dairy cows, housed all year round in free stalls, was determined in a cross-sectional study on 34 farms (average herd size 66 cows) in the Netherlands. At the time of claw trimming, in spring 1990, the following affections in the hindclaws were diagnosed (prevalence over all cows between brackets): dermatitis interdigitalis (83.1%), dermatitis digitalis (17.6%), phlegmona interdigitalis (0.4%), pododermatitis aseptice diffusa (4.5%), lesions (74.7%), ulceration at the typical place (5.5%) and at the white line (4.5%), widening of the white line (7.6%) and cavity in the sole (4.9%). A high prevalence of the subclinical digital disorders in zero-grazing dairy cows was found. Only 1.2% of the cows was clinically lame. Differences between herds were considerable. Herd prevalences ranged from 35 to nearly 100% for dermatitis interdigitalis and from 0% (4 farms) to 50% for dermatitis digitalis. On five farms phlegmona interdigitalis was found (totalling 9 cows). Six farms were free from typical solar ulcers. Cows in the second month of lactation tend to have the highest prevalences for most of the affections. Prevalences of most affections, if not significant, tend to increase with parity. For dermatitis digitalis and laminitis the opposite tendency was found. Heifers had the highest prevalences for dermatitis digitalis and pododermatitis aseptice diffusa.
Extralabel Use of Anesthetic and Analgesic Compounds in CattleSmith, GeofExtralabel Use of Anesthetic and Analgesic Compounds in CattleSmith, GeofVeterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2013
Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disordersKauffold, Johannes, Sherman, Lisa et alSerum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disordersKauffold, Johannes, Sherman, Lisa, Smith, Billy I.The Veterinary Journal2010In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n = 41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n = 8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n = 7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n = 4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0–3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P < 0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC.
Effect of a tea tree oil and organic acid footbath solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cowsBewley, J. M., McQuerry, K. J., Smith et alEffect of a tea tree oil and organic acid footbath solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cowsBewley, J. M., McQuerry, K. J., Smith, A. C., Wood, C. L.Journal of Dairy Science2014Copper sulfate is the industry gold standard footbath ingredient for controlling dairy cow digital dermatitis. However, when used footbath solutions are deposited on soil, high levels of copper in the soil may result, which can have toxic and negative effects on plant growth. An alternative to copper sulfate is Provita Hoofsure Endurance (Provita Eurotech Ltd., Omagh, UK), which is a biodegradable solution containing organic acids, tea tree oil, and wetting agents. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in digital dermatitis frequency when using Provita Hoofsure Endurance and copper sulfate in a split footbath in 3 commercial dairy herds. This study was conducted from January 5, 2012, to March 19, 2012, in 3 commercial Kentucky dairies with 120, 170, and 200 milking Holstein cows. None of the herds was using a footbath for digital dermatitis control before the study. Footbath solutions were delivered using a split footbath. During the study, a 3% Hoofsure Endurance solution for the left hooves and a 5% copper sulfate solution for the right hooves was used. Digital dermatitis was scored every 3 wk using the M0 to M4 system, where M0 = a claw free of signs of digital dermatitis; M1 = a lesion <2 cm that is not painful; M2 = the ulcerative stage, with lesion diameter of >2 cm, and painful to the touch; M3 = the healing stage and covered by a scab; and M4 = the chronic stage and characterized by dyskeratosis or proliferation of the surface that is generally not painful. McNemar’s test statistic suggested that a statistically significant difference existed in the proportions of M1 and M2 lesions between the beginning and end of the study for both treatments. This indicates that each solution was effective in decreasing the proportion of M1 or M2 lesions from baseline to the last time point. A chi-square test calculated using PROC FREQUENCY of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the treatments among changes in digital dermatitis frequency from the baseline to the end of the study. Performance of the 2 footbath solutions was comparable throughout the study. No significant differences were observed between the copper sulfate and Provita Hoofsure Endurance.
The Effect of Herd Characteristics on Claw Disorders and Claw Measurements in FriesiansJansen, J., McDaniel, B. T., Peterse et alThe Effect of Herd Characteristics on Claw Disorders and Claw Measurements in FriesiansJansen, J., McDaniel, B. T., Peterse, D. J., Politiek, R. D., Smit, H., Verbeek, B.Livestock Production Science1986
Genetic-Aspects of Claw Disorders, Claw Measurements and Type Scores for Feet in Friesian CattleJansen, J., McDaniel, B. T., Peterse et alGenetic-Aspects of Claw Disorders, Claw Measurements and Type Scores for Feet in Friesian CattleJansen, J., McDaniel, B. T., Peterse, D. J., Politiek, R. D., Smit, H., Verbeek, B.Livestock Production Science1986
Scoring lesions considered associated with subclinical laminitis in first lactation cows from high production Ohio Holstein...Hoblet, K. H., Smilie, R. H., Williams et alScoring lesions considered associated with subclinical laminitis in first lactation cows from high production Ohio Holstein herds: a method of comparison of herdsHoblet, K. H., Smilie, R. H., Williams, E. I.
Prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation cows from herds with high milk productionEastridge, M. L., Hoblet, K. H., Rings et alPrevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation cows from herds with high milk productionEastridge, M. L., Hoblet, K. H., Rings, D. M., Schnitkey, G. L., Smilie, R. H., Weiss, W. P.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1996OBJECTIVE--To determine prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation Holstein cows during early lactation and pregnant Holstein heifers during late gestation in herds with high milk production. DESIGN--Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS--203 cattle in 13 herbs. PROCEDURE--Cattle were placed in lateral recumbency to allow visual examination and photography of their hooves. Claws on a forelimb and hind limb were examined on all cattle. Observable categories of lesions considered to be associated with subclinical laminitis in our study included yellow waxy discoloration of the sole, hemorrhage of the sole, separation of the white line, and erosion of the heel. RESULTS--Lesions in at least 1 of the categories were found in all herds. Lesions in all categories were found in 11 of 13 herds. Among claws, hemorrhage of the sole was observed most frequently in the lateral claw of the hoof of the hind limb. When days in milk was treated as a covariate, significant (P < 0.01) differences were detected in the prevalence of lesions between herds. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS--Because the prevalence of lesions differed significantly among herds, it is logical to believe that causative factors and corrective measures also may have differed among herds
Subclinical laminitis in dairy cows: use of severity of hoof lesions to rank and evaluate herdsEastridge, M. L., Hoblet, K. H. et alSubclinical laminitis in dairy cows: use of severity of hoof lesions to rank and evaluate herdsEastridge, M. L., Hoblet, K. H., Moeschberger, M. L., Schnitkey, G. L., Smilie, R. H., Weiss, W. P.Veterinary Record1999High-yielding Holstein herds (n=13) in Ohio were ranked according to the prevalence and severity of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis (pododermatitis aseptica diffusa). 173 first lactation cows, most in their first 100 days of lactation, and 30 pregnant heifers were assessed. The lesions evaluated were yellow waxy discoloration of the sole, haemorrhage of the sole, separation of the white line and erosion of the heel. Each herd consisted of more than 100 lactating cows and all the herds were producing over 8500 kg of milk/cow on a rolling herd average basis. The lactating cows were housed in cubicles and maintained in concrete yards. The lesions associated with subclinical laminitis were prevalent among the 13 herds, but when each category of lesion was considered independently, significant differences in prevalence and severity were detected among the herds. It is concluded that it may be possible to make changes in herd management which may influence the prevalence of hoof lesions
Supplementary biotin and the incidence of lameness in dairy cows in Northern Ireland: a field studyMcIlroy, S. G., Sloan, J. F., Weber et alSupplementary biotin and the incidence of lameness in dairy cows in Northern Ireland: a field studyMcIlroy, S. G., Sloan, J. F., Weber, G. M.
Selected bacterial dermatoses in cattleMroz, K., Nicpon, J., Nicpon, Z. et alSelected bacterial dermatoses in cattleMroz, K., Nicpon, J., Nicpon, Z., Slawuta, P.Medycyna Weterynaryjna2006Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a dermatosis of the digital skin of cattle, which, in recent years, has become one of the most important causes of lamness. Probably the direct causes of the disease are Treponema spp., Fusobacterium spp., Bacterioides spp. and Dichelobacter nodosus. PDD occurs on the hairy skin between the hooves and heels of hind limbs, where circumscriptes red plaques appear. Therapy requires the use of penicillin 18000 IU/kg every 12 h for 3 days or a topical application of oxytetracycline 20-100 mg/ml for 3 to 5 days and footbaths in solutions of 0.1 to 0.6% oxytetyracycline, 20% zinc sulfate, 0.01% lincomycin, 2.5 to 10% copper sulfate, and 5% formalin every 3-7 days. Interdigital dermatitis (ID) is triggered by the same bacteria as PDD and its course of therapy is the same. Acute attacks of the disease are characterized by epidermal erosion and superficial dermatitis in the interdigital skin, and, in chronic cases of ID, upper cracks and fissures of the horn. Dermatophilosis is a dermatosis occurring in cattle, sheep, goats and horses, caused by Dermatophilus congolensis. Bacteria provoke exudative inflammations of the skin and crust formation. Sheep may develop a form of dermatophilosis that begins as a proliferative dermatits in the cornet region, known as strawberry foot-rot. Lesions can extend from the hoof to the hock. Therapy requires the use of oxytetracycline in a single dose of 20 mg/kg or penicillin and streptomycin in doses of 70 000 IU and 70 mu g/kg for 3 days.
Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of selected non-traumatic digitis diseases in cattleMroz, K., Nicpon, J., Slawuta, P.Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of selected non-traumatic digitis diseases in cattleMroz, K., Nicpon, J., Slawuta, P.Medycyna Weterynaryjna2005Digitis diseases in cattle (laminitis, phlegmona interdigitalis, papillomatous digital dermatitis) bring major losses in cattle breeding. The most important factor in the pathogenesis of laminitis in cattle is disturbances in metabolism, which are triggered by mediators of inflammatory processes. Treatment includes therapy of the primary disease (acidosis, alkalosis, acetonemia, mastitis, metritis, retention of placenta) and elimination of causes of inflammatory processes by means of high doses of the anti-inflammatory agents, heparin 40-100 U/kg, antibiotics, methionine 20-60 mg/kg, biotin 0.03-0.2 mg/kg. Phlegmona interdigitalis is characterized by lameness and pyogenic inflammation of subcutaneous tissues in the interdigital space. Its therapy includes the systemic use of sulfonamides at a dose of 130 mg/kg, oxytetracycline 10 mg/kg, and foot baths of 10% zinc sulfate, 1% formaldehyde and 5% copper sulfate. Papillomatous digital dermatitis is a dermatosis of the digital skin of dairy cattle. PDD occurs on hairy skin between hooves and heels. The therapy requires the use of penicillin 18000 IU/kg and a topical application of tetracycline 20-100 mg/ml through 3 to 5 days and occasionally footbaths in solutions of 0.1 to 0.6% oxytetyracycline, 20% zinc sulfate, 0.01% lincomycin, 2.5 to 10% copper sulfate, 5% formalin.
Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front or hind feet of walking cows based on...do Nascimento, O. F., Ingvartsen, K. L. et alComputerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front or hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forcesdo Nascimento, O. F., Ingvartsen, K. L., Rasmussen, M. D., Skjøth, F., Thorup, V. M., Voigt, M.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2013
Applications of X-ray powder diffraction in materials chemistrySkakle, J.Applications of X-ray powder diffraction in materials chemistrySkakle, J.Chemical Record2005X-ray powder diffraction is a standard technique in materials chemistry, yet it is often still used in the laboratory as a "one-hit" technique, e.g. for fingerprinting and following the progress of reactions. It is important, however, that the wealth of information available from powder data is not overlooked. While it is only possible here to scratch the surface of possibilities, a range of examples from our research is used to emphasize some of the more accessible techniques and to highlight successes as well as potential problems. The first example is the study of solid solution formation in the oxide systems Ba3-3xLa2xV2O8 and Sr4-xBaxMn3O10 and in the silicate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic, Ca-10(PO4)(6-x)(SiO4)(x)(OH)(2-x). Database mining is also explored, using three phases within the pseudobinary phase diagram Li3SbO4-CuO as examples. All three phases presented different challenges: the structure of Li3SbO4 had been previously reported in higher symmetry than was actually the case, Li3Cu2SbO6 was found to be isostructural with Li2TiO3 but the cation ordering had to be rationalized, and Li3CuSbO5 was believed to be triclinic, presenting challenges in indexing the powder pattern. Quantitative phase analysis is briefly discussed, with the emphasis both on success (determination of amorphous phase content in a novel cadmium arsenate phase) and on possible failure (compositional analysis in bone mineral); the reasons for the problems in the latter are also explored. Finally, the use of an area detector system has been shown to be of value in the study of orientational effects (or lack of them) in non- and partially-ordered biomaterials, including p-HEMA, annulus fibrosis of lumbar discs, and keratin in the horn of cow's hooves. (c) 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The influence of different claw trimming methods on plasma cortisol revels in dairy cowsMöstl, E., Sixt, A., Stanek, C.The influence of different claw trimming methods on plasma cortisol revels in dairy cowsMöstl, E., Sixt, A., Stanek, C.Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift1997The influence of two different methods of claw trimming was evaluated in a herd of 51 dairy cows of Fleckvieh and Braunvieh breed, with an average age of 4.9 years. The conventional farriers method with the cow standing in a stock was compared to the mechanic method using an angled grinding machine, with the cow kept in lying position using a tilted table. A behaviour score was applied and the cortisol level was evaluated in blood serum using an enzyme-immunoassay. The pretrimming basic blood level was median 1.4 ng/ml, increasing significantly to a median value of 37.4 ng/ml at the end of the trimming procedure, The cortisol values were still significantly higher after 24 hours, returning to the preliminary values thereafter. The highest behaviour scale values were obtained during the fixation of the animals in the stock, whilst the highest cortisol levels were obtained at the end of the claw trimming procedure. No difference of cortisol levels were demonstrable between the two methods of claw trimming, also the degree of horn overgrowth had no influence on cortisol levels
An angiographic evaluation of vascular changes in sole lesions in the hooves of cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.An angiographic evaluation of vascular changes in sole lesions in the hooves of cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.British Veterinary Journal1994In an angiographic study of vascular changes in sole lesions in 23 cattle hooves (22 cows and 1 bull), it was shown that hooves with sole haemorrhage at the ulcer site in the outer hind claw had constriction of the lumen of the terminal part of the proper digital artery. Severe constriction or occlusion of the lumen of the terminal part of the proper digital artery was seen in hooves with a developing sole ulcer. An avascular area at the ulcer site was seen in hooves with an early or a fully developed sole ulcer. It is concluded that vascular changes caused by hoof pathology may have an important role in the development of sole ulcers and white line lesions in cattle
Aetiology and pathogenesis of sole lesions causing lameness in cattle: a reviewMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Aetiology and pathogenesis of sole lesions causing lameness in cattle: a reviewMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Veterinary Bulletin1993
Technique of hoof biopsy in cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Technique of hoof biopsy in cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Veterinary Record1993Animals were restrained in a hoof paring crate, hooves were cleaned, pared and thoroughly washed with pevidine solution and the foot anaesthetised by injecting 10 to 15 ml of 2% lignocaine hydrochloride (Lignavet) 2 cm above the interdigital cleft in the midline on the dorsal and plantar aspects. Biopsies were taken from parietal (abaxial) and solar corium in each animal first from the left outer claw and 15 days later from the right outer claw. A hand drill with a 9/32" (7 mm) bit was used to make a hole in the wall horn without puncturing the underlying corium and a 3 mm disposable biopsy punch was used to penetrate into the laminae; after 6-8 rotations it was withdrawn. Biopsy material was fixed immediately. The hole was plugged with sterile gauze while a biopsy was taken from the solar corum in a similar fashion. The holes were finally plugged with Technovit (Kulzer). A single injection of streptomycin and penicillin (Streptopen) was given to reduce infection. Postoperatively the cattle were mildly lame for 2-3 days, no complications were seen after the second set of biopsies were taken 15 days later. The technique was used in 3 dairy cows and 2 bull calves and it is recommended that biopsies should only be taken from one foot at a time
Behaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yardLautenbach, K., Murray, R. D., Singh et alBehaviour of lame and normal dairy cows in cubicles and in a straw yardLautenbach, K., Murray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Veterinary Record1993The behaviour of normal cows in cubicles was compared with that of normal cows in a straw yard and that of lame cows in cubicles. The normal cows in a straw yard lay down for longer in total (9.6 hours vs 6.8 hours) and during the night (8.55 hours vs 4.75 hours) and for significantly longer at a time (3.95 hours vs 2.45 hours) than normal cows in cubicles. The normal cows in a straw yard spent more time lying down and ruminating (5.1 hours) than normal cows in cubicles (3.3 hours). Lame cows in cubicles lay down for significantly longer during the day (3.3 hours) than normal cows in cubicles (2.1 hours). Although lameness did not affect the total time the cows spent in feeding and rumination, lame cows moved about less, and they adopted abnormal postures suggesting discomfort
Behaviour of first lactation and adult dairy cows while housed and at pasture and its relationship with sole lesionsHughes, J. W., Lautenbach, K., Murray et alBehaviour of first lactation and adult dairy cows while housed and at pasture and its relationship with sole lesionsHughes, J. W., Lautenbach, K., Murray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Veterinary Record1993The times spent lying down and standing by first lactation and adult cows while they were housed and while they were at pasture were studied and related during the period of housing to the incidence of sole lesions in first lactation cows. First lactation cows lay down for a shorter time in the early housing period than later. First lactation and adult cows lay down for longer when at pasture. Maximum lying time was significantly longer and the frequency of lying lower on pasture than indoors. The times spent lying and standing and the frequency of lying were related to the incidence of sole lesions. Rumination time was not related to the occurrence of sole lesions although there were significant variations in rumination behaviour while the animals were housed and at pasture. The patterns of lying and other activities of first lactation and adult cows while they were housed were quite different from those while they were at pasture
Behaviour of dairy cows in a straw yard in relation to lamenessHughes, J. W., Lautenbach, K., Murray et alBehaviour of dairy cows in a straw yard in relation to lamenessHughes, J. W., Lautenbach, K., Murray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Veterinary Record1994Lying down and other behavioural activities of dairy cows were studied for three 24-hour periods in a straw yard. The cows spent a total of 13.6 hours in the straw yard and lay down for 9.7 hours. The lying down time in one observation was 10.8 hours and this period may be considered ideal because there was little disturbance during that observation. Significantly more time was spent lying down at night than in the day and significantly more time was spent lying down and ruminating than standing up and ruminating. The total time spent lying down was significantly positively correlated with the time spent lying down and ruminating. Ten hours or more spent lying down may be adequate for proper rest in dairy cattle. Straw yards are better than many cubicles for lying and a longer period spent lying down may be important for the prevention of lameness in dairy cows
Pathogenesis of non-infectious hoof disorders of cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Thrusfield et alPathogenesis of non-infectious hoof disorders of cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Thrusfield, M. V., Ward, W.R.This study describes the role of the changes in weight-bearing on the sole and the effect of endotoxins on the inflammatory response of the corium of the hooves. Three heifers and 2 bull calves 12-18 months of age were used to study weight-bearing. A rubber chip of 1 cm thickness was fixed to the toe of the outer hind claws with a resin, and 2 heifers were kept as controls. The animals were put on a concrete yard for 6-8 h daily and otherwise kept on a straw yard. Six weeks later the animals were slaughtered. Gross pathology showed haemorrhages at the ulcer site and a notch in the dorsal wall was evident. Histopathology of the ulcer site showed parakeratosis and arteriosclerosis of the arterioles. The sole tubules contained non-keratinized material. An ulcer was created in the sole, and a biopsy was taken from the sole and the abaxial wall of the left foot of a further 4 calves of similar age and then 2 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin was given slowly i.v. Serial biopsies were taken and the animals were killed 5-10 weeks later. Haemorrhages were seen in the wall and sole of the feet, especially the hind feet and were more evident in the bull calf. After 5 days, histological examination showed the presence of non-keratinized material in the tubules of the sole and exfoliation of the epidermal cells. At 15 days the epidermal lining of the lamellae had regenerated and the non-keratinized material was evident in the lamellar horn and the tubules of the sole horn. The number of blood vessels in the laminae as well as in the papillae increased markedly compared with the initial biopsy. After slaughter histopathology of the hooves showed non-keratinised material in the tubules of the sole horn, totally occluded blood vessels and hyperplastic changes in the laminae. It was concluded that laminitis may not correctly describe the lesions seen in the sole in so-called subclinical laminitis. Endotoxin can induce diffuse pododermatitis (laminitis) in cattle and the resultant poor quality horn production may predispose to other sole lesions. Primary changes in weight-bearing can cause vascular changes which may be responsible for haemorrhages at the ulcer site and development of sole lesions
Gross and histopathological study of endotoxin-induced hoof lesions in cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Gross and histopathological study of endotoxin-induced hoof lesions in cattleMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Journal of Comparative Pathology1994Infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin in 4 young cattle resulted in sole and wall haemorrhages that were more severe in the hind than in the fore feet. Histopathological examination of biopsies taken 5 days after infusion showed separation at the tips of the laminae, changes in the vascularity of the dermal papillae and laminae, lightly stained material in the sole horn and degeneration of the epidermal cells of the laminae and papillae. Later, densely stained material in the tubules of the sole, atherosclerosis in all parts of the corium and proliferative changes in the laminae were seen. It is concluded that endotoxin can induce diffuse aseptic pododermatitis in cattle, characterized by initial degenerative changes in the papillae and laminae followed by proliferative changes in the laminae and atherosclerosis in all parts of the corium
Histopathological and Morphometric Studies On the Hooves of Dairy and Beef-Cattle in Relation to Overgrown Sole and LaminitisMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Histopathological and Morphometric Studies On the Hooves of Dairy and Beef-Cattle in Relation to Overgrown Sole and LaminitisMurray, R. D., Singh, S. S., Ward, W.R.Journal of Comparative Pathology1992
Measurement of hoof sole thickness by radiography: A possible method of measuring sole growth rate in cattleMurray, R., Singh, S., Ward, W.Measurement of hoof sole thickness by radiography: A possible method of measuring sole growth rate in cattleMurray, R., Singh, S., Ward, W.Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery1997Measurement of sole thickness in cattle by radiography was carried our on 12 hind feet collected from a slaughter house. Taking into account the radiographic magnification, the sole thickness was calculated, which was closely related to the actual thickness. Results of the pilot study indicate that the method can be used to measure sale growth in cattle
Incidence of lameness in dairy cows and buffaloes in Punjab stateGhuman, S. P. S., Prabhakar, S., Singh et alIncidence of lameness in dairy cows and buffaloes in Punjab stateGhuman, S. P. S., Prabhakar, S., Singh, S., Singh, S. S.Indian Veterinary Journal1998In 1959 cattle and 257 buffaloes examined, the incidence of lameness was 8.10 and 3.89%, respectively. Interdigital wounds (in 28.3%) and overgrown hooves (in 20.1%) were the commonest findings in the cattle, in which lameness was more prevalent in the 3-5 years age group, in Holstein Friesians (63.8%), and in hind limbs. Lameness in buffaloes was found more (40%) in animals over 5 years of age
Biochemical status and progesterone during lameness and infertility in dairy cowsGhuman, S. P. S., Prabhakar, S., Singh et alBiochemical status and progesterone during lameness and infertility in dairy cowsGhuman, S. P. S., Prabhakar, S., Singh, S.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences1998
Incidence of reproductive disorders in relation to lameness in cows and buffaloesGhuman, S. P. S., Prabhakar, S., Singh et alIncidence of reproductive disorders in relation to lameness in cows and buffaloesGhuman, S. P. S., Prabhakar, S., Singh, S.Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction1998Cattle (n=1959) and buffaloes (n=257) were examined for lameness and reproductive disorders at dairy farms in Punjab State, India [date not given]. 158 (8.1%) cattle and 10 (3.9%) buffaloes were lame. 56.6% of the lame cattle had reproductive disorders. Anoestrus (23.97%) and repeat breeding (16.9%) were the most common disorders. Cystic ovaries, cervicitis, abortion and placental retention were also observed. Interdigital wounds, laminitis and overgrown hooves had a significant influence on the reproductive performance of the cows. Lameness had a minimal effect on the reproductive performance of the buffaloes
Fluorosis in Dairy-Cows – Clinicopathological FindingsDogra, R. K. S., Singh, G. R., Singh et alFluorosis in Dairy-Cows – Clinicopathological FindingsDogra, R. K. S., Singh, G. R., Singh, J. L., Swarup, D.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences1995An outbreak of fluorosis was recorded in dairy cattle of Aarey Milk Colony, Bombay. Of the 638 cows, 88 manifested symptoms of hind limb lameness, reluctance to move, skeletal deformities, bony exostoses, and wasting of main mass of hind quarter and shoulder muscles. Slight to marked dental lesions, loss in milk production, intermittent diarrhoea and emaciation were also present. The affected cows had significantly high concentration of serum and urine fluoride, serum alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen and creatinine, and low haemoglobin content. Higher amount of fluoride in mineral mixture supplement (952.92+/-1.49 ppm) was suspected to be the principal source of excessive flouride
Clinical Observations and Diagnosis of Fluorosis in Dairy-Cows and BuffalosSingh, J. L., Swarup, D.Clinical Observations and Diagnosis of Fluorosis in Dairy-Cows and BuffalosSingh, J. L., Swarup, D.Agri-Practice1995Disease investigation on suspected cases of fluorosis in 88 cows and 65 buffaloes indicated that lameness, palpable bony lesions, and poor performance with or without dental lesions can provide initial evidence of the disease. These signs may, however, be inconclusive without supportive evidence of excessive fluoride intake. Urine fluoride estimation was found to be a convenient way to strengthen a clinical diagnosis
Lameness in cattle – A reviewAithal, H. P., Amarpal,, Kinjavdekar et alLameness in cattle – A reviewAithal, H. P., Amarpal,, Kinjavdekar, P., Singh, G. R.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences2005Lameness in cattle has considerable economical and animal welfare implications. The important causes of lameness in cattle include laminitis and other foot disorders, arthritis, fractures and affections of tendons and ligaments. Laminitis is one of the leading causes of lameness in cattle. The disease has a multifactorial origin but its pathogenesis is still obscure. improving housing, management, nutritional practices and supplementation of trace elements, minerals and biotin may reduce the incidence of laminitis. Sole ulcers, foot rot, PDD, vertical fissures, interdigital hyperplasia, horizontal fissures, and white line disease are the other important foot affections responsible for lameness. Arthritis may be either infectious or non-infectious (degenerative joint disease) in nature. Treatment of infectious arthritis includes parenteral or intraarticular administration of antibiotics, joint drainage, and joint lavage by mild antiseptics and replacement of infected synovia with healthy fluid, intraarticular DMSO. The management of DJD is generally unproductive. However, NSAID's allotransplatation of synovia, intraarticular hyaluronidase and low levels of ultrasound and diathermy have been found to have some beneficial effects. Traction at the time of dystocia, stamping by the dam and fall are the major causes of fracture in young calves. However, vehicular accidents, fall and fight with other animals contribute to most of the fractures in adult animals. The factors like type of fracture, the age and weight of the animal, the temperament of the animal, post-operative managernent of the patients and selection of appropriate techniques dictate the success of fracture management in cattle. Nevertheless, fractures in young animals and adult cattle below 250 kg of body weight can be managed with a reasonably good success rate. Contractures and injuries to the tendons of the digital flaxor, gastrocnemius and peroneus tertius muscles are commonly encountered in bovines. Different types of suturing techniques, grafts and implants and measures to prevent peritendinous adhesions have been used successfully for the repair of tendon injuries. Most of the knowledge available on lameness especially due to foot disorders in cattle is derived from the work done in Europe and America and very little information is available on indigenous cattle. Studies should, therefore, be conducted on indigenous cattle to correctly judge the losses to the farmers on account of lameness in cattle and to suggest suitable remedial measures.
Effects of differential supplementation of fatty acids during the peripartum and breeding periods of Holstein cows: I. Uterine...Carvalho, T. S. M., Francisco, N. et alEffects of differential supplementation of fatty acids during the peripartum and breeding periods of Holstein cows: I. Uterine and metabolic responses, reproduction, and lactationCarvalho, T. S. M., Francisco, N., Jenkins, T. C., Santos, J. E. P., Silvestre, F. T., Staples, C. R., Thatcher, W. W.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Comfort, health and production: Portuguese dairy farmers talk about animal welfareBorlido Santos, J. et alComfort, health and production: Portuguese dairy farmers talk about animal welfareBorlido Santos, J., Magalhães-Sant’Ana, M., Olsson, I. A. S., Silva, S.The ethics of consumption2013
Effects of weekly regrouping of prepartum dairy cows on metabolic, health, reproductive, and productive parametersChebel, R. C., Endres, M. I., Fetrow et alEffects of weekly regrouping of prepartum dairy cows on metabolic, health, reproductive, and productive parametersChebel, R. C., Endres, M. I., Fetrow, J., Mendonça, L. G. D., Moraes, J. G. N., Nakagawa, G., Scanavez, A. A., Silva, P. R. B.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Effects of weekly regrouping of prepartum dairy cows on innate immune response and antibody concentrationBallou, M. A., Chebel, R. C., Endres et alEffects of weekly regrouping of prepartum dairy cows on innate immune response and antibody concentrationBallou, M. A., Chebel, R. C., Endres, M. I., Haines, D., Mendonça, L. G. D., Moraes, J. G. N., Nakagawa, G., Scanavez, A. A., Silva, P. R. B., Walcheck, B.Journal of Dairy Science2013
A clinical trial to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite and oxytetracycline on the healing of digital dermatitis lesions in...Atayde, I. B., Borges, G. T., Borges et alA clinical trial to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite and oxytetracycline on the healing of digital dermatitis lesions in cattleAtayde, I. B., Borges, G. T., Borges, J. R. J., Floravanti, M. C. S., Silva, C. A., Silva, L. A. F.Canadian Veterinary Journal-Revue Veterinaire Canadienne2005The increased frequency of diseases, especially those of the hoof, cause economic losses, such as premature culling of affected animals, decreased milk production, weight loss, reduced fertility, and the high costs of treatment. A great variety of hoof conditions may affect cattle, one of them is digital dermatitis. These conditions are probably due to multiple factorial diseases and present with similar clinical signs. Bovine lameness is typically treated by foot trimming and debridment of the lesions, coupled when necessary with systemic antibiotics and therapeutic footbaths, which results in a clinical cure in the majority of the cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the topical action of sodium hypochlorite associated with the systemic use of oxytetracycline for the treatment of wounds clinically diagnosed as bovine digital dermatitis. One hundred and twenty Holstein cattle varying ages from 1 to 9 y and presenting the clinical signs of digital dermatitis, were used in this study. Group 1 (G1) received topical treatment with a 1% sodium hypochlorite footbath twice a day for 30 d and 4 treatments of parenteral oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg bodyweight, IM, q48h). Group 2 (G2) received only the topical treatment with 1% sodium hypochlorite, as described for G1. Group 3 (G3) received only with parenteral oxytetracycline, as described for G1. Group 4 (G4) was treated exclusively with a dicloro divynil pirrolidona, ortoiododimetil, para-nitofenil-fosforotioato in a vegetal tar-based ointment, immediately after the surgery. After 45 d, the recovery rates were as follows: G1, 86.67%; G2, 73.33%; G3, 56.67%; and G4, 50%. The surgical treatment of digital dermatitis with subsequent treatment with oxytetracycline systemically and 1% sodium hypochlorite topically was the most effective for the convalescence of cattle bearing wounds similar to digital dermatitis.
Evaluation of the association of sulfadoxine and trimethoprim after operating on cattle with pododermatitisBorges, G. T., Cunha, P. M. J. et alEvaluation of the association of sulfadoxine and trimethoprim after operating on cattle with pododermatitisBorges, G. T., Cunha, P. M. J., Fioravanti, M. C. S., Moraes, R. R., Silva, L. A. F.A Hora Veterinaria2000
The prevalence of locomotor system diseases in cattle raised in extensive and semi-intensive production system from different...Borges, N. C., Cunha, P. H. J., Eurides et alThe prevalence of locomotor system diseases in cattle raised in extensive and semi-intensive production system from different regions of Goias StateBorges, N. C., Cunha, P. H. J., Eurides, D., Fioravanti, M. C. S., Moraes, R. R., Silva, C. A., Silva, L. A. F.Veterinaria Noticias2001
Anaerobic bacterial species isolated from bovines with pododermatitisAcypreste, C. S., Fioravanti, M. C. S. et alAnaerobic bacterial species isolated from bovines with pododermatitisAcypreste, C. S., Fioravanti, M. C. S., Mesquita, A. J., Silva, C. A., Silva, L. A. F.Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria E Zootecnia1999The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the anaerobic bacteria species in bovine with different degrees of pododermatitis. Sixty bovines were divided into four groups of 15 as follows: group I included healthy animals, used as control; group II with animals in the initial phase of the process; group Ill, with animals displaying interdigital skin hyperplasia and group IV with animals with footrot. Interdigital tissue fragments were collected and processed for isolation and identification of anaerobic agents. The bacteria species isolated were: Dichelobacter nodosus in groups II, III and IV and Fusobacterium necrophorum only: in groups III and IV, with frequencies of 26.7%, 6.7%, and 20.0% for the former and 6.7% and 13.3% for the latter, respectively. In addition, Fusobacterium symbiosum was present in 40.0% of group 1, 6.7% of group II, 13.3% of group III and 13.3% of group IV; Bacteroides sp. in 6.7% of groups I and IV; Bacteroides ruminatus in 33.3% of group I, 6.7% of group II, 33.3% of group III and 13.3% of group IV; Bacteroides oralis in 6.7% of group III, and Fusobacterium mortiferum in 6.7% of group IV
Clinical characterization and treatment of bovine pododermatitisda Silva, L. A. F., Eurides, D. et alClinical characterization and treatment of bovine pododermatitisda Silva, L. A. F., Eurides, D., Fioravanti, M. C. S., Jayme, V. de, Silva, C. A., Silva, L. A. F.Veterinaria Noticias1999A total of 45 cattle of various breeds, ages and both sexes with pododermatitis were studied. 15 cattle in the initial stage of the disease were treated with i.m. injection of enrofloxacin and bathing of the foot in antiseptic. 15 animals with vegetative interdigital pododermatitis were treated by removal of the fibrous area, cauterization and topical application of a plant extract. Application of the plant extract was alternated with bathing in antiseptic. Three i.m. treatments with oxytetracycline were used at 3 day intervals. Group 3 had necrotic pododermatitis. In 11 animals the necrotic areas were removed and cauterized and treatment proceeded as for group 2. In 4 animals, the second and third phalanges were removed under local anaesthetic. The wound was treated with oxytetracycline and nitrofurazone. Four i.m. injections of penicillin were given i.m. at 48-h intervals. All animals recovered within 30 days
Early mammary gland metabolic and immune responses during natural-like and forceful drying-off in high-yielding dairy cowsLeitner, Gabriel, Merin, Uzi, Shapiro et alEarly mammary gland metabolic and immune responses during natural-like and forceful drying-off in high-yielding dairy cowsLeitner, Gabriel, Merin, Uzi, Shapiro, Fira, Silanikove, NissimJournal of Dairy Science2013
Efficacy of Iodine Compounds Against the Causative Organisms of Bovine FootrotBartle, S. J., Preston, R. L., Siddiqui et alEfficacy of Iodine Compounds Against the Causative Organisms of Bovine FootrotBartle, S. J., Preston, R. L., Siddiqui, M. M.Journal of Animal Science1992
Planning health care on dairy farmsSibley, R.Planning health care on dairy farmsSibley, R.In Practice2000
Conservative management of radial paralysis in ruminantsDilipkumar, D., Shivaprakash, B.Conservative management of radial paralysis in ruminantsDilipkumar, D., Shivaprakash, B.Indian Veterinary Journal1995
Footrot in Awassis and Their Crosses with East Friesian SheepShimshony, A.Footrot in Awassis and Their Crosses with East Friesian SheepShimshony, A.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1989
Concurrent spirochaetal infections of the feet and colon of cattle in JapanIshii, R., Ishikawa, Y., Kadota, K. et alConcurrent spirochaetal infections of the feet and colon of cattle in JapanIshii, R., Ishikawa, Y., Kadota, K., Maeda, T., Ogihara, Y., Ohya, T., Shibahara, T.Australian Veterinary Journal2002Objective To describe spirochaetal infections in the feet and colon of cattle affected with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) and colitis respectively. Procedure Eighty-two slaughtered animals were macroscopically examined for the presence of PDD. Tissues of two cattle affected with PDD were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and bacteriology for spirochaetal infection. Results Two adult cattle (a 2-year-old beef bullock and 7-year-old Holstein dairy cow) were affected with PDD. Histologically, numerous argyrophilic and Gram-negative filamentous or spiral spirochaetes were found deep in the PDD lesions. Epithelial and goblet cell hyperplasia and oedema of the lamina propria mucosa with macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the caecum and colon in the cattle. Numerous spirochaetes were present in the crypts and some had invaded epithelial and goblet cells, and caused their degeneration. Immunohistochemically the organisms stained positively with polyclonal antisera against Treponema pallidum and Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. Ultrastructurally, the intestinal spirochaetes were similar to the spirochaetes in PDD. They were 6 to 14 pm long, 0.2 to 0.3 mum wide and had 4 to 6 coils and 9 axial filaments per cell. Campylobacter species were isolated from the PDD and intestinal lesions, but spirochaetes were not. Conclusion Concurrent infections with morphologically similar spirochaetal organisms may occur in the feet and colon of cattle in Japan.
Reproductive challenges facing the cattle industry at the beginning of the 21(st) centuryDobson, H., Sheldon, I. M.Reproductive challenges facing the cattle industry at the beginning of the 21(st) centuryDobson, H., Sheldon, I. M.Reproduction2002The aim of this review is to pinpoint the areas that require further research for greatest impact to improve the efficiency of dairy and beef production. Increased knowledge about the principal causes of reduced fertility is essential. Increases in milk yield have been at the expense of reduced fertility in dairy cows and although diet has a major impact, the precise interaction between nutrition and reproduction still needs to be characterized in both beef and dairy cows. Furthermore, during periods of inadequate nutrition or stress, the intensity of oestrus is reduced by inadequate exposure to oestradiol. However, it is still unclear which pheromones are involved at oestrus, how synthesis is controlled and how pheromones are detected in herd-mates. GnRH may be involved in behaviour but the brain centres that translate hormonal messages are unknown. Attempts to overcome poor oestrous detection include measurements of milk progesterone, telemetric pressure detectors and devices that record the extra activity at oestrus. Substitution of heat detection by 'hormone treatment remedies' has met strong consumer resistance in Europe. The creation of larger cattle units and increased movements world-wide render herds more susceptible to infectious agents, such as Neospora, Leptospira, Trypanosoma and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDv), but it is unclear how other clinical conditions, such as lameness or endometritis, also interfere with ovarian function. The future of dominant follicles selected within 14 days after parturition is crucial - normal ovulation, prolonged persistence or atresia. Calving carries the greatest risk in the reproductive life of a cow and yet little work has focused on reducing the frequency of this event. For dairy cows, a greater understanding about induced or extended lactation is required. For beef animals, precise induction of twinning and nutritional adjustments could produce two offspring per pregnancy. At the start of pregnancy, the trophoblast produces interferon to prevent luteolysis, but the immunological implications are unknown and it is not clear how the rest of pregnancy is maintained. Profiles of pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) have increased understanding of embryonic death. However, 25% of cows in abattoirs are pregnant, even though 30% of involuntary cullings are 'for failing to conceive'. Clearly, this is an area of wastage that requires urgent resolution. It is unknown why undernutrition at the time of insemination or in early pregnancy leads to delayed births, low fetal weights and later adverse health. At the end of pregnancy, the fetus controls the onset of parturition, but very little is known about the biochemical control of cervical dilation and placental separation. On the male side, bulls are selected for optimal freezability of semen; however, there is as yet no reliable predictor for semen fertility. Methods for accurately pre-determining the sex of both semen and embryos will revolutionize the dairy and beef industries.
Digital and Interdigital Dermatitis in Dairy-CattleSheldon, I. M.Digital and Interdigital Dermatitis in Dairy-CattleSheldon, I. M.Veterinary Record1994
Digital and interdigital dermatitis in dairy cattle [letter]Sheldon, I. M.Digital and interdigital dermatitis in dairy cattle [letter]Sheldon, I. M.Veterinary Record1994
Eighth Scientific Congress, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 15-17 November, 1998El Tahlawy, M. R., Mahmoud, M. R. et alEighth Scientific Congress, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 15-17 November, 1998El Tahlawy, M. R., Mahmoud, M. R., Shehab, M. M.74 papers from the Congress are presented in 2 volumes
The master hoof (claw) care problem: summary statistics from 3 yearsGonzalez-Sagues, A., Shearer, J. K. et alThe master hoof (claw) care problem: summary statistics from 3 yearsGonzalez-Sagues, A., Shearer, J. K., Shearer, L. C., van Amstel, S. R.
Clinical Diagnosis of Foot and Leg Lameness in CattleBrodersen, Bruce W., Shearer, Jan K. et alClinical Diagnosis of Foot and Leg Lameness in CattleBrodersen, Bruce W., Shearer, Jan K., Van Amstel, Sarel R.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2012
Functional and corrective claw trimmingShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Functional and corrective claw trimmingShearer, J. K., van Amstel, S. R.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2001The biomechanics of weight bearing in dairy cows, combined with modern feeding practices and housing systems common to intensive dairy production, often lead to claw horn overgrowth and overburdening of the lateral claw of rear and medial claw of front feet. Lf not corrected, overburdening predisposes to claw disorders, particularly sole ulcers and white-line disease. The purpose of functional trimming is to correct claw horn overgrowth, thereby reestablishing appropriate distribution of the cow's body weight within and between the claws of each foot. The objectives of claw trimming are to correct lesions of the claw capsule by adjusting weight bearing and to remove loose and damaged claw horn tissue. Properly applied, the principles of functional and corrective trimming are effective measures for treatment, control, and prevention of lameness disorders.
Assessment and Management of Pain Associated with Lameness in CattleCoetzee, Johann F., Shearer, Jan K. et alAssessment and Management of Pain Associated with Lameness in CattleCoetzee, Johann F., Shearer, Jan K., Stock, Matthew L., Van Amstel, Sarel R.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2013
Papillomatous digital dermatitis: Treatment and control strategies – Part IIElliott, J. B., Hernández, J., Shearer et alPapillomatous digital dermatitis: Treatment and control strategies – Part IIElliott, J. B., Hernández, J., Shearer, J. K.Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian1998Although effective, antibiotic treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) requires extralabel use and there is a (rare) potential for drug residue problems. Practitioners should therefore be aware of nonantibiotic treatment choices. With few exceptions, most of the commercial nonantibiotic formulations marketed for the treatment and/or control of PDD do not have proven efficacy. For this reason, a successful PDD control regimen requires careful consideration of predisposing factors associated with housing, environment, and management. A recently introduced nonantibiotic tripler compound, however, has been found to he effective in short-term trials and may offer a residue-free treatment and control option. Because lesions tend to recur regardless of treatment, periodic retreatment is necessary. In addition, because the precise causative agent(s) and environmental factors that support PDD's propagation are unknown, complete eradication does not seem possible for most herds. However, consistent and timely application of effective treatments combined with appropriate environmental management can provide manageable control. Part I of this two-part presentation reviewed antibiotic methods of treating and controlling PDD, including the use of footbaths, footbathing agents, and topical antibiotic sprays. This article discusses the nonantibiotic options for treating and controlling PDD; establishing efficacy through topical treatment trials; recurrence rates; reasons for treatment failure; disease resistance; potential for residues; and housing, environment, and management considerations.
Efficacy of Two Modified Nonantibiotic Formulations (Victory) for Treatment of Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis in Dairy CowsHernández, J., Shearer, J. K.Efficacy of Two Modified Nonantibiotic Formulations (Victory) for Treatment of Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis in Dairy CowsHernández, J., Shearer, J. K.J Dairy Sci2000A field trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of the original and two modified formulations of Victory and oxytetracycline among dairy cows affected with papillomatous digital dermatitis. Seventy-eight cows with papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups (A, B, C, D). Cows in group A (n = 19) were treated with an oxytetracycline solution; cows in group B (n = 22) were treated with the original formulation of Victory containing soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent; cows in group C (n = 17) were treated with a modified formulation of Victory containing reduced soluble copper and peroxide compound but increased levels of cationic agent; and cows in group D (n = 20) were treated with a modified formulation of Victory containing levels of soluble copper and cationic agent equivalent to the original formulation but with reduced concentrations of peroxide compound. Cows were examined 7, 14 and 28 d after initial treatment; during each examination, pain and lesion scores were recorded. The modified nonantibiotic formulation used in cows in group C appeared to be the most effective for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis. Proportions of cows with signs of pain were significantly lower among cows in group C, compared with cows in group A. Similarly, pain scores were significantly lower among cows in treatment group C, compared to cows in group A. The low efficacy of oxytetracycline was an unexpected result and may have clinical implications associated with possible antibiotic resistance in dairy cows affected with papillomatous digital dermatitis.
Observations from Florida field trials on topical spray treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitisHernández, J., Shearer, J. K.Observations from Florida field trials on topical spray treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitisHernández, J., Shearer, J. K.
Papillomatous digital dermatitis: Treatment and control strategies – Part IElliott, J. B., Shearer, J. K.Papillomatous digital dermatitis: Treatment and control strategies – Part IElliott, J. B., Shearer, J. K.Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian1998International experience established that topical treatment of PDD lesions in individual animals with an oxytetracycline-gentian violet combination product was effective. In the United States, where the combination product is not available, parenteral and topical antibiotic treatment under a bandage have proven to be effective methods for managing PDD lesions in individual cows. Because of the sheer numbers of animals that may be affected in a large herd, however, alternate treatment and control schemes are required. Dairies have traditionally used walk-through footbaths to accomplish the objectives of treatment and control of lameness problems, including PDD, in herd situations. Optimal success in the treatment of PDD seems to depend largely on the management of these treatment devices. Studies indicate that common disinfectants and antibiotics used in footbaths may be quite rapidly neutralized by organic matter. Formalin seems to retain its effectiveness longer than most footbathingagents but raises significant concerns for worker safety. In addition, while formalin seems to have same therapeutic benefit against PDD, its effectiveness pales in ccom parison with antibiotic treatment. Cost and, in some cases, failure to control PDD by footbathing have encouraged some producers to implement topical spray treatment strategies. Field trials with topical oxytetracycline, lincomycin/spectinomycin, and lincomycin have shown these products to be very effective in such treatment regimens. Topical spray treatment may be performed in the milking parlor or in feedbarn or freestall barn lock-ups. The latter may afford improved labor efficiency and less potential for a drug or chemical residue. Treating PDD in the milking parlor permits cleaning and examination of lesions as necessary
Lameness of dairy cattle: consequences and causesShearer, J. K.Lameness of dairy cattle: consequences and causesShearer, J. K.Bovine Practitioner1998
Control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds using a topical spray application of oxytetracyclineElliott, J., Injoque, R., Shearer, J.Control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds using a topical spray application of oxytetracyclineElliott, J., Injoque, R., Shearer, J.Journal of Dairy Science1995
Effect of oxytetracycline topical spray treatment on prevalence of digital dermatitis in 4 herdsElliott, J., Giesy, R., Injoque, R. et alEffect of oxytetracycline topical spray treatment on prevalence of digital dermatitis in 4 herdsElliott, J., Giesy, R., Injoque, R., Shearer, J.Journal of Dairy Science1995
Lameness in dairy cattle: Laminitis, claw disease, digital dermatitis, and foot rotShearer, J.Lameness in dairy cattle: Laminitis, claw disease, digital dermatitis, and foot rotShearer, J.Journal of Dairy Science1996
Feed delivery and bunk management aspects of laminitis in dairy herds fed total mixed rationsShaver, R. D.Feed delivery and bunk management aspects of laminitis in dairy herds fed total mixed rationsShaver, R. D.
Clinico-epidemiological features of bovine fluorosis in PunjabRandhawa, C. S., Randhawa, S. S. et alClinico-epidemiological features of bovine fluorosis in PunjabRandhawa, C. S., Randhawa, S. S., Sharma, S. P.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences199754 cows and 465 buffaloes from villages in 4 districts of Punjab endemic for human fluorosis were subjected to clinical examination to study the prevalence of fluorosis [at an unspecified date]. The prevalence was 9.55, 5.45, 3.50 and 1.96% in Jhunir (Mansa), Bajakhana (Bathinda), Rure Ke Kalan (Sangrur) and Kathera (Ferozepur), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 7.71%. The disease was more common in buffaloes (97.5%) than cows (2.5%). Season, age, physiological status, breed and milk yield affected the occurrence of disease. Fluorosis was associated with toxic fluoride level (3.14¤0.42 ppm) in underground water. Dental mottling, lameness and higher respiration and heart rates were common symptoms. Pallor of mucosae was noticed in severely affected animals. Reproductive disorders of prolonged postpartum anoestrus and increased incidence of vaginal prolapse were also recorded
Bovine lameness due to a tick biteKadoli, N., Kasigasi, S., Shannon, D.Bovine lameness due to a tick biteKadoli, N., Kasigasi, S., Shannon, D.Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa1994The case is reported of a zebu cow in Uganda which became lame in its left front leg. Examination of a piece of skin removed from around a small lesion in the most painful area on the leg revealed the hypostome of a tick, and after removal of the skin, the cow rapidly recovered. One of the authors reports having seen an embedded tick hypostome associated with lameness quite commonly in sheep in Nigeria
A survey to identify economic opportunities for smallholder dairy farms in BangladeshAzizunnesa,, Bennett, T., Goodger et alA survey to identify economic opportunities for smallholder dairy farms in BangladeshAzizunnesa,, Bennett, T., Goodger, W. J., Hossein, M. S., Nordlund, K., Shamsuddin, M.Tropical Animal Health and Production2006
Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithmsCabrera, Victor, Fricke, Paul, Guenther et alPrediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithmsCabrera, Victor, Fricke, Paul, Guenther, Jerry, Page, David, Shahinfar, Saleh, Weigel, KentJournal of Dairy Science2014
The effects of sex, breed and weight on the health of beef cattle after transportDell' Orto, V., Galmozzi, G., Ripamonti et alThe effects of sex, breed and weight on the health of beef cattle after transportDell' Orto, V., Galmozzi, G., Ripamonti, G., Sgoifo, R. C. A.Congresso Nazionale1998
Hourly and seasonal variations in the area preferences of dairy cows in freestall housingSeyfi, S. UzalHourly and seasonal variations in the area preferences of dairy cows in freestall housingSeyfi, S. UzalJournal of Dairy Science2013
Peripheral white blood cell counts throughout pregnancy in non-aborting Neospora caninum-seronegative and seropositive...Abdelfattah-Hassan, A., Almería, S. et alPeripheral white blood cell counts throughout pregnancy in non-aborting Neospora caninum-seronegative and seropositive high-producing dairy cows in a Holstein Friesian herdAbdelfattah-Hassan, A., Almería, S., Garcia-Ispierto, I., López-Gatius, F., Serrano, B., Yániz, J. L.Research in Veterinary Science2011
Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cowsSepúlveda-Varas, P., von Keyserlingk et alLying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cowsSepúlveda-Varas, P., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2014Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days following calving compared with healthy cows; multiparous severely lame cows spent more time lying down (1.7 h longer per day) compared with multiparous cows that were nonlame. Clinically lame cows had fewer lying bouts per day and these bouts were of longer duration than healthy nonlame cows. In summary, changes in lying behavior after calving were associated with postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.
Changes in behaviour of dairy cows with clinical mastitisProudfoot, Kathryn L., Sepúlveda-Varas et alChanges in behaviour of dairy cows with clinical mastitisProudfoot, Kathryn L., Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar, von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G., Weary, Daniel M.Applied Animal Behaviour ScienceBehaviour is an important tool for recognizing illness in animals. One of the most common diseases in dairy cattle is clinical mastitis. Evidence suggests that cows with this disease show sickness behaviours, but little is known about the progression of behavioural changes before and after the disease becomes clinical. The aims of this study were to determine changes in feeding and competitive behaviour at the feed bunk of dairy cows before the diagnosis of clinical mastitis and determine the effect of intramammary antibiotic treatment on behaviour. Dry matter intake, feeding time, number of visits to the feeder, rate of feed intake, number of replacements occurring at the feeder (when one cow displaced a feeding cow and took her position at the feed bin) and the percent of intake during peak feeding time were measured daily in eight cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis in one quarter of the udder. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed based on daily rectal body temperature as well as condition of the foremilk and udder assessed by the milker at each milking from calving until 30 days in milk. Starting on the day of diagnosis, cows received an intramammary antibiotic twice daily for three consecutive days. During the 5 days period before diagnosis, cows decreased feed intake by 1.2 kg/d (SE = 0.2, P < 0.001) but showed no other changes in feeding behaviour during this time. The frequency of competitive replacements at the feeder (slope = −2.3 no./d, SE = 1.0, P = 0.04) and the percentage of intake at peak feeding time (slope = −1.8%, SE = 0.6, P = 0.008) were lower compared to day of diagnosis. Following treatment, cows immediately increased feed intake, feeding time and competitive replacements at the feeder. These results show that cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis exhibit signs of sickness behaviour in the days before diagnosis, and that these behaviours rapidly recover in the days after treatment.
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative organisms in livestock: An emerging problem for human health?Endimiani, Andrea, Hilty, Markus et alExtended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative organisms in livestock: An emerging problem for human health?Endimiani, Andrea, Hilty, Markus, Perreten, Vincent, Seiffert, Salome N.Drug Resistance Updates2013
Reasons for culling in French Holstein cowsBareille, N., Beaudeau, F., Fourichon et alReasons for culling in French Holstein cowsBareille, N., Beaudeau, F., Fourichon, C., Seegers, H.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1998The study describes the profiles of culled cows in order to assess the possible contribution to economic losses due to health disorders. Data regarding dates of birth, final calving and culling, parity at culling, milk yield at the two first test-days of the final lactation and reason(s) for culling were collected in a 5-year survey, carried out from 1989 to 1994 in 84 commercial Holstein farms in western France. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between parity, calving-to-culling interval, milk yield and eight groups of primary culling reasons (i.e. udder disorders; infertility or reproductive disorders; lameness or foot/leg defects; emergency culling reasons; other health disorders; low milk yield; sales for dairy purpose; and other voluntary culling reasons), Out of a total of 5133 culled cows, the proportions of culls, for each of these groups of reasons, were 12.4, 78.4, 2.7, 3.9, 4.6, 16.7, 5.9, and 25.4%, respectively. Cows culled for udder disorders left the herd earlier in lactation and were more frequently at parities 4-6 than cows culled for voluntary reasons. In contrast, cows culled for infertility were younger and culled later within lactation. They were also higher yielding cows than those culled for other reasons. Cows culled for lameness were similar to those of the voluntarily culling group. Cows culled for emergency reasons were more frequently younger cows in early lactation. Cows culled for other health disorders left the herd early in lactation, but at a higher parity than the voluntarily culled cows. These results suggest that most of the culls related to health could be contributing to economic loss. However, special priority should be given to reduce culling for reproductive problems, which is the most costly exit reason. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
Effects of parity, stage of lactation and culling reason on the commercial carcass weight of French Holstein cowsBareille, N., Beaudeau, F., Seegers, H.Effects of parity, stage of lactation and culling reason on the commercial carcass weight of French Holstein cowsBareille, N., Beaudeau, F., Seegers, H.Livestock Production Science1998Data were collected on 4546 Holstein cows culled from 79 French commercial herds during 1989 to 1994. Average net carcass weight was 309.4¤35.7 kg. The carcass weights of cows culled during the first lactation were lower than those of multiparous cows (299.0 and 312.7 kg, respectively). Adjusted effects of calving-to-culling interval on carcass weight were larger in primiparous than in multiparous cows. In primiparous cows, carcass weight increased with age at first calving (P<0.001). Locomotor disorders, accidents and health disorders (other than reproductive and udder disorders) were associated with lower carcass weights (P<0.001). Infertility as a culling reason was associated with the highest carcass weights. The existence of a fattening period was associated with a 19-20 kg increase in carcass weight. A large variation between farms was also noted
Temperature and Moisture Conditions in Livestock Buildings in Northern EuropeGroot Koerkamp, P. W. G., Hartung, J. et alTemperature and Moisture Conditions in Livestock Buildings in Northern EuropeGroot Koerkamp, P. W. G., Hartung, J., Holden, M. R., Johnsen, J. O., Linkert, K. H., Metz, J. H. M., Pedersen, S., Phillips, V. R., Schröder, M., Seedorf, J., Short, J. L., Sneath, R. W., Takai, H., Uenk, G. H., Wathes, C. M., White, R. P.Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research1998From August 1993 to December 1995 a survey of the temperature and moisture conditions was carried out in 329 livestock buildings in Northern Europe. Mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values of dry bulb air temperature and relative humidity (RH) in cattle, pig and poultry houses were measured over 24 h in each building. Indoor air temperature and RH were generally in agreement with recommended values with few adverse consequences for health or production. Nevertheless, high air temperatures occurred occasionally in summer, indicating the limits of control of temperature in mechanically ventilated buildings. Naturally ventilated houses were more influenced by the prevailing climate.
Prevalence and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort in New Zealand veterinariansFirth, Elwyn C., Legg, Stephen J. et alPrevalence and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort in New Zealand veterinariansFirth, Elwyn C., Legg, Stephen J., Scuffham, Andrew M., Stevenson, Mark A.Applied Ergonomics2010
Ozonized autoemotherapy, a new method to treat acute interdigital phlegmon. A comparison with centiofur and oxytetracyclineAblondi, M., Ansaloni, F., Pogliacomi et alOzonized autoemotherapy, a new method to treat acute interdigital phlegmon. A comparison with centiofur and oxytetracyclineAblondi, M., Ansaloni, F., Pogliacomi, B., Scrollavezza, P.2000
Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking systemGarcia, S. C., Kerrisk, K. L., Scott et alInfluence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking systemGarcia, S. C., Kerrisk, K. L., Scott, V. E., Thomson, P. C.Journal of Dairy Science2014
A simple formula for predicting claw volume of cattleGreenough, P. R., Naylor, J. M., Scott et alA simple formula for predicting claw volume of cattleGreenough, P. R., Naylor, J. M., Scott, T. D.Veterinary Journal1999
Diagnosis and treatment of joint infections in 39 adult sheepSargison, N. D., Scott, P. R.Diagnosis and treatment of joint infections in 39 adult sheepSargison, N. D., Scott, P. R.Small Ruminant Research2012
Severe osteochondrosis in two 10-month-old beef calvesBrownstein, D., Rhind, S., Scott, P. R.Severe osteochondrosis in two 10-month-old beef calvesBrownstein, D., Rhind, S., Scott, P. R.Vet Rec2000
Lameness in dairy cattle [editorial; comment]Scott, P. R.Lameness in dairy cattle [editorial; comment]Scott, P. R.British Veterinary Journal1996
The method of minimization for allocation to clinical trials: a reviewCampbell, M.K., McPherson, G.C., Ramsay et alThe method of minimization for allocation to clinical trials: a reviewCampbell, M.K., McPherson, G.C., Ramsay,C.R., Scott, N.W.Controlled Clinical Trials2002
Studies of the gait of Friesian heifer cattleScott, G. B.Studies of the gait of Friesian heifer cattleScott, G. B.The Veterinary Record1988
What is your diagnosis[Chronic osteophytes and exostosis adjacent to the proximal interphalangeal joint in a bull]Omann, M., Scott, E., Watrous, B.What is your diagnosis[Chronic osteophytes and exostosis adjacent to the proximal interphalangeal joint in a bull]Omann, M., Scott, E., Watrous, B.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association19900Iradiography
Mode of action and effectiveness of Stafac virginiamycin for finisher cattleFlachowsky, G., Hennig, A., Schone, F. et alMode of action and effectiveness of Stafac virginiamycin for finisher cattleFlachowsky, G., Hennig, A., Schone, F., Schwarz, J.Vitamine und weitere Zusatzstoffe bei Mensch und Tier1991Mode of action and effectiveness of virginiamycin (Stafac R), licensed as an additive to cattle feeds (15-40 mg/kg compound feed) is reviewed, focussing on nutritive effect when high energy diets are fed, and on health aspects, where virginiamycin decreases incidence of acidosis, metabolic lameness and liver abscesses. There is also a positive effect on feed intake
Action and effectiveness of virginiamycin in cattle fatteningSchwarz, J.Action and effectiveness of virginiamycin in cattle fatteningSchwarz, J.Muhle + Mischfuttertechnik1993Mode of action of virginiamycin in ruminants is briefly reviewed. It was concluded that virginiamycin has high nutritive effectiveness, especially in high-energy diets; virginiamycin reduces incidence of ketosis, metabolic lameness and liver damage; virginiamycin has a positive influence on feed intake
Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: A reviewCrowe, T. G., Dadgar, S., Faucitano, L. et alRoad transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: A reviewCrowe, T. G., Dadgar, S., Faucitano, L., González, L. A., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K. S., Shand, P.Meat Science2012
The Effect of Time between Doses on Serological Response to a Recombinant Multivalent Pilus Vaccine against Footrot in SheepLehrbach, P. R., Ng, M. L., Poi, A. et alThe Effect of Time between Doses on Serological Response to a Recombinant Multivalent Pilus Vaccine against Footrot in SheepLehrbach, P. R., Ng, M. L., Poi, A., Schwartzkoff, C. L.Australian Veterinary Journal1993The response of sheep to a recombinant multivalent footrot vaccine containing pilus antigens was examined after the administration of two doses of vaccine at intervals ranging from 2 to 52 weeks. Agglutinating antibody titres were measured 3 weeks after the second vaccination and showed that lengthening of the interdose interval results in higher agglutinin titres. The capability of sheep to mount an increasingly strong immune response as the interval between doses is increased provides an opportunity to maximise the usefulness of vaccination by administering the first dose well before an expected footrot transmission period. This advantage of increasing the interdose interval has not been reported for traditional, whole-cell footrot vaccines, and use of the new pilus vaccine in this manner may improve prospects for disease control. Furthermore, sheep given a third dose either 6 or 12 months after their initial two-dose vaccination program achieved significantly higher titres than those elicited after the second dose, suggesting the likelihood of further improvement in disease control in successive seasons.
The Effects of Antigenic-Competition on the Efficacy of Multivalent Footrot VaccinesEgerton, J. R., Elleman, T. C., Hoyne et alThe Effects of Antigenic-Competition on the Efficacy of Multivalent Footrot VaccinesEgerton, J. R., Elleman, T. C., Hoyne, P. A., Lehrbach, P. R., Schwartzkoff, C. L., Stewart, D. J.Australian Veterinary Journal1993A multivalent footrot vaccine has been developed, containing pilus antigens produced in recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and representing all nine serogroups of Dichelobacter (Bacteroides) nodosus commonly recognised in the field. The responses of sheep to the multivalent vaccine have been compared with those to monovalent vaccines representing only a single serogroup. Antigenic competition between serogroups occurred in sheep immunised with the multivalent formulation, but high levels of protection were still achieved. The study showed that in multivalent footrot vaccines, antigenic competition is predominantly due to the presence of a family of immunologically-related pilus antigens rather than to interference by extraneous proteins.
Effects of space allowance on the behavior and physiology of cattle temporarily managed on rubber matsCox, Neil R., Huddart, Frances J. et alEffects of space allowance on the behavior and physiology of cattle temporarily managed on rubber matsCox, Neil R., Huddart, Frances J., Schütz, Karin E., Stewart, Mairi, Sutherland, Mhairi A.Journal of Dairy Science2015Dairy cattle managed in some pasture-based systems, such as in New Zealand, are predominantly kept outdoors all year around but are taken off pasture for periods, especially in wet weather to avoid soil damage. The use of rubber matting for such stand-off practices is becoming more common to improve animal welfare, and our objective was to investigate the effects of different space allowances on cow behavior and physiology when managed temporarily on rubber mats during a weather-induced stand-off period. Thirty pregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into 6 groups of 5 and exposed to 6 treatments following a Williams designed 6 × 6 Latin square. The treatments consisted of 6 space allowances on a 24-mm rubber surface during a simulated weather-induced stand-off period: 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, and 10.5 m2/cow. The stand-off period consisted of 18 h in the treatment pens followed by 6 h at pasture to allow for their daily feed intake (no feed was available during stand-off, following normal farm practice), for 3 consecutive days, with 6 d of recovery on pasture between treatments. When cows had more space available during the stand-off period, they spent more time lying on the rubber mats and less time lying on pasture during their daily 6-h feed break. Mean lying times (24 h, pasture and rubber mats combined) for the different space allowances were for 3.0 m2 = 7.5 h, 4.5 m2 = 10.2 h, 6.0 m2 = 11.9 h, 7.5 m2 = 12.4 h, and 10.5 m2 = 13.8 h. At 6.0 m2 of space allowance per cow, the animals spent similar times lying per 24 h as when the cows were on recovery on pasture in between treatments (11.9 and 11.2 h, respectively). Aggressive interactions and nonaggressive lying disturbances were more frequent at lower space allowances (aggressive interactions decreased by 35% from 3.0 to 4.5 m2/cow, with a slower decline thereafter). Cows were dirtier after the stand-off period, particularly at lower space allowances. All cows had higher gait scores after the stand-off period; however, this change was unaffected by space allowance and very minor. Stride length, plasma cortisol, and body weight were all unaffected by the stand-off period and space allowance. The results suggest that to reduce aggressive behavior and maintain adequate lying times, dairy cattle managed temporarily on rubber matting for up to 18 h per day, without feed, should have a space allowance of at least 4.5 to 6.0 m2 per cow.
How important is shade to dairy cattle? Choice between shade or lying following different levels of lying deprivationCox, Neil R., Matthews, Lindsay R. et alHow important is shade to dairy cattle? Choice between shade or lying following different levels of lying deprivationCox, Neil R., Matthews, Lindsay R., Schütz, Karin E.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2008Provision of shade to dairy cattle in summer can alleviate negative effects of heat stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative importance of shade to lactating dairy cows in different ambient weather conditions in summer. The motivation to use shade was compared to the motivation to lie down after exposure to different levels of lying deprivation. Twelve cows were tested nine times in a test arena for 1 h where, under a range of ambient environmental conditions, they were given an opportunity to either stand or lie down in a non-shaded area or to stand in shade (shade cloth blocking 80% of ambient solar radiation), when previously deprived of lying for 0, 3, or 12 h. It was predicted that cows would increase their relative choice to rest as the duration of lying deprivation increased and that this choice would be affected by ambient temperature. Every time the cow entered a new area in the arena, and changed positions between standing and lying, the time was noted. Weather variables measured were ambient air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. All weather variables were divided into three categories (low, medium and high) and analysed separately. Cows deprived of lying for 12 h increased their time spent standing in shade with increasing ambient air temperature (<25 °C, 0.7 min/h; 25–30 °C, 3.5 min/h; >30 °C, 18.9 min/h; S.E.D.: 13.0, P = 0.021) and all treatment groups spent less time standing in the shade when the relative humidity was high (<40%, 11.3 min; 40–55%, 19.5 min; >55%, 1.9 min/h; S.E.D.: 4.8, P < 0.001). Cows deprived of lying for 12 h spent less time lying when solar radiation levels were high (<500 W/m2, 11.8 min; 500–825 W/m2, 24.6 min; >825 W/m2, 0 min/h; S.E.D.: 16.9, P = 0.006). In conclusion, the results suggest that the requirement for shade during hot days (high ambient air temperature) is relatively high, since dairy cows chose to stand in shade at high air temperature rather than lying after experiencing 12 h of lying deprivation.
Behavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition...Cox, N. R., Macdonald, K. A., Matthews et alBehavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition scores at calvingCox, N. R., Macdonald, K. A., Matthews, L. R., Meier, S., Roche, J. R., Rogers, A. R., Schütz, K. E., Tucker, C. B., Verkerk, G. A., Webster, J. R.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Effects of short-term repeated exposure to different flooring surfaces on the behavior and physiology of dairy cattleCox, N. R., Schütz, K. E.Effects of short-term repeated exposure to different flooring surfaces on the behavior and physiology of dairy cattleCox, N. R., Schütz, K. E.Journal of Dairy Science
Evaluation of the fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in bison in a natural settingCorso, Barbara A., Gardner, Ian A. et alEvaluation of the fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in bison in a natural settingCorso, Barbara A., Gardner, Ian A., Philo, L. Michael, Rhyan, Jack C., Salman, Mo D., Schumaker, Brant A.Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases2010
Effects of the inclination of the lying area in cubicles on the behaviour and dirtiness of fattening bullsGygax, Lorenz, Mayer, Claus, Meier, Tim et alEffects of the inclination of the lying area in cubicles on the behaviour and dirtiness of fattening bullsGygax, Lorenz, Mayer, Claus, Meier, Tim, Schulze Westerath, Heike, Wechsler, BeatApplied Animal Behaviour Science2006The aim of the study was to determine the optimal inclination of the lying area in cubicles for fattening bulls, taking into account the behaviour and dirtiness of the animals, as well as the dirtiness of the lying area. The inclination of the lying area was varied experimentally (3, 5, 8 and 10%), and three soft lying mats differing in surface texture were tested. In a balanced order, 20 finishing bulls housed in four groups were kept sequentially in pens with all inclination/mat combinations, and observed on three consecutive days. In each experimental condition, the duration of lying was recorded automatically over 72 h by means of distance sensors placed above the cubicles. The quality of standing-up and lying-down behaviour was recorded by direct observations on 3 days. Additionally, the dirtiness of the animals and the lying area were rated once and twice a day, respectively. Data were analysed using mixed-effects models and logistic regression. The steeper the lying area, the more lying bouts were recorded (p < 0.001). With two of the three soft lying mats, the time spent lying per day was reduced as inclination increased (inclination/mat-type interaction, p < 0.01). With increasing inclination, the animals also stood up more often with more than one head lunge (p < 0.05), showed more stepping with the fore legs (p < 0.05) and more investigative head sweeps (p < 0.05) before lying down, and the frequency of slipping with fore and hind legs increased (p < 0.001). Falling while in the process of lying down or standing up was only observed with inclinations of 8 and 10%. The degree of dirtiness of the animals was generally low, and the inclination of the lying area had no effect on it. The rear part of the lying area became wetter as inclination decreased (p < 0.001). In conclusion, an inclination of the lying area of 5% was found to be optimal in cubicles for fattening bulls.
Early detection and treatment of lame cows. Effect on duration and prevalence of lesion-specific lamenessFeldmann, M., Gundelach, Y., Hoedemaker et alEarly detection and treatment of lame cows. Effect on duration and prevalence of lesion-specific lamenessFeldmann, M., Gundelach, Y., Hoedemaker, M., Schulz, T.Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere2016OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of specific hoof lesions on the locomotion score (LS) as well as the effect of early detection and treatment on duration and prevalence of lesion-specific lameness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a dairy herd in Lower Saxony, Germany, with 144 lactating cows, claw trimming was performed by a professional claw trimmer at the beginning and the end of a 41-week trial period. Weekly a veterinarian assessed the LS according to Sprecher et al. (1997) in 99 cows. The front and hind claws of cows with an LS > 1 were examined and treated within 5 days. For individual diagnoses, the duration of lameness was calculated as the number of weeks from first treatment until recovery (LS = 1). RESULTS: In total, 580 examinations and treatments were performed on 94 cows. There were 189 new lameness cases with a total of 290 diagnoses. At the first treatment, 81.0% of the cows displayed an LS of 2. Cows with digital dermatitis (DD), heel horn erosion and white line disease (WLD) more often had an LS > 2 compared to cows with Rusterholz' sole ulcer, interdigital hyperplasia or inadequate claw length/posture (p < 0.05). Cows with only one affected leg, more often had an LS > 2 than cows with several affected legs (p < 0.1). Lameness caused by WLD and arthritis/periarthritis remained for the longest time period. The prevalence of sole haemorrhages and/or double soles, WLD, interdigital dermatitis and interdigital hyperplasia decreased significantly during the test period. Prevalence of sole ulcer (sole ulcer and Rusterholz' sole ulcer) and DD remained unaffected. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Locomotion score was affected by the type of claw/limb disorder and the number of diseased limbs. Regular locomotion scoring and continuous treatment of cows with an LS > 1 is associated with a decrease in the prevalence of several claw lesions. Therefore, prevalence of severe claw lesions like WLD, which was associated with a long duration of lameness, can be reduced. In contrast, for decreasing prevalence of digital dermatitis more than weekly treatment of every cow with LS > 1 is required. Preventive measures like footbaths or improved hygiene should accompany the individual animal treatment.
Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattleCapion, N., Schultz, N.Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattleCapion, N., Schultz, N.The Veterinary Journal2013Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P < 0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use.
Chronic fluorosis in cattle due to the ingestion of a commercial lickGodley, G. A., Schultheiss, W. A.Chronic fluorosis in cattle due to the ingestion of a commercial lickGodley, G. A., Schultheiss, W. A.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association1995A year after introduction of a lick known to contain a commercial phosphorous source intended for agronomical purposes, approximately 2% adult cattle, from a herd numbering 120 animals, were observed to show signs of lameness. Four years later, this prevalence had increased to 5%, but teeth abnormalities were evident in 70-80% of animals. The average fluoride concentration of 5 coccygeal bone samples from 4-year-old animals was 6.94 x 10(3) mg kg-1. A lick sample had a fluoride concentration of 1.4 x 10(3) mg kg-1. A water and pasture sample contained 0.03 ppm and 0.3 ppm fluoride respectively. These values suggested that the lick was responsible for the clinical signs of chronic fluororis in the herd
Evaluation of the efficacy of a herd-specific vaccine for the control of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cowsKlee, W., Metzner, M., Pijl, R. et alEvaluation of the efficacy of a herd-specific vaccine for the control of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cowsKlee, W., Metzner, M., Pijl, R., Schuetz, W., Urbaneck, D.
Dairy nutrition management: Assessing a comprehensive continuing education program for veterinary practitionersBas, S., Eastridge, M. L. et alDairy nutrition management: Assessing a comprehensive continuing education program for veterinary practitionersBas, S., Eastridge, M. L., Rajala-Schultz, P., Schuenemann, G. M., Weiss, W. P., Workman, J. D.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Characterization of the predominant anaerobic bacterium recovered from digital dermatitis lesions in three Michigan dairy cowsAmes, N. K., Goeman, A. K., Marsh et alCharacterization of the predominant anaerobic bacterium recovered from digital dermatitis lesions in three Michigan dairy cowsAmes, N. K., Goeman, A. K., Marsh, T. L., Parlor, K. W., Schroeder, C. M., Walker, R. D.Anaerobe2003Digital dermatitis is a superficial epidermatitis of the feet of cattle. Data from previous work suggest that spirochaetes, Campylobacter spp., and Bacteroides spp. may be important in the disease, but the etiology of this disease is not entirely clear. Tissue samples collected from digital dermatitis lesions in three Holstein-Friesian cows from a Michigan dairy yielded a predominant colony type when incubated anaerobically on blood agar at 35degreesC for 24-48 h. The isolate was a non-flagellated Gram-negative rod, 7 muM long and < 0.5 muM wide; its growth was strictly anaerobic and resulted in slight beta-hemolysis on blood agar; 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated it belonged to the cytophoga-flexibacter-bacteroides phylum. The finding that this bacterium was the predominant anaerobe recovered from digital dermatitis lesions suggests it may be involved in the digital dermatitis disease process. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Involvement of lipopolysaccharide binding protein, CD14, and toll-like receptors in the initiation of innate immune responses by...Gobel, U. B., Lamping, N., Michelsen et alInvolvement of lipopolysaccharide binding protein, CD14, and toll-like receptors in the initiation of innate immune responses by Treponema glycolipidsGobel, U. B., Lamping, N., Michelsen, K. S., Opitz, B., Schroder, N. W. J., Schumann, R. R., Zahringer, U.Journal of Immunology2000Culture supernatants from Treponema maltophilum associated with periodontitis in humans and Treponema brennaborense found in a bovine cattle disease accompanied with cachexia caused a dose-dependent TNF-alpha synthesis in human monocytes increasing with culture time. This activity could be reduced significantly by blocking the CD14-part of the LPS receptor using the My 4 mAb and by polymyxin B. In the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, Treponema culture supernatants induced TNF-alpha secretion in a LPS binding protein (LBP)-dependent fashion. To enrich for active compounds, supernatants were extracted with butanol, while whole cells were extracted using a phenolwater method resulting in recovery of material exhibiting a similar activity profile, An LPS-LBP binding competition assay revealed an interaction of the treponeme phenol/water extracts with LBP, while precipitation studies implied an affinity to polymyxin B and endotoxin neutralizing protein. Macrophages obtained from C3H/HeJ mice carrying a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mutation were stimulated with treponeme extracts for NO release to assess the role of TLRs in cell activation. Furthermore, NF-kappaB translocation in TLR-2-negative Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was studied. We found that phenol/water-extracts of the two strains use TLRs, differently with T. brennaborense-stimulating cells in a TLR-4-dependent fashion, while T. maltophilum-mediated activation apparently involved TLR-2, These results indicate the presence of a novel class of glycolipids in Treponema initiating inflammatory responses involving LBP, CD14, and TLRs.
Relationship between udder and leg hygiene scores and subclinical mastitisRuegg, P. L., Schreiner, D. A.Relationship between udder and leg hygiene scores and subclinical mastitisRuegg, P. L., Schreiner, D. A.Journal of Dairy Science2003
Treponema brennaborense sp. nov., a novel spirochaete isolated from a dairy cow suffering from digital dermatitisSchrank et alTreponema brennaborense sp. nov., a novel spirochaete isolated from a dairy cow suffering from digital dermatitisSchrank, Kirstin Choi Bong-Kyu Grund Siegfried Moter Annette Heuner Klaus Nattermann Herbert Gobel UlfInternational Journal of Systematic Bacteriology1999A novel Treponema species was isolated from an ulcerative lesion of a cow suffering from digital dermatitis (DD), a disease which causes painful ulcerations along the coronary band. Among other anaerobic bacteria, high numbers of spirochaetes have been regularly found in DD lesions. Here data are presented of a spirochaete isolated from a DD ulcer. By chemotaxonomy, protein analysis and comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis this isolate was classified as a treponeme that differed from all Treponema species described previously. The only isolate, DD5/3T, for which the name Treponema brennaborense is proposed, is designated the type strain of the novel species. The strain is a small, highly motile spirochaete that has two periplasmic flagella, one flagellum being attached at each cell pole. Strain DD5/3T exhibits alpha- glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity and growth is inhibited by rabbit serum. T. brennaborense was phylogenetically most closely related (89.5% 16S rRNA similarity) to Treponema maltophilum, an oral spirochaete isolated from a periodontitis patient
Digital Dermatitis (Footrot) in CattleGruner, J., Schrank, D.Digital Dermatitis (Footrot) in CattleGruner, J., Schrank, D.Monatshefte fur Veterinarmedizin1989
Relationships between bovine hoof disorders, body condition traits, and test-day yieldsPijl, R., Schöpke, K., Swalve, H. H. et alRelationships between bovine hoof disorders, body condition traits, and test-day yieldsPijl, R., Schöpke, K., Swalve, H. H., Weidling, S.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Determining host genetic susceptibility or resistance to bovine digital dermatitis in cattleBlowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Murray et alDetermining host genetic susceptibility or resistance to bovine digital dermatitis in cattleBlowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Murray,R.D., Ollier, W.E.R., Scholey, R. A.Advances in Animal Biosciences2010
Identifying host pathogenic pathways in bovine digital dermatitis by RNA-Seq analysisBlowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Evans et alIdentifying host pathogenic pathways in bovine digital dermatitis by RNA-Seq analysisBlowey, R. W., Carter, S. D., Evans, N.J, Massey, J. P., Murray, R. D., Ollier, W. E., Scholey, R. A., Smith, R. F.The Veterinary Journal2013Digital dermatitis is a painful foot disease compromising welfare in dairy cattle. The disease has a complex multibacterial aetiology, but little is known about its pathogenesis. In this study, gene expression in skin biopsies from five bovine digital dermatitis lesions and five healthy bovine feet was compared using RNA-Seq technology. Differential gene expression was determined after mapping transcripts to the Btau 4.0 genome. Pathway analysis identified gene networks involving differentially expressed transcripts. Bovine digital dermatitis lesions had increased expression of mRNA for α2-macroglobulin-like 1, a protein potentially involved in bacterial immune evasion and bacterial survival. There was increased expression of keratin 6A and interleukin 1β mRNA in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, but reduced expression of most other keratin and keratin-associated genes. There was little evidence of local immune reactions to the bacterial infection present in lesions.
Investigating host genetic factors in bovine digital dermatitisBlowey, R. W., Cameron, J., Carter et alInvestigating host genetic factors in bovine digital dermatitisBlowey, R. W., Cameron, J., Carter, S. D., Massey, J. P., Murray, R. D., Ollier, W. E., Scholey, R. A., Smith, R. F.Veterinary Record2012
Association between growth hormone receptor AluI polymorphism and fertility of Holstein cowsButler, W. R., Corrêa, M. N. et alAssociation between growth hormone receptor AluI polymorphism and fertility of Holstein cowsButler, W. R., Corrêa, M. N., Schneider, A.Theriogenology2013
Efficacy of a combined vaccine against selected anaerobes in the control of digital dermatitis in cattleSchmitt, M.Efficacy of a combined vaccine against selected anaerobes in the control of digital dermatitis in cattleSchmitt, M.1997
High-speed cinematographic evaluation of claw-ground contact pattern of lactating cowsMeyer, Sven W., Nuss, Karl, Peinen et alHigh-speed cinematographic evaluation of claw-ground contact pattern of lactating cowsMeyer, Sven W., Nuss, Karl, Peinen, Katja von, Schmid, Tanja, Waldern, Nina, Weishaupt, Michael A.The Veterinary Journal2009
Effects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and...Kaske, M., Meyer, H. H. D. et alEffects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and productivity of dairy cowsKaske, M., Meyer, H. H. D., Schlamberger, G., Viturro, E., Wiedemann, S.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems in dairy cows: A reviewBahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel et alManual and automatic locomotion scoring systems in dairy cows: A reviewBahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel, Bokkers, Eddie A. M., Halachmi, Ilan, Koerkamp, Peter W. G. Groot, Lokhorst, Kees, Romanini, Carlos E. B., Schlageter-Tello, Andrés, Van Hertem, Tom, Viazzi, StefanoPreventive Veterinary Medicine2014The objective of this review was to describe, compare and evaluate agreement, reliability, and validity of manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems (MLSSs and ALSSs, respectively) used in dairy cattle lameness research. There are many different types of MLSSs and ALSSs. Twenty-five MLSSs were found in 244 articles. MLSSs use different types of scale (ordinal or continuous) and different gait and posture traits need to be observed. The most used MLSS (used in 28% of the references) is based on asymmetric gait, reluctance to bear weight, and arched back, and is scored on a five-level scale. Fifteen ALSSs were found that could be categorized according to three approaches: (a) the kinetic approach measures forces involved in locomotion, (b) the kinematic approach measures time and distance of variables associated to limb movement and some specific posture variables, and (c) the indirect approach uses behavioural variables or production variables as indicators for impaired locomotion. Agreement and reliability estimates were scarcely reported in articles related to MLSSs. When reported, inappropriate statistical methods such as PABAK and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were commonly used. Some of the most frequently used MLSSs were poorly evaluated for agreement and reliability. Agreement and reliability estimates for the original four-, five- or nine-level MLSS, expressed in percentage of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa, showed large ranges among and sometimes also within articles. After the transformation into a two-level scale, agreement and reliability estimates showed acceptable estimates (percentage of agreement ≥75%; kappa and weighted kappa ≥0.6), but still estimates showed a large variation between articles. Agreement and reliability estimates for ALSSs were not reported in any article. Several ALSSs use MLSSs as a reference for model calibration and validation. However, varying agreement and reliability estimates of MLSSs make a clear definition of a lameness case difficult, and thus affect the validity of ALSSs. MLSSs and ALSSs showed limited validity for hoof lesion detection and pain assessment. The utilization of MLSSs and ALSSs should aim to the prevention and efficient management of conditions that induce impaired locomotion. Long-term studies comparing MLSSs and ALSSs while applying various strategies to detect and control unfavourable conditions leading to impaired locomotion are required to determine the usefulness of MLSSs and ALSSs for securing optimal production and animal welfare in practice.
Effect of merging levels of locomotion scores for dairy cows on intra- and interrater reliability and agreementBahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel et alEffect of merging levels of locomotion scores for dairy cows on intra- and interrater reliability and agreementBahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel, Bokkers, Eddie A. M., Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G., Halachmi, Ilan, Lokhorst, Kees, Romanini, Carlos E. B., Schlageter-Tello, Andrés, Van Hertem, Tom, Viazzi, StefanoJournal of Dairy Science2014Locomotion scores are used for lameness detection in dairy cows. In research, locomotion scores with 5 levels are used most often. Analysis of scores, however, is done after transformation of the original 5-level scale into a 4-, 3-, or 2-level scale to improve reliability and agreement. The objective of this study was to evaluate different ways of merging levels to optimize resolution, reliability, and agreement of locomotion scores for dairy cows. Locomotion scoring was done by using a 5-level scale and 10 experienced raters in 2 different scoring sessions from videos from 58 cows. Intra- and interrater reliability and agreement were calculated as weighted kappa coefficient (κw) and percentage of agreement (PA), respectively. Overall intra- and interrater reliability and agreement and specific intra- and interrater agreement were determined for the 5-level scale and after transformation into 4-, 3-, and 2-level scales by merging different combinations of adjacent levels. Intrarater reliability (κw) ranged from 0.63 to 0.86, whereas intrarater agreement (PA) ranged from 60.3 to 82.8% for the 5-level scale. Interrater κw = 0.28 to 0.84 and interrater PA = 22.6 to 81.8% for the 5-level scale. The specific intrarater agreement was 76.4% for locomotion level 1, 68.5% for level 2, 65% for level 3, 77.2% for level 4, and 80% for level 5. Specific interrater agreement was 64.7% for locomotion level 1, 57.5% for level 2, 50.8% for level 3, 60% for level 4, and 45.2% for level 5. Specific intra- and interrater agreement suggested that levels 2 and 3 were more difficult to score consistently compared with other levels in the 5-level scale. The acceptance threshold for overall intra- and interrater reliability (κw and κ ≥0.6) and agreement (PA ≥75%) and specific intra- and interrater agreement (≥75% for all levels within locomotion score) was exceeded only for the 2-level scale when the 5 levels were merged as (12)(345) or (123)(45). In conclusion, when locomotion scoring is performed by experienced raters without further training together, the lowest specific intra- and interrater agreement was obtained in levels 2 and 3 of the 5-level scale. Acceptance thresholds for overall intra- and interrater reliability and agreement and specific intra- and interrater agreement were exceeded only in the 2-level scale.
Relation between observed locomotion traits and locomotion score in dairy cowsBahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel et alRelation between observed locomotion traits and locomotion score in dairy cowsBahr, Claudia, Berckmans, Daniel, Bokkers, Eddie A. M., Halachmi, Ilan, Koerkamp, Peter W. G. Groot, Lokhorst, Kees, Romanini, Carlos E. B., Schlageter-Tello, Andrés, Van Hertem, Tom, Viazzi, StefanoJournal of Dairy ScienceABSTRACT Lameness is still an important problem in modern dairy farming. Human observation of locomotion, by looking at different traits in one go, is used in practice to assess locomotion. The objectives of this article were to determine which individual locomotion traits are most related to locomotion scores in dairy cows, and whether experienced raters are capable of scoring these individual traits consistently. Locomotion and 5 individual locomotion traits (arched back, asymmetric gait, head bobbing, reluctance to bear weight, and tracking up) were scored independently on a 5-level scale for 58 videos of different cows. Videos were shown to 10 experienced raters in 2 different scoring sessions. Relations between locomotion score and traits were estimated by 3 logistic regression models aiming to calculate the size of the fixed effects on the probability of scoring a cow in 1 of the 5 levels of the scale (model 1) and the probability of classifying a cow as lame (locomotion score ≥3; model 2) or as severely lame (locomotion score ≥4; model 3). Fixed effects were rater, session, traits, and interactions among fixed effects. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the relative probability to classify a cow as lame when an altered (trait score ≥3) or severely altered trait (trait score ≥4) was present. Overall intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement were calculated as weighted kappa coefficient (κw) and percentage of agreement, respectively. Specific intrarater and interrater agreement for individual levels within a 5-level scale were calculated. All traits were significantly related to the locomotion score when scored with a 5-level scale and when classified as (severely) lame or nonlame. Odds ratios for altered and severely altered traits were 10.8 and 14.5 for reluctance to bear weight, 6.5 and 7.2 for asymmetric gait, and 4.8 and 3.2 for arched back, respectively. Raters showed substantial variation in reliability and agreement values when scoring traits. The acceptance threshold for overall intrarater reliability (κw ≥0.60) was exceeded by locomotion scoring and all traits. Overall interrater reliability values ranged from κw = 0.53 for tracking up to κw = 0.61 for reluctance to bear weight. Intrarater and interrater agreement were below the acceptance threshold (percentage of agreement <75%). Most traits tended to have lower specific intrarater and interrater agreement in level 3 and 5 of the scale. In conclusion, raters had difficulties in scoring locomotion traits consistently, especially slight alterations were difficult to detect by experienced raters. Yet, the locomotion traits reluctance to bear weight, asymmetric gait, and arched back had the strongest relation with the locomotion score. These traits should have priority in locomotion-scoring-system guidelines and are the best to be used for the development of automated locomotion scoring systems.
Rumination and its relationship to feeding and lying behavior in Holstein dairy cowsChapinal, N., Heuwieser, W., Schirmann et alRumination and its relationship to feeding and lying behavior in Holstein dairy cowsChapinal, N., Heuwieser, W., Schirmann, K., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2012The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between rumination and feeding and lying behavior in dairy cows. Rumination time was monitored electronically using HR-Tags (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Feeding time and dry matter intake (DMI) were monitored using Insentec feed bins (Insentec BV, Marknesse, the Netherlands). All measures were collected in 2-h periods for 42 mature Holstein cows for a minimum of 9 d in the early dry period. Pearson correlation was used to describe associations, among 2-h periods within cow, first examining the relationship within a single period, and then modeling how this relationship changes when a lag of 2, 4, or 6 h was imposed. Periods when cows spent more time ruminating were associated with lower feeding times and lower DMI (r = −0.71 and r = −0.72, respectively), likely because cows were unable to feed and ruminate simultaneously. The correlations with rumination time changed from negative to positive when lags of 2, 4, and 6 h were modeled (r = −0.09, 0.24, and 0.15, and r = −0.16, 0.23, and 0.17 for feeding time and DMI at lags of 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively). These results indicate that following periods of high feeding times and intakes, cows spent more time ruminating. This relationship peaks at approximately 4 h after feeding. Periods of rumination were also associated with time spent lying down. Cows that spent more time ruminating per day, spent less time feeding (r = −0.34) and rumination times did not relate to DMI (r = 0.11). These data indicate that rumination time can be used to estimate within-cow variation in feeding behavior and intake, but daily summaries of rumination behavior are a poor indicator of DMI.
Low crude protein diets and phase feeding for double-muscled crossbred young bulls and heifersBittante, G., Cecchinato, A., Cesaro et alLow crude protein diets and phase feeding for double-muscled crossbred young bulls and heifersBittante, G., Cecchinato, A., Cesaro, G., Gallo, L., Schiavon, S., Tagliapietra, F.Livestock Science2013
Effect of high or low protein ration combined or not with rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on meat CLA content and...Bailoni, L., Bittante, G., Cecchinato et alEffect of high or low protein ration combined or not with rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on meat CLA content and quality traits of double-muscled Piemontese bullsBailoni, L., Bittante, G., Cecchinato, A., De Marchi, M., Schiavon, S., Tagliapietra, F.Meat Science2011
Management practices associated with conception rate and service rate of lactating Holstein cows in large, commercial dairy herdsCook, N. B., Rawson, C. L., Schefers et alManagement practices associated with conception rate and service rate of lactating Holstein cows in large, commercial dairy herdsCook, N. B., Rawson, C. L., Schefers, J. M., Weigel, K. A., Zwald, N. R.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Quantification of the effectiveness of GHG mitigation measures in Swiss organic milk production using a life cycle assessment...Gattinger, Andreas, Jud, Katja, Kuhn et alQuantification of the effectiveness of GHG mitigation measures in Swiss organic milk production using a life cycle assessment approachGattinger, Andreas, Jud, Katja, Kuhn, Till, Meier, Matthias S., Oehen, Bernadette, Schader, ChristianJournal of Cleaner Production
Clinical and etiopathogenic aspects of bovine digital dermatitis: a two years experienceMortellaro, C. M., Romussi, S., Scavia et alClinical and etiopathogenic aspects of bovine digital dermatitis: a two years experienceMortellaro, C. M., Romussi, S., Scavia, G., Sironi, G., Trenti, F.Clinical features, macroscopic and histological investigations were made of 88 cases of digital dermatitis in cattle. The pathogenic role of spirochaetes and papillomavirus was also investigated. The cases were classified as erosive, strawberry-like or proliferative. Some fundamental lesions were identified. It is concluded that the aetiological role of papillomavirus has been excluded and the pathogenic role of spirochaetes should be investigated further
Comparison of the lipids of the bovine and equine hoof hornGrant, E., Meyer, K., Scaife, J.Comparison of the lipids of the bovine and equine hoof hornGrant, E., Meyer, K., Scaife, J.
Risk factors associated with the occurrence of undesired effects in sheep and goats after field vaccination with modified-live...Cannas, A., Casaccia, C. et alRisk factors associated with the occurrence of undesired effects in sheep and goats after field vaccination with modified-live vaccine against bluetongue virus serotypes 2, 4 and 16Cannas, A., Casaccia, C., Di Gialleonardo, L., Leone, A., Nicolussi, P., Patta, C., Savini, G.Veterinary Microbiology2010
Epizootic heamorragic diseaseAfonso, A., Aradaib, I., Domingo, M. et alEpizootic heamorragic diseaseAfonso, A., Aradaib, I., Domingo, M., Mellor, P., Monaco, F., Sanaa, M., Savini, G., Wilson, W., Yadin, H.Research in Veterinary Science2011
Behavioural characteristics of dairy cows with lameness in Taranaki, New ZealandChesterton, R. N., Pfeiffer, D.U. et alBehavioural characteristics of dairy cows with lameness in Taranaki, New ZealandChesterton, R. N., Pfeiffer, D.U., Sauter-Louis, C.M.N Z Vet J2004. Related Articles, Links . Epicentre, Institute of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. carola@sauter-louis.de AIM: To investigate possible relationships between the incidence of lameness in dairy cows, and walking order from the paddock into the milking shed, milking order, and dominance structure in the herd. METHODS: Ten dairy herds from the Taranaki region in New Zealand, with an average herd size of 183 cows, were observed during early, mid and late lactation. Each observation period consisted of five observations within 1 week, totalling 15 observations per farm. Three observers recorded the daily movement of cows between paddocks and the milking shed at each of three different locations. Additionally, the dominance structure of 21 cows per herd, randomly selected at the beginning of the study, was determined at the beginning of each of the three observation periods, on the basis of antagonistic behaviour. RESULTS: Within herds, walking and milking order showed a Kappa value of 0.31, reflecting fair agreement beyond chance. Based on the multivariate model, an increased risk of lameness was found for cows that walked or were milked in the last quarter of the herd (OR=1.8 and 1.5, respectively) compared with animals that walked/were milked in the first three quarters of the herd. The dominance structure of the randomly selected animals remained stable during the course of the lactation. High dominance animals tended to walk at the front of the herd and get milked first, whereas low dominance animals tended to walk at the back of the herd and get milked last. Although lameness was not significantly related to the dominance group, this could have been due to the low power of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggested that there is a relationship between the position of the animal in the herd and the risk of lameness in dairy cows, but that the strength of this relationship varied between herds. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Walking/milking order was a risk factor for conditions causing lameness in dairy cows, and for the effective management of herd lameness problems it is important for farmers to be aware of this relationship.
Serum biotin concentrations in dairy cows with sole ulcer, heel erosion and foot rotIchijo, T., Ono, H., Sato, S., Suzuki et alSerum biotin concentrations in dairy cows with sole ulcer, heel erosion and foot rotIchijo, T., Ono, H., Sato, S., Suzuki, T.Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association2000Serum concentrations of total and free biotin and biotinidase activity were investigated in dairy cows with sole ulcer, heel erosion and foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) using agar-plate biotin bioassay using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and colorimetric biotinidase assay. Serum total biotin concentration was significantly lower in cows with sole ulcer and heel erosion than in healthy cows. Serum free biotin concentration in cows with hoof disorders were similar to those in healthy cows. No significant difference was observed in serum biotinidase activity between cows with hoof disorders and healthy cows. Positive correlations were observed, however, between biotinidase activity and concentrations of total and free biotin. It is suggested that biotin ingestion and biotin synthesis by rumen bacteria in cattle with hoof disorders such as sole ulcer and heel erosion may decrease below normal values
A Micro-Challenge Technique for the Study of Resistance to Dermatophilus-Congolensis in Merino SheepBrown, S. C., Egerton, J. R., Lloyd et alA Micro-Challenge Technique for the Study of Resistance to Dermatophilus-Congolensis in Merino SheepBrown, S. C., Egerton, J. R., Lloyd, D. H., Raadsma, H. W., Sasiak, A. B.Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture1993The clinical response (erythema, oedema, scab formation) of sheep to a micro-challenge with zoospores of Dermatophilus congolensis is described. The effect of site preparation (wax removal), dose of zoospores applied (0, 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(10) zoospores/mL), and day of inspection after challenge (0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 13, 17, 20, 23 days) were the major factors accounting for differences in responses to challenge. At all doses, large differences were observed between sheep in the prevalence, severity, and persistence of infection. These differences were not due to the effects of flock, or to footrot resistant and susceptible phenotypes. Based on results from this work, modifications were proposed to allow large numbers of sheep to be tested to estimate genetic differences between sheep in their resistance to challenge with zoospores from D. congolensis.
Occurrence of limb problems in Japanese Black and Japanese Shorthorn breeding cowsKomine, K., Nameshi, S., Nobe, Y. et alOccurrence of limb problems in Japanese Black and Japanese Shorthorn breeding cowsKomine, K., Nameshi, S., Nobe, Y., Saito, S., Sakurai, T., Sasaki, Y., Sato, T., Simoyama, S.Tohoku Journal of Veterinary Clinics1999628 cases of hoof diseases and 243 cases of joint diseases were diagnosed in Japanese Black and Japanese Shorthorn breeding cows in Iwate prefecture, Japan, in 1998. Commonest disease were foot rot and arthritis. The prevalence of hoof diseases was highest between June and September. Pelvic limbs were affected more frequently than forelimbs. Most cows recovered after treatment, but recovery was more difficult in cows that were unable to stand, were untreated or had all limbs affected. It is concluded that early detection and treatment, together with regular examination and trimming of hooves are important in preventing limb diseases in cattle
Microarray-based gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy cows with experimental hypocalcemia and...Devkota, B., Hashizume, K., Kizaki, K. et alMicroarray-based gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy cows with experimental hypocalcemia and milk feverDevkota, B., Hashizume, K., Kizaki, K., Sasaki, K., Yamagishi, N.Journal of Dairy Science2014
Graded leadership by dominant animals in a herd of female beef cattle on pasturePanamá, José L. Arias, Šárová et alGraded leadership by dominant animals in a herd of female beef cattle on pasturePanamá, José L. Arias, Šárová, Radka, Šimeček, Petr, Špinka, MarekAnimal Behaviour2010
Prevalence and risk factors for lameness in insulated free stall barns in FinlandHurme, T., Kaustell, K. O., Kivinen, T. et alPrevalence and risk factors for lameness in insulated free stall barns in FinlandHurme, T., Kaustell, K. O., Kivinen, T., Peltoniemi, O. A. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J., Saloniemi, H., Sarjokari, K.Livestock Science2013
The implementation and value of diagnostic procedures in sheep health managementSargison, N. D., Scott, P. R.The implementation and value of diagnostic procedures in sheep health managementSargison, N. D., Scott, P. R.Small Ruminant Research2010
Sensitivity and Specificity of Somatic Cell Count and California Mastitis Test for Identifying Intramammary Infection in Early...Leslie, K. E., Lim, G. H., Pulkrabek et alSensitivity and Specificity of Somatic Cell Count and California Mastitis Test for Identifying Intramammary Infection in Early LactationLeslie, K. E., Lim, G. H., Pulkrabek, B. J., Sargeant, J. M., Shirley, J. E.Journal of Dairy Science2001Associations between values for the somatic cell count (SCC) or the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and intramammary infection (IMI) were studied in 131 dairy cows from three herds during the first 10 d postcalving. Intramammary infection was defined as the presence of one or two bacterial species in one or both quarter milk samples taken within 12 h of calving and at d 3 postcalving. Quarter milk samples identified IMI in 36% of glands. Values for SCC declined at a significantly faster rate over the first 10 d postcalving in non-infected quarters than in infected quarters. The usefulness of quarter milk SCC and CMT for screening was evaluated by calculating the sensitivity and specificity for various threshold values and days postcalving. A SCC threshold of 100,000 cells/ml for quarter samples evaluated on d 5 postcalving had the maximal sensitivity and specificity for detecting IMI. Evaluation of the CMT samples taken on d 3 postcalving using a threshold reaction of greater than zero had the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting IMI. With this CMT sampling scheme, the sensitivities for detecting IMI with any pathogen, IMI with a major pathogen, and IMI with a minor pathogen were 56.7, 66.7, and 49.5, respectively. The CMT could have a useful role in dairy herd monitoring programs as a screening test to detect fresh cows with IMI caused by major pathogens.
Effects of the forage to concentrate ratio on B-vitamin concentrations in different ruminal fractions of dairy cowsBerthiaume, R., Chiquette, J., Girard et alEffects of the forage to concentrate ratio on B-vitamin concentrations in different ruminal fractions of dairy cowsBerthiaume, R., Chiquette, J., Girard, C. L., Martineau, R., Matte, J. J., Mustafa, A. F., Santschi, D. E.Canadian Journal of Animal Science2005
Early postabortion recovery of Neospora-infected lactating dairy cowsAlmería, S., Bech-Sàbat, G. et alEarly postabortion recovery of Neospora-infected lactating dairy cowsAlmería, S., Bech-Sàbat, G., Garcia-Ispierto, I., López-Gatius, F., Nogareda, C., Santolaria, P., Serrano, B., Yaniz, J.Theriogenology2009
Heat shock protein 70 subunit vaccination against bovine paratuberculosis does not interfere with current immunodiagnostic assays...Hensen, Selma, Koets, Ad, Rutten et alHeat shock protein 70 subunit vaccination against bovine paratuberculosis does not interfere with current immunodiagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosisHensen, Selma, Koets, Ad, Rutten, Victor, Santema, WiebrenVaccine2009
An economic evaluation of long-term sustainability in the dairy sectorBrotherstone, S., Coffey, M. P. et alAn economic evaluation of long-term sustainability in the dairy sectorBrotherstone, S., Coffey, M. P., Santarossa, J. M., Stott, A. W., Wall, E., Woolliams, J. A.Animal Science2004
Bovine digital dermatitisBouchard, E., Higgins, R., Jacques, M. et alBovine digital dermatitisBouchard, E., Higgins, R., Jacques, M., Sauvageau, R.Canadian Veterinary Journal1994
Serum levels of ceruloplasmin and copper in relation to foot diseases in cattleBenedito, J. L., Fidalgo, L. E., Goicoa et alSerum levels of ceruloplasmin and copper in relation to foot diseases in cattleBenedito, J. L., Fidalgo, L. E., Goicoa, A., Santamarina, G., Suarez, J. L., Suarez, M. L., Trenti, F.Proceedings 18th World Buiatrics Congress: 26th Congress of the Italian Association of Buiatrics199425 cattle with foot disease were compared with 10 healthy ones. The Sunderman and Nomoto techniques were used to determine the ceruloplasmin levels. The serum copper concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average levels of copper and ceruloplasmin found in the serum of the cattle with foot diseases and healthy cattle were 0.844 Cu ppm and 0.920 Cu ppm and 23.86 mg/dl ceruloplasmin and 26.67 mg/dl ceruloplasmin, respectively. The differences were not significant. The relationship of the activity of the ceruloplasmin and the concentration of blood copper in the 35 cattle (control and cattle with foot diseases) showed a correlation coefficient of 0.751
The relationship between dairy cow hygiene and somatic cell count in milkParanhos da Costa, M. J. R. et alThe relationship between dairy cow hygiene and somatic cell count in milkParanhos da Costa, M. J. R., Sant’Anna, A. C.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Comparison of two monitoring and treatment strategies for cows with acute puerperal metritisBurfeind, O., Heuwieser, W., Sannmann et alComparison of two monitoring and treatment strategies for cows with acute puerperal metritisBurfeind, O., Heuwieser, W., Sannmann, I., Voigtsberger, R.Theriogenology2013The objective of this study was to compare two strategies for screening and subsequent treatment of acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows. Therefore, we conducted a study on 79 cows with APM (cows with an enlarged uterus with fetid watery red-brown vaginal discharge and fever >39.5 °C) and 114 healthy control cows. Cows with APM were divided into two groups (treated, N = 67 cows; not treated, N = 12 cows). The treated animals were further subdivided into two groups (treated between Day 1 and 4 post partum, N =12 and treated between Day 5 and 10, N = 55). Serum haptoglobin concentrations, milk yield, cure rate, prevalence of endometritis, and cervical diameter on days in milk (DIM) 21 to 27 were compared between the groups. Cows were defined as cured when their rectal temperature was <39.5 °C 4 days after treatment and fever did not rebound over 39.4 °C until the end of the screening period which was DIM 10. The results of this study did not show any significant differences in cure rates, milk yield, or serum haptoglobin concentrations on DIM 2, 5, and 10 and subsequent uterine health (DIM 21–27). Considering this study as a proof of concept study, we conclude that there might not be a negative effect after a screening and treatment protocol beginning at DIM 5 and leaving early APM cows untreated. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by a larger field study. Furthermore, antimicrobial therapy could be avoided in 12 of 55 cows (21.8%) in group 2 because of the protocol implementing treatments after DIM 5. These cows did not show signs of APM during the following 5 days. Therefore, these animals were considered as self-recovered leading to a cure rate of at least 21.8% (12 of 55 cows).
Hoof trimming in cattle on a movable operating tableHusnjak, M., Sankovic, F.Hoof trimming in cattle on a movable operating tableHusnjak, M., Sankovic, F.Veterinarska Stanica1996
Seasonal incidence of lameness and risk factors associated with thin soles, white line disease, ulcers, and sole punctures in...De Vries, A., Sanders, A. H., Shearer et alSeasonal incidence of lameness and risk factors associated with thin soles, white line disease, ulcers, and sole punctures in dairy cattleDe Vries, A., Sanders, A. H., Shearer, J. K.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in cattle in intensive farmingSamolovov, A. A.Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in cattle in intensive farmingSamolovov, A. A.Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki1990
Foot lesions in cattle: locomotion scoring systemSalimei, E.Foot lesions in cattle: locomotion scoring systemSalimei, E.Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari1999
Prevalence, risk factors for and impact of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder dairy cowsMokhtari, A., Salasel, B., Taktaz, T.Prevalence, risk factors for and impact of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder dairy cowsMokhtari, A., Salasel, B., Taktaz, T.Theriogenology2010
Effect of early postpartum PGF2α treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows with calving and puerperal traitsMokhtari, A., Salasel, B.Effect of early postpartum PGF2α treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows with calving and puerperal traitsMokhtari, A., Salasel, B.Theriogenology2011
Co-circulation of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses in cattle in Reunion IslandAdam, Micheline, Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib et alCo-circulation of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses in cattle in Reunion IslandAdam, Micheline, Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib, Breard, Emmanuel, Costes, Laura, Desprat, Alexandra, Lasne, Laurent, Martrenchar, Arnaud, Sailleau, Corinne, Viarouge, Cyril, Vitour, Damien, Zanella, Gina, Zientara, StéphanVeterinary Microbiology2012
Incidence of foot diseases of bovine in AssamGogoi, S. N., Saikia, J., Sarma, B. et alIncidence of foot diseases of bovine in AssamGogoi, S. N., Saikia, J., Sarma, B., Sarma, K. K.Indian Veterinary Journal1992In a survey carried out in Assam 420 (13.96%) of the 3008 animals examined had foot diseases, those most commonly found being various claw abnormalities, interdigital growths, horn fissures, chronic laminitis, claw hypospadia, arthritis and bruising of the sole. The highest incidence (18.02%) was in Jersey crosses, followed by Friesians (17.41%), Sindhi crosses (17.22%) and Red Dane crosses (14.51%); local animals were much less affected (1.72%). Animals aged 4-6 years had a higher incidence than those <2 years old. Of 90 male animals 12 (13.33%) were affected, and of 2912 females 408 (13.98%) were affected. It was suggested that the claw abnormalities may be associated with management practices
Effect of flooring type on foot and leg abnormalities in dairy cowsDutta, G. N., Saharia, J., Saikia, S.Effect of flooring type on foot and leg abnormalities in dairy cowsDutta, G. N., Saharia, J., Saikia, S.Indian Veterinary Journal1998Over a one-year period 433 dairy cows were examined for foot and leg abnormalities in housing with concrete or wooden floors. The overall incidence of abnormalities was 76.21%. On wooden flooring there was a higher incidence of hoof elongation (40.32-46.66%) than on concrete (12.67-14.70%). Hygroma of the hock tended to be more common on concrete (4.41-12.67%) than on wood (2.50-5.0%). There were no correlations with floor type for sole ulcers and bruising, and no appreciable differences in the incidence of foot abnormalities in cows housed on hill tops, hill slopes or at the foot of hills
Evidence-Based Early Clinical Detection of Emerging Diseases in Food Animals and Zoonoses: Two CasesHumblet, Marie-France, Martinelle et alEvidence-Based Early Clinical Detection of Emerging Diseases in Food Animals and Zoonoses: Two CasesHumblet, Marie-France, Martinelle, Ludovic, Porter, Sarah Rebecca, Saegerman, Claude, Zanella, GinaVeterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2012
Serum acute phase proteins as biomarkers of pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigsAlegre, Ana, Bassols, Anna, Cortey et alSerum acute phase proteins as biomarkers of pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigsAlegre, Ana, Bassols, Anna, Cortey, Martí, Fraile, Lorenzo, Giménez, Mercè, López-Jimenez, Rosa, Saco, Yolanda, Segalés, JoaquimResearch in Veterinary Science2011
Ecology of anaerobic non-sporulating bacteria in relation to digital dermatitis in cattleFendtove, E, Hudac, A., Sabo, J.Ecology of anaerobic non-sporulating bacteria in relation to digital dermatitis in cattleFendtove, E, Hudac, A., Sabo, J.Veterinari Medicina1988
Equine chorionic gonadotropin improves the efficacy of a progestin-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocol in Nelore...Ayres, H., Baruselli, P. S. et alEquine chorionic gonadotropin improves the efficacy of a progestin-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocol in Nelore (Bos indicus) heifersAyres, H., Baruselli, P. S., Castro e Paula, L. A., Ferreira, R. M., Gimenes, L. U., Penteado, L., Sá Filho, M. F., Sales, J. N. S., Torres-Júnior, J. R. S.Animal Reproduction Science2010
Free-stall cleanliness is affected by stall designBøe, K. E., Kielland, C., Ruud, L. E. et alFree-stall cleanliness is affected by stall designBøe, K. E., Kielland, C., Ruud, L. E., Østerås, O.Livestock Science2011
Associations of soft flooring materials in free stalls with milk yield, clinical mastitis, teat lesions, and removal of dairy cowsBøe, K. E., Ruud, L. E., Østerås, O.Associations of soft flooring materials in free stalls with milk yield, clinical mastitis, teat lesions, and removal of dairy cowsBøe, K. E., Ruud, L. E., Østerås, O.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Flexible and fixed partitions in freestalls—Effects on lying behavior and cow preferenceBøe, K. E., Ruud, L. E.Flexible and fixed partitions in freestalls—Effects on lying behavior and cow preferenceBøe, K. E., Ruud, L. E.Journal of Dairy Science2011The objective was to investigate the effect of stall partition design on total lying time, lying position, and stall cleanliness, and to evaluate the preferences of cows regarding stalls with traditional fixed stall dividers or flexible stall dividers. Using a crossover design, 16 nonlactating dairy cows were housed singly for 9 d in pens with 2 freestalls, 1 with fixed cantilever dividers and 1 with flexible dividers. The cows were first given access to one stall type, and then to the other type of stall, and finally to both in a preference test. Type of stall divider did not influence lying behavior (13.5 h for fixed versus 14.0 h for flexible, ± 0.4 h), lying positions, or stall cleanliness; however, the cows showed a preference for lying in the flexible stalls (65.2 for flexible vs. 34.8 for fixed ± 8.2%). This indicated that cows are able to distinguish between type of stall divider and that it is important to them; however, it is not clear if the reason for this is the shape or the properties of the dividers. We concluded that cattle chose a flexible stall divider over a fixed one, but the long-term consequences of this preference are not clear, because no obvious changes in stall usage were observed when cows were only given access to one type of divider.
SamitzSamitz1996
Digital dermatitis in Friesian cattle in Argentina, and its treatment with cefquinoneBottaro, A., Ierace, A., Rutter, B.Digital dermatitis in Friesian cattle in Argentina, and its treatment with cefquinoneBottaro, A., Ierace, A., Rutter, B.Revista de Medicina Veterinaria Buenos Aires2001
Treatment of bovine dermatitis digitalis using metacresol sulfonic acidRutter, B.Treatment of bovine dermatitis digitalis using metacresol sulfonic acidRutter, B.Veterinaria Argentina1993
Invited review: Sensors to support health management on dairy farmsHogeveen, H., Rutten, C. J., Steeneveld et alInvited review: Sensors to support health management on dairy farmsHogeveen, H., Rutten, C. J., Steeneveld, W., Velthuis, A. G. J.Journal of Dairy Science2013Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. The aim of this review is to provide a structured overview of the published sensor systems for dairy health management. The development of sensor systems can be described by the following 4 levels: (I) techniques that measure something about the cow (e.g., activity); (II) interpretations that summarize changes in the sensor data (e.g., increase in activity) to produce information about the cow's status (e.g., estrus); (III) integration of information where sensor information is supplemented with other information (e.g., economic information) to produce advice (e.g., whether to inseminate a cow or not); and (IV) the farmer makes a decision or the sensor system makes the decision autonomously (e.g., the inseminator is called). This review has structured a total of 126 publications describing 139 sensor systems and compared them based on the 4 levels. The publications were published in the Thomson Reuters (formerly ISI) Web of Science database from January 2002 until June 2012 or in the proceedings of 3 conferences on precision (dairy) farming in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Most studies concerned the detection of mastitis (25%), fertility (33%), and locomotion problems (30%), with fewer studies (16%) related to the detection of metabolic problems. Many studies presented sensor systems at levels I and II, but none did so at levels III and IV. Most of the work for mastitis (92%) and fertility (75%) is done at level II. For locomotion (53%) and metabolism (69%), more than half of the work is done at level I. The performance of sensor systems varies based on the choice of gold standards, algorithms, and test sizes (number of farms and cows). Studies on sensor systems for mastitis and estrus have shown that sensor systems are brought to a higher level; however, the need to improve detection performance still exists. Studies on sensor systems for locomotion problems have shown that the search continues for the most appropriate indicators, sensor techniques, and gold standards. Studies on metabolic problems show that it is still unclear which indicator reflects best the metabolic problems that should be detected. No systems with integrated decision support models have been found.
Lameness prevalence and risk factors in organic and non-organic dairy herds in the United KingdomHaskell, Marie J., Jack, Mhairi C. et alLameness prevalence and risk factors in organic and non-organic dairy herds in the United KingdomHaskell, Marie J., Jack, Mhairi C., Langford, Fritha M., Lawrence, Alistair B., Rutherford, Kenneth M. D., Sherwood, LornaThe Veterinary Journal2009
Das spezifische-traumatische klauensohlengeschwur des rindesRusterholz, ADas spezifische-traumatische klauensohlengeschwur des rindesRusterholz, ASchweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde1920
Producer assessment of dairy extension programming in KentuckyBewley, J. M., Russell, R. A.Producer assessment of dairy extension programming in KentuckyBewley, J. M., Russell, R. A.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Survey of Lameness in British Dairy-CattleRowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M., Shaw et alSurvey of Lameness in British Dairy-CattleRowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M., Shaw, S. R., Weaver, A.D.Veterinary Record1982
Validation of two measures of lameness in dairy cowsPassillé, Anne Marie de, Pombourcq et alValidation of two measures of lameness in dairy cowsPassillé, Anne Marie de, Pombourcq, Emilie, Rushen, JeffreyApplied Animal Behaviour Science2007To validate two methods for detecting lameness in cows, we gait scored lame and healthy lactating cows while walking and measured the percent of weight placed on each leg while standing, before and after injections of a local anaesthetic. Before injection, healthy cows had lower gait scores than did lame cows. Lame cows placed less weight on the injured leg and placed more weight on the contralateral leg than did healthy cows. The variability in weight applied to the injured and the contralateral leg was much higher for lame cows, suggesting more frequent shifting of weight. Lidocaine injections reduced gait scores, increased the percent of weight applied to the injured leg and reduced the variability in weight applied to the injured and contralateral legs in lame cows. The system of gait scoring and the measure of weight applied to each leg were both able to detect lame cows and were both sensitive to local anaesthetic, indicating some degree of validity.
Local anaesthetic as a means to validate measures of lameness in dairy cowsde Passille, A. M., Pombourcq, E. et alLocal anaesthetic as a means to validate measures of lameness in dairy cowsde Passille, A. M., Pombourcq, E., Rushen, J.Proceedings of the 40th International Congress of the ISAE2006
Effect of Softer Flooring in Tie Stalls on Resting Behavior and Leg Injuries of Lactating Cowsde Passille, A. M., Haley, D., Rushen et alEffect of Softer Flooring in Tie Stalls on Resting Behavior and Leg Injuries of Lactating Cowsde Passille, A. M., Haley, D., Rushen, J.J Dairy Sci2007To test the advantages of softer flooring in tie stalls, we compared the behavior and injuries of dairy cows housed in tie stalls with either soft rubber mats (n = 12) or concrete flooring (n = 12), both lightly covered with straw. Data were collected for 112 d beginning at 14 DIM ({+/-}4 d). Cows' general activity was observed continuously for 24 h every 28 d. Behavior was also scored by a scan sampling technique every 14 d such that each cow was observed for a period of 3 min every 12 min. We scored the occurrence of leg lesions and other injuries every 7 d throughout the study. Cows on rubber mats had shorter bouts of lying but the frequency of bouts was higher, leading them to tend to spend more time lying compared with cows housed on concrete. Cows on concrete spent more time standing idle, but there was no difference in the time spent eating. There was no effect of stall flooring on the number of minor abrasions to the legs and body. There was a significantly higher incidence of swelling of the carpus joints for cows housed on concrete. Cows housed on soft rubber flooring appeared to be less hesitant to change posture from lying to standing (and vice versa), and as a result changed posture more frequently and spent more time lying than cows on concrete flooring. The decreased incidence of swelling of the carpus joint for cows on soft rubber mats may have important long-term effects in preventing a variety of leg problems.
Fear of People by Cows and Effects on Milk Yield, Behavior, and Heart Rate at Milkingde Passille, A.M.B., Munksgaard, L. et alFear of People by Cows and Effects on Milk Yield, Behavior, and Heart Rate at Milkingde Passille, A.M.B., Munksgaard, L., Rushen, J.J Dairy Sci1999To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler. When the handlers changed the color of their clothing, the cows did not discriminate between them. The gentle handler stood close to the cows for one milking, and the aversive handler stood close to the cows for another milking. For two control milkings, neither handler was present. Measurements included milking duration, milk yield, residual milk, heart rates, incidence of movement, and kicking behavior of the cows. Compared with control milkings, the presence of the gentle handler did not change milk yield or residual milk. The presence of the aversive handler increased residual milk by 70%. Kicking behavior of cows during milking was reduced with either handler present, and kicking during udder preparation was reduced with the aversive handler present. For cows that best discriminated between the handlers, the presence of the aversive handler increased movement and heart rate during milking. For cows that did not discriminate well between the handlers, the presence of either handler increased heart rate and decreased movement during milking. Cows recognized individual people, and the fear of people who are present during milking may reduce milk yield.
Effects of Roughness and Compressibility of Flooring on Cow Locomotionde Passille, A. M., Rushen, J.Effects of Roughness and Compressibility of Flooring on Cow Locomotionde Passille, A. M., Rushen, J.J Dairy Sci2006We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.
Effect of the use of bovine somatotropin on culling practices in thirty-two dairy herds in Indiana, Michigan, and OhioFabellar, A., Hintz, R. L., Ruegg, P. L.Effect of the use of bovine somatotropin on culling practices in thirty-two dairy herds in Indiana, Michigan, and OhioFabellar, A., Hintz, R. L., Ruegg, P. L.Journal of Dairy Science1998Data from 5468 Holstein dairy cows in 32 herds were used to determine the effect of the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) on culling practices over a 13-mo period. After an initial herd inventory, monthly information regarding cow entry and exit from the herds was obtained by seven participating veterinarians. Culling was coded by farmers for the following reasons: low production, reproduction, somatic cell count, mastitis, sickness, dairy purposes, lameness, death, and other. In the control herds, cows were not treated with bST during the trial. Adopter herds were defined as herds that utilized supplemental bST for greater than or equal to 25% of the cow-days during the trial. Mean herd use of bST in adopter herds was 38.6%. No difference in the number of cows culled per cow-day at risk was detected between control and adopter herds (0.09 and 0.11%, respectively). Amount of in-herd use of bST was unrelated to culling. No significant differences were determined between adopter and control herds in the percentage of cows that were culled for any of the nine possible culling reasons. The results of this study suggest that culling patterns in herds that use bST are unaffected for at least the first year after adoption.
Hooves: a laminitis history bookRuegg, P., Smith, R. A.Hooves: a laminitis history bookRuegg, P., Smith, R. A.
Incidence and Control of Digital Dermatitis of Cattle Kept on Large Dairy-Cattle Units with Open Successive Herd GrazingBerankova, E., Roztocil, V., Rusek, T. et alIncidence and Control of Digital Dermatitis of Cattle Kept on Large Dairy-Cattle Units with Open Successive Herd GrazingBerankova, E., Roztocil, V., Rusek, T., Ulman, L.Monatshefte fur Veterinarmedizin1988
Skin and foot lesionsRozier, J., Tassin, P.Skin and foot lesionsRozier, J., Tassin, P.Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire de l'Ecole d'Alfort1996
Investigation of the aetiology of udder-thigh dermatitis in French dairy cattleFerrieres, Alexis, François et alInvestigation of the aetiology of udder-thigh dermatitis in French dairy cattleFerrieres, Alexis, François, Pierre-Michel, Raboisson, Didier, Roque, Jean-Louis, Roy, ChristopheThe Veterinary Journal2012Udder-thigh dermatitis (UTD) is a common disease in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to define UTD incidence, its risk factors and the involved pathogens. Of 74 respondents, 72 (97%) reported having had the disease. On those farms the incidence was 5.3 cases per 100 cow years. The odds ratio (OR) of UTD in primiparous compared to multiparous cows was 23.4 (95% CI 17.3–33.8). Compared to tied stalls, the ORs of UTD were 0.65 (95% CI 0.45–0.92) and 0.43 (95% CI 0.24–0.71) for free stalls and straw yards, respectively. Udder oedema was reported in 98.3% of cows with UTD. The most common bacteria isolated from affected skin were Fusobacterium spp. (12/14 cases). This study suggests that UTD management should focus on local treatment, reducing udder oedema and increasing exercise.
Effects of stage of lactation, month, age, origin and heart girth on lameness in dairy cattleRowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M. et alEffects of stage of lactation, month, age, origin and heart girth on lameness in dairy cattleRowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M., Williams, L.A.The Veterinary Record1985
Effects of season, herd size, management system and veterinary practice on the lameness incidence in dairy cattleRowlands, G. J., Russel, A.M., Williams et alEffects of season, herd size, management system and veterinary practice on the lameness incidence in dairy cattleRowlands, G. J., Russel, A.M., Williams, L.A.Veterinary Record1983
A Comparison of Different Models of the Lactation Curve in Dairy-CattleLucey, S., Rowlands, G. J., Russell et alA Comparison of Different Models of the Lactation Curve in Dairy-CattleLucey, S., Rowlands, G. J., Russell, A. M.Animal Production1982
Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and...Bonde, M., Hindhede, J., Jakobsen et alEvaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinionBonde, M., Hindhede, J., Jakobsen, I. A., Klaas, I. C., Rousing, T., Sorensen, J. T.Animal Welfare2007
Relative importance of factors influencing the prevalence of lameness in Austrian cubicle loose-housed dairy cowsIben, Christine, Laaha, Gregor et alRelative importance of factors influencing the prevalence of lameness in Austrian cubicle loose-housed dairy cowsIben, Christine, Laaha, Gregor, Rouha-Mülleder, Cornelia, Troxler, Josef, Wagner, Elisabeth, Waiblinger, SusannePreventive Veterinary Medicine2009
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the coxofemoral joint region in young foalsKofler, J., Palm, F., Rottensteiner, U.Ultrasonographic evaluation of the coxofemoral joint region in young foalsKofler, J., Palm, F., Rottensteiner, U.The Veterinary Journal2012
Collateral ligament prosthesis for the repair of subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint in a Jersey cowKircher, P., Rothlisberger, J. et alCollateral ligament prosthesis for the repair of subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint in a Jersey cowKircher, P., Rothlisberger, J., Schawalder, P., Steiner, A.Veterinary Record2000
The clinical case. Hindlimb lameness in a Fleckvieh calf, female, two months oldNuss, K., Roth, M.The clinical case. Hindlimb lameness in a Fleckvieh calf, female, two months oldNuss, K., Roth, M.Tierarztl Prax1993
Effect of eCG on early resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cowsAmanlou, H., Gerami, A. et alEffect of eCG on early resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cowsAmanlou, H., Gerami, A., Niasari-Naslaji, A., Nikjou, D., Rostami, B., Vojgani, M.Animal Reproduction Science2011
Inter-observer agreement between foot trimmers on foot lesions in cattleBell, NJ, Burnell, M., Rossiter, JER et alInter-observer agreement between foot trimmers on foot lesions in cattleBell, NJ, Burnell, M., Rossiter, JER, Van Winden,S17th International Symposium and 9th International Conference on Lameness in Ruminants2013
Injection Site Lesions of Footrot Vaccines in SheepRoss, A. D., Titterington, D. M.Injection Site Lesions of Footrot Vaccines in SheepRoss, A. D., Titterington, D. M.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1984
Formalin and Footrot in SheepRoss, A. D.Formalin and Footrot in SheepRoss, A. D.New Zealand Veterinary Journal1983
Effects of Biotin Supplementation on Peripartum Performance and Metabolites of Holstein CowsBadinga, L., Martin, F. G., McDowell et alEffects of Biotin Supplementation on Peripartum Performance and Metabolites of Holstein CowsBadinga, L., Martin, F. G., McDowell, L. R., McMahon, R., Rosendo, O., Seymour, W. M., Shearer, J. F., Staples, C. R., Wilkinson, N. S.J Dairy Sci2004Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive 0 or 20 mg of biotin/d starting at an average of 16 d prepartum and then switched to 0 or 30 mg of biotin/d from calving through 70 d postpartum to determine whether supplemental biotin would affect cow performance, hepatic lipidosis, and plasma metabolites. Mean concentration of biotin in plasma sampled weekly was greater in cows fed biotin (4.3 vs. 9.4 nmol/L). Postpartum dry matter intake as a percentage of body weight (3.9% vs. 4.0%), milk production (35.8 vs. 34.8 kg/d), and milk fat concentrations (3.59% vs. 3.69%) were similar between treatment groups. Milk from biotin-supplemented cows tended to have a greater concentration of protein (2.73% vs. 2.83%). Concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids were lower at wk 2 (652 vs. 413 {micro}Eq/mL) and 4 (381 vs. 196 {micro}Eq/mL) postpartum in cows fed supplemental biotin. However, mean plasma concentrations of {beta}-hydroxybutyric acid were not affected by biotin supplementation. Mean concentration of plasma glucose was greater for lactating cows fed supplemental biotin (63.4 vs. 66.6 mg/dL). Biopsies of liver were taken at 2, 16, and 30 d postpartum. The triacylglycerol concentration in liver (wet basis) tended to decrease at a faster rate after d 2 postpartum with biotin supplementation compared with control cows. The potential mechanisms that link improved glucose status and decreased lipid mobilization in cows supplemented with biotin warrant further investigation.
Identification of immunogenic proteins in Treponema phagedenis-like strain V1 from digital dermatitis lesions by phage displayBjörkman, Camilla, Frykberg, Lars et alIdentification of immunogenic proteins in Treponema phagedenis-like strain V1 from digital dermatitis lesions by phage displayBjörkman, Camilla, Frykberg, Lars, Guss, Bengt, Näslund, Katarina, Pringle, Märit, Rosander, AnnaVeterinary Microbiology2011
Comparison of gene probe and conventional methods for the differentiation of ovine footrot isolates of Dichelobacter nodosusBillington, S. J., Haring, V., Howarth et alComparison of gene probe and conventional methods for the differentiation of ovine footrot isolates of Dichelobacter nodosusBillington, S. J., Haring, V., Howarth, P. A., Links, I., Liu, D., Palmer, M. A., Pitman, D. R., Rood, J. I., Stewart, D. J., Vaughan, J. A., Yong, W. K.Veterinary Microbiology1996In a collaborative study that involved four Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories a gene probe test based on the recombinant plasmids pJIR318, pJIR314B, and pJIR313, which contain genomic vap or vrl regions, was compared with conventional tests used for the differential diagnosis of ovine footrot. A total of 771 clinical Dichelobacter nodosus isolates were tested and designated as belonging to one of several gene probe categories. The results showed that 87% of the virulent isolates belonged to gene probe category 1, compared to only 6% of the benign isolates. It was concluded that there was good correlation between the gene probe test and the virulence designation of these isolates as well as the results of elastase, gelatin-gel and protease isoenzyme tests. Furthermore, the gene probe test was converted to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test. It is suggested that diagnostic laboratories consider carrying out both this PCR test and tests based on the extracellular proteases of D. nodosus.
Techniques for the modification of foot-blocks(cowslips) in the treatment of complicated claw lesionsRollins, T.Techniques for the modification of foot-blocks(cowslips) in the treatment of complicated claw lesionsRollins, T.
Synovial fluid analysis in cattle: a review of 130 casesAnderson, D. E., Desrochers, A., Hull et alSynovial fluid analysis in cattle: a review of 130 casesAnderson, D. E., Desrochers, A., Hull, B. L., Rings, D. M., Rohde, C., St Jean, G.Veterinary Surgery2000
Comparisons of synovial fluid analysis of cattle with clinical diagnosis of infectious and non infectious joint disease: 130 casesAnderson, D. E., Desrochers, A., Hull et alComparisons of synovial fluid analysis of cattle with clinical diagnosis of infectious and non infectious joint disease: 130 casesAnderson, D. E., Desrochers, A., Hull, B. L., Rings, D. M., Rohde, C., St Jean, G.
Investigation of indexes which consider protein, fat and 15 linear type traitsLawlor, T. J., Rogers, G. W., Short et alInvestigation of indexes which consider protein, fat and 15 linear type traitsLawlor, T. J., Rogers, G. W., Short, T. H.Journal of Dairy Science1992Selection index was utilized to obtain index coeff. for milk yield and 7 composite type traits. Composite type traits were chosen to represent groups of highly correlated linear type traits (to reduce problems associated with correlated traits). The aggregate genotype (breeding goal) included milk yield, mastitis, milking labour, laminitis, ketosis and milk fever. Genetic parameters and economic values were based on literature values if available. Index coeff. for 15 linear type traits were calculated based on their heritabilities and the index coeff. for the representative composite type trait. Protein*3 + fat on a standardized basis was chosen to represent milk yield and was emphasized either 2, 3 or 4 times as much as the total for all 15 liner type traits in new equations. These new equations were used to calculate index values for the top 400 bulls based on the current Type-Production Index (TPI). These indexes ranked bulls differently when compared with the current TPI
Index selection using yield, SCC, udder depth, teat placement and foot angleRogers, G. W.Index selection using yield, SCC, udder depth, teat placement and foot angleRogers, G. W.Journal of Dairy Science1991Milk yield (MY), somatic cell count (SCC), udder depth (UD), teat placement (TP) and foot angle (FA) were evaluated in an index (sire index with 50 daughters) to improve an aggregate genotype, which included MY, mastitis, milking labour and laminitis. Parameters and economic values were taken from the literature if available. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for various parameters. Correlations between the index and aggregate genotype, responses in the aggregate genotype, and standardized index coeff. (b-values) were calculated for full and reduced indices (MY always included). Selection on MY, SCC, UD, TP and FA would improve efficiency of response by 2-3% over selection on MY alone. Most improvement in efficiency over selection on MY alone came from adding SCC and/or UD. Undesirable responses in mastitis were reduced when SCC, UD and/or TP were added to the index. Standardized index coeff. for MY were 3 to 4 times the sum of the standardized coeff. for SCC, UD, TP and FA when all were included in the index. Index coeff. were always negative for SCC, and positive for UD, TP and FA
When is a cow in estrus? Clinical and practical aspectsHanzen, Ch, Hunter, R. H. F. et alWhen is a cow in estrus? Clinical and practical aspectsHanzen, Ch, Hunter, R. H. F., López-Gatius, F., Roelofs, J., van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M.Theriogenology2010
Lameness in breeding cattle in the United States: the national market cow and bull beef quality audit, 1999Cowman, G. L., Floyd, J. G., Roeber et alLameness in breeding cattle in the United States: the national market cow and bull beef quality audit, 1999Cowman, G. L., Floyd, J. G., Roeber, D. L., Smith, G. C.
National Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit – 1999: A survey of producer-related defects in market cows and bullsBelk, K. E., Field, T. G., Mies, P. D. et alNational Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit – 1999: A survey of producer-related defects in market cows and bullsBelk, K. E., Field, T. G., Mies, P. D., Roeber, D. L., Scanga, J. A., Smith, C. D., Smith, G. C., Tatum, J. D.Journal of Animal Science2001The 1999 National Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit comprised face-to-face interviews with industry representatives (n = 49); in-plant evaluations of cattle in holding pens (n = 3,969), carcasses on harvest floors (n = 5,679), and in carcass coolers (n = 4,378); and a strategy workshop. Face-to-face interviews suggested that the beef industry was most frequently concerned about the presence of antibiotic residues in carcasses, presence of lead shot in carcasses, and price discovery for carcasses following excessive trimming of bruises and testing due to arthritic joints, pathogens, or antibiotic residues. Although live animal evaluations determined that 73.4% of beef cows, 60.8% of dairy cows, 63.7% of beef bulls, and 10.9% of dairy bulls did not exhibit evidence of lameness, Tosses due to lameness were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 1994 National Non-Fed Beef Quality Audit. In-plant audits revealed that 88.9, 10.3, and 88.2% of cow carcasses and 18.9, 21.2, and 52.9% of huh carcasses had inadequate muscling, arthritic joints, and at least 1 bruise, respectively, all of which resulted in greater (P < 0.05) losses than the same defects in 1994. Audits revealed that 88.9% of cow carcasses and 18.9% of bull carcasses were lightly muscled, resulting in greater (P < 0.05) losses for cow carcasses, and similar (P > 0.05) losses for bull carcasses, than the same defect in the 1994 audit. Also, 14.5 and 30.8% of cow carcasses and 6.9 and 5.9% of bull carcasses had excess external fat and yellow-colored external fat, respectively, which was an improvement (P < 0.05) over 1994 results. In aggregate, 24.1, 19.2, 7.2, 6.7, 9.5, and 1.1% of livers, tripe, hearts, heads, tongues, and whole cattle or carcasses, respectively, were condemned and 60.6, 2.4, and 46.5% of cattle had hide damage from latent defects, insect damage, and brands, respectively. Condemnation rates were generally lower (P < 0.05), but tongue condemnations and frequency of branded hides were higher (P < 0.05) than in 1994. Producers should promote value in cows and bulls by managing to minimize quality defects, monitoring health and condition, and marketing in a timely manner. Using these techniques, producers might have recaptured $13.82, $27.50, and $27.50, respectively, for each cow or bull harvested in 1999.
Farm- and host-level risk factors for papillomatous digital dermatitis in Chilean dairy cattleHird, D. W., Melendez-Retamal, P., Read et alFarm- and host-level risk factors for papillomatous digital dermatitis in Chilean dairy cattleHird, D. W., Melendez-Retamal, P., Read, D. H., Rodriguez Lainz, A., Walker, R. L.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1999A cross-sectional study was conducted in southern Chile between January and March, 1996, to identify risk factors for papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) in lactating daily and dual-purpose cows. A total of 3,265 cows from 22 farms were examined in the milking parlor for PDD lesions. Additional information was collected from dairies' computerized records and by direct interview of managers. Data were analyzed using logistic and logistic-binomial regression (with dairy as a random-effect term). German Red-Pied (dual-purpose) cows were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely (odds ratio (OR) = 0.3) to have PDD lesions than German Black-Pied and Holstein crossbreds. First-parity cows had the highest odds of PDD, and odds diminished, in a dose-effect manner, as parity increased. Odds of PDD increased with increasing days in lactation. Cows that calved during winter were more likely to have PDD (OR = 1.4) than those calving at any other season. Cows on farms that bought heifers in the past 10 years had a 3-fold increase in the odds of PDD compared to those on farms that never bought heifers. Loose-housed cows had a higher risk of PDD (OR = 7), followed by cows in free stalls or in open corrals (OR = 2.8 and 1.3, respectively), compared to cows on pasture all year. Cows on dairies that used a footbath during 1996 were less likely (OR = 0.3) to have PDD than these in dairies not using one. Parlor type was associated with PDD, but this was likely an effect of parlor design on ease of inspection of cows' feet. A policy of trimming all cows' vs. only lame cows' feet and a policy about buying adult cows did not have significant effects on PDD risk. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Papillomatous digital dermatitis in Chilean dairies and evaluation of a screening methodHird, D. W., Melendez-Retamal, P., Read et alPapillomatous digital dermatitis in Chilean dairies and evaluation of a screening methodHird, D. W., Melendez-Retamal, P., Read, D. H., Rodriguez Lainz, A.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1998Outbreaks of papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) have been reported from many countries, but there is little information on prevalence and geographic distribution of the disease. Our objectives were to describe prevalence of PDD on dairies belonging to the two main dairy-producer associations in Chile, and to evaluate a milking-parlor screening method for detection of PDD in dairy cows. First, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to all 214 association dairy managers. Seventy percent of the 119 respondents had observed PDD on their dairies. About 83% of the 63 responding managers had first seen PDD during the previous 10 years. Subsequently, a random sample of 43 dairies stratified by association was selected from the total 214 for PDD screening. During milking, we inspected cows' feet for PDD lesions; 91% of dairies had cows affected by PDD; median PDD prevalence for milking cows in dairies was 6.1%. Finally, in one dairy, PDD screening at the parlor was compared to PDD diagnosis by inspecting restrained cows in a chute. The screening method had a sensitivity of 0.72, and a specificity of 0.99. This study demonstrated that PDD was widespread on study dairies in Chile. The screening test presented can be used as a cost efficient method to estimate prevalence of PDD either on individual dairies or in large-scale surveys. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Papillomatous digital dermatitis in 458 dairiesHird, D. W., Read, D. H. et alPapillomatous digital dermatitis in 458 dairiesHird, D. W., Read, D. H., Rodriguez Lainz, A., Walker, R. L.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1996Objective-To estimate prevalence of papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) in California dairies during 1993, to describe temporal and spatial patterns of PDD and response of cows to treatment, and to evaluate herd-related risk factors for PDD. Design-Epidemiologic survey. Sample Population-All southern California dairies and a 50% random sample of the rest of California dairies. Procedure-A questionnaire was mailed to managers of 1,429 selected dairies. Results-Prevalence of PDD during 1993 was significantly higher for dairies in the south (75.3%) and central (68.8%) regions, compared with north coast (33.3%) and north (23.1%) regions of the state. Herd mean and median proportions of affected cows in PDD-affected herds were 11.6 (SEM = 0.9) and 5%, respectively. Most (74%) dairy managers surveyed observed PDD for the first time during 1992 or 1993. Highest PDD activity was reported as taking place in summer in the south and in fall and winter in the north coast and north regions; an obvious pattern was not determined for the central region. Clinical Implications-PDD was widespread in California dairies during 1993 and affected a high proportion of cows, especially in the south and central regions of the state
Case-control study of papillomatous digital dermatitis in southern California dairy farmsCarpenter, T. E., David, W. H., Read et alCase-control study of papillomatous digital dermatitis in southern California dairy farmsCarpenter, T. E., David, W. H., Read, D. H., Rodriguez Lainz, A.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1996Data from 37 southern California dairy farms, with an annual average proportion of > 5% of cows affected by papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) (cases), were compared with those from 20 dairy farms with less than or equal to 5% cows affected (controls). Information on dairy environment, management and PDD occurrence was obtained from dairy managers, veterinarians and hooftrimmers, and by direct measurements at the farms. Odds of having a higher proportion (> 5%) of cows affected were about 20 times greater in dairy farms with muddier corrals than in drier dairy farms. Buying replacement heifers was associated with a 4.7-fold increase in the odds of higher PDD prevalence, compared to dairy farms that did not buy heifers, In addition, a positive association was found between risk and number of heifers purchased. Spatial analysis (used to examine distribution patterns of the study dairy farms) showed no evidence of clustering among case or control dairy farms. There was no association between case dairy farms and proximity to the major local river
Thermographic assessment of hoof temperature in dairy cows with different mobility scoresBustamante, H. A., Descouvieres, P. T. et alThermographic assessment of hoof temperature in dairy cows with different mobility scoresBustamante, H. A., Descouvieres, P. T., Olivares, F. J., Rodriguez, A. R., Tadich, N. A., Werner, M. P.Livestock Science2016The aim of this study was to determine if temperature varies in hooves of cows with different mobility scores (MS) using infrared thermography. A total of 120 Friesian, Kiwi cross and Jersey cows were used, which were grouped according to their mobility scores (MS 0–3: n=30 in each MS group). Animals were introduced in a crush for clinical examination and then thermograms from the anterior, posterior, lateral and sole views were taken. Thermogram analysis of different anatomical hoof zones was performed. The temperatures obtained for different views were: anterior (20.8 °C–24.7 °C), posterior (20.7 °C–25.9 °C), lateral (19.2 °C–22.4 °C) and sole (16.5 °C–20.1 °C). The observed zonal temperature for each view was independent and similar for all MS, however significant differences between cows with MS 0 and MS 3 are described. For this purpose, a threshold temperature for the sole view>16.6 °C was set allowing the identification of 83% cows with MS 1 and 60% those cows with MS 0. The best trade off was obtained for the posterior view, with a threshold temperature>23.5 °C, allowing the identification ~70% of both cows with MS 0 and MS 3. Using IRT we were able to show that cows with MS 3 had higher hoof temperatures compared to cows with MS 0 in the anterior, posterior and sole views. None of the evaluated thermographic views showed significant temperatures changes for cows with MS 1 and MS 2. IRT is not a practical method to be used on farm and does not contribute to early lameness detection.
Zoonoses in goats: How to control themRodolakis, AnnieZoonoses in goats: How to control themRodolakis, AnnieSmall Ruminant Research
Comparison of three commercial vaccines for preventing persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virusBrodersen, Bruce W., Eason, Andrew B. et alComparison of three commercial vaccines for preventing persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virusBrodersen, Bruce W., Eason, Andrew B., Galik, Patricia K., Givens, M. Daniel, Marley, M. Shonda D., Nunley, Callie L., Riddell, Kay P., Rodning, Soren P., Walz, Paul H., Zhang, YijingTheriogenology2010
Reproductive and economic impact following controlled introduction of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea...Galik, P. K., Gard, J. A., Givens et alReproductive and economic impact following controlled introduction of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus into a naive group of heifersGalik, P. K., Gard, J. A., Givens, M. D., Hathcock, T. L., Marley, M. S. D., Owsley, W. F., Prevatt, J. W., Riddell, K. P., Rodning, S. P., Zhang, Y.Theriogenology2012
Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfareBerry, D. P., Fisher, M. W., Friggens et alInvited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfareBerry, D. P., Fisher, M. W., Friggens, N. C., Kay, J. K., Roche, J. R., Stafford, K. J.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Does water or blowing air stimulate cows to defecate?de Passillé, Anne Marie, Robichaud et alDoes water or blowing air stimulate cows to defecate?de Passillé, Anne Marie, Robichaud, Marianne Villettaz, Rushen, JeffreyApplied Animal Behaviour Science2013Manure is an important cause of dirtiness and disease for cows and can affect milk quality and human health. The aim of this study was to test whether we could stimulate cows to defecate at a particular location in order to reduce the spread of manure. A series of four tests with 12 lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 137.5 ± 17.5 days, parity = 3.3 ± 1.5) was conducted. In Test 1, cows walked through either an empty footbath or one filled with water (21 °C) following a balanced order with one treatment per day, for 6 days. Cows were more likely to defecate when walked through the water filled footbath (67% vs 42% of tests: P = 0.04). In Test 2, the cows stood for 2 min either in an empty footbath or in a footbath filled with still water or with running water, with one treatment per day, for 9 days. In Test 3, the cows stood for 2 min in an empty footbath with nothing, air or water sprayed on their feet, with one treatment per day, for 9 days. No significant treatment differences were found for Tests 2 and 3 (P > 0.10). After Test 3, we repeated one repetition of Test 1 (Test 4) but no treatment differences were found at that point (P > 0.10). None of our tests reliably stimulated defecation, which seemed to occur most when cows were exposed to novelty.
Fusobacterial infections: an underestimated threatRoberts, G. L.Fusobacterial infections: an underestimated threatRoberts, G. L.Br J Biomed Sci2000The involvement of fusobacteria in a wide range of human and animal infection has long been recognised. Slow-growing anaerobes, often in polymicrobial culture, they are not always identified but are present mainly in the oropharynx, from where they are bloodborne to other sites or aspirated into the lung. Fusobacterium nucleatum is commonly found in periodontal disease and produces tissue irritants such as butyric acid, proteases and cytokines. It has strong adhesive properties due to the presence of lectins, and these outer-membrane proteins mediate adhesion to epithelia and tooth surfaces, and coagglutination with other suspected pathogens. F. necrophorum may cause necrotising tonsillitis and septicaemia, leading to the spread of infection and the development of abscesses in the lung and brain--a form of Lemierre's syndrome. Calf diphtheria, foot rot and other infections in animals are well defined, with the pathogenic mechanisms involving leucotoxins, endotoxins and adhesins. A foul smell produced by butyric acid and other metabolic products is common to all fusobacterial infections. Identification using simple tests is within the scope of most laboratories
Evaluation of three-dimensional accelerometers to monitor and classify behavior patterns in cattleLarson, R. L., Renter, D. G., Robert et alEvaluation of three-dimensional accelerometers to monitor and classify behavior patterns in cattleLarson, R. L., Renter, D. G., Robert, B., White, B. J.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2009Cattle behavior is potentially a valuable indicator of health and well-being; however, natural movement patterns can be influenced by the presence of a human observer. A remote system could augment the ability of researchers, and eventually cattle producers, to monitor changes in cattle behavior. Constant video surveillance allows non-invasive behavior monitoring, but logging the movement patterns on individual animals over long periods of time is often cost prohibitive and labor intensive. Accelerometers record three-dimensional movement and could potentially be used to remotely monitor cattle behavior. These devices collect data based on pre-defined recording intervals, called epochs. Our objectives were to (1) determine if accelerometers can accurately document cattle behavior and (2) identify differences in classification accuracy among accelerometer epoch settings. Video-recorded observations and accelerometer data were collected from 15 crossbred beef calves and used to generate classification trees that predict behavior based on accelerometer data. Postural orientations were classified as lying or standing, while dynamic activities were classified as walking or a transition between activities. Video analysis was treated as the gold standard and logistic regression models were used to determine classification accuracy related to each activity and epoch setting. Classification of lying and standing activities by accelerometer illustrated excellent agreement with video (99.2% and 98.0% respectively); while walking classification accuracy was significantly (P < 0.01) lower (67.8%). Classification agreement was higher in the 3 s (98.1%) and 5 s (97.7%) epochs compared to the 10 s (85.4%) epoch. Overall, we found the accelerometers provided an accurate, remote measure of cattle behavior over the trial period, but that classification accuracy was affected by the specific behavior monitored and the reporting interval (epoch).
The use of xylazine hydrochloride in an analgesic protocol for claw treatment of lame dairy cows in lateral recumbency on a...Herdtweck, Sarah, Meyer, Henning et alThe use of xylazine hydrochloride in an analgesic protocol for claw treatment of lame dairy cows in lateral recumbency on a surgical tipping tableHerdtweck, Sarah, Meyer, Henning, Offinger, Jennifer, Rehage, Juergen, Rizk, Awad, Zaghloul, AdelThe Veterinary Journal2012
Effect of hypoxia/reoxygenation on the contractility of the isolated bovine digital veinAscanio, E., Comerma-Steffensen, S. et alEffect of hypoxia/reoxygenation on the contractility of the isolated bovine digital veinAscanio, E., Comerma-Steffensen, S., Hahn, M., Reggio, M., Risso, A., Rojas, J., Zerpa, H.Research in Veterinary Science2012
Dairy cow feeding space requirements assessed in a Y-maze choice testHaskell, M. J., Healy, S. D., Lawrence et alDairy cow feeding space requirements assessed in a Y-maze choice testHaskell, M. J., Healy, S. D., Lawrence, A. B., Rioja-Lang, F. C., Roberts, D. J.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Validation of the Finnish national dairy disease register—Data transfer from cow health cards to the disease registerPeltoniemi, O. A. T., Rintakoski, S. et alValidation of the Finnish national dairy disease register—Data transfer from cow health cards to the disease registerPeltoniemi, O. A. T., Rintakoski, S., Taponen, J., Virtala, A. M. K.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Validation of accelerometers to automatically record sow postures and stepping behaviourBergeron, Renée, Devillers, Nicolas et alValidation of accelerometers to automatically record sow postures and stepping behaviourBergeron, Renée, Devillers, Nicolas, Ringgenberg, NadineApplied Animal Behaviour Science2010
Partial identification of spirochaetes from two dairy cows with digital dermatitis by polymerase chain reaction analysis of the...David, G. P., Hughes, S. L., Rijpkema et alPartial identification of spirochaetes from two dairy cows with digital dermatitis by polymerase chain reaction analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA geneDavid, G. P., Hughes, S. L., Rijpkema, S. G. T., Woodward, M. J.Veterinary Record1997Specimens taken postmortem from typical lesions of digital dermatitis in two dairy cows were tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of a spirochaetal 16S rRNA gene. Seven different assays detected the gene in the samples from both cows. Two of the PCR products were sequenced and a comparison of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the spirochaete belonged to the genus Treponema and was closely related to Treponema denticola. A PCR specific for the detection of the digital dermatitis-associated treponeme was developed.
Medium-term effects of repeated exposure to stray voltage on activity, stress physiology, and milk production and composition in...Barrier, A., Charles, C., Deschamps, F. et alMedium-term effects of repeated exposure to stray voltage on activity, stress physiology, and milk production and composition in dairy cowsBarrier, A., Charles, C., Deschamps, F., Duvaux-Ponter, C., Ponter, A. A., Rigalma, K., Roussel, S.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Cloning, Sequence and Expression of the Gene (Aprv5) Encoding Extracellular Serine Acidic Protease-V5 from Dichelobacter-NodosusEdwards, R. D., Focareta, A., Kortt et alCloning, Sequence and Expression of the Gene (Aprv5) Encoding Extracellular Serine Acidic Protease-V5 from Dichelobacter-NodosusEdwards, R. D., Focareta, A., Kortt, A. A., Riffkin, M. C., Stewart, D. J.Gene1993The acidic protease VS-encoding gene (aprV5) from Gram(-) Dichelobacter nodosus virulent strain 198 was isolated from a cosmid bank by activity screening and sequenced. The 2371-bp nucleotide (nt) sequence contained an open reading frame coding for a protein precursor of 595 amino acid (aa) residues composed of a signal peptide, a pro-region, a mature active protease of 347 aa and a C-terminal extension region of 120 aa. The deduced aa sequence of the pre-pro-mature protease regions showed about 65% similarity to that of D. nodosus basic protease while the C-terminal extension region showed only about 26% similarity. The aprV5 gene, without its C-terminal extension region, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The acidic protease BS-encoding gene (aprB5) from non-virulent strain 305 was also cloned and sequenced. The aprB5 nt sequence showed 99% homology to that of aprV5 with two single-aa changes occurring in the precursor.
Disagrees with classification of a treatment for digital dermatitisRiemann, H. P.Disagrees with classification of a treatment for digital dermatitisRiemann, H. P.J Am Vet Med Assoc2002
Perceptions and risk factors for lameness on organic and small conventional dairy farmsCicconi, K. M., Gamroth, M. J., Richert et alPerceptions and risk factors for lameness on organic and small conventional dairy farmsCicconi, K. M., Gamroth, M. J., Richert, R. M., Ruegg, P. L., Schukken, Y. H., Stiglbauer, K. E.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United...Cicconi, K. M., Gamroth, M. J., Richert et alRisk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United StatesCicconi, K. M., Gamroth, M. J., Richert, R. M., Ruegg, P. L., Schukken, Y. H., Stiglbauer, K. E.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Foot trimming by lay people [letter; comment]Richardson, S. P.Foot trimming by lay people [letter; comment]Richardson, S. P.Veterinary Record1999
First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep’s wool using GC–MSHall, Sarah, Harrison, Nancy, Richards et alFirst detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep’s wool using GC–MSHall, Sarah, Harrison, Nancy, Richards, Ngaio, Scott, KarenEnvironmental Pollution2011
The occurrence of foot lameness in beef cattle slaughtered in the state of Rio de JaneiroBorges, J. R. J., Marisco Filho, F. et alThe occurrence of foot lameness in beef cattle slaughtered in the state of Rio de JaneiroBorges, J. R. J., Marisco Filho, F., Pitombo, C. A., Ribeiro, P. N., Ronconi, M. A.Arquivos da Escola de Medicina Veterinaria da Universidade Federal da Bahia1992A total of 1695 Zebu males reared on pasture in the State of Rio de Janeiro were studied. Interdigital dermatitis was found in 7 animals, interdigital hyperplasia in 4, digital dermatitis in 2 animals and horn erosion and proliferative osteoperiostitis in 1 animal each. Since only 15 animals (0.88%) were affected it was concluded that foot disease is not a significant problem in pastured Zebu cattle
Myonecrosis by Clostridium septicum in a dog, diagnosed by a new multiplex-PCRBarros, Claudenice Batista, Lobato et alMyonecrosis by Clostridium septicum in a dog, diagnosed by a new multiplex-PCRBarros, Claudenice Batista, Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria, Lucas, Thays Mizuki, Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito, Paes, Antonio Carlos, Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã, Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia, Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira, Teixeira, Ana Izabel PassarelaAnaerobe2012
Prevalence of periparturient diseases and effects on fertility of seasonally calving grazing dairy cows supplemented with...Ayres, H., Bisinotto, R. S., Favoreto et alPrevalence of periparturient diseases and effects on fertility of seasonally calving grazing dairy cows supplemented with concentratesAyres, H., Bisinotto, R. S., Favoreto, M., Greco, L. F., Lima, F. S., Marsola, R. S., Martinez, N., Monteiro, A. P. A., Ribeiro, E. S., Santos, J. E. P., Thatcher, W. W.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Assessing experimental visceral pain in dairy cattle: A pilot, prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled study focusing on...Beaudry, F., Bichot, S., de Courval et alAssessing experimental visceral pain in dairy cattle: A pilot, prospective, blinded, randomized, and controlled study focusing on spinal pain proteomicsBeaudry, F., Bichot, S., de Courval, M. L., del Castillo, J. R. E., Frank, D., Gauvin, D., Harvey, D., Hélie, P., Livingston, A., Mulon, P. Y., Otis, C., Rialland, P., Troncy, E.Journal of Dairy Science2014
Effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emission, digestion, and energy and nitrogen balance of lactating dairy cowsDuval, S., Humphries, D. J., Kindermann et alEffects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emission, digestion, and energy and nitrogen balance of lactating dairy cowsDuval, S., Humphries, D. J., Kindermann, M., Kirton, P., Reynolds, C. K., Steinberg, W.Journal of Dairy Science
Premature parturition in cows probably caused by toxic fescueRenner, J. E.Premature parturition in cows probably caused by toxic fescueRenner, J. E.Veterinaria Argentina1992In outbreaks of probable fescue toxicosis occurring after heavy rainfall in a herd of 210 cows over an 18-month period, on an established Festuca arundinacea pasture, besides the customary lameness, principally in young cattle, there were 21 cases of premature parturition and 2 abortions. Serological tests excluded bacterial and viral agents. Caruncular ischaemia is suggested. There was no placental retention
Comparison of erythromycin and oxytetracycline for the treatment of virulent footrot in grazing sheepCallinan, A. P. L., Rendell, D. K.Comparison of erythromycin and oxytetracycline for the treatment of virulent footrot in grazing sheepCallinan, A. P. L., Rendell, D. K.Australian Veterinary Journal1997
Functional hoof trimming in bovinesMillemann, Y., Remy, D.Functional hoof trimming in bovinesMillemann, Y., Remy, D.Point Veterinaire1999The germinate layer is responsible for the hoofs growth, and fed by the pododerma. An anarchic growth of the hoof can be caused by : defect in conformation of the limb, loot conditions (laminitis), and environmental factors (ground composition, hygiene of the litter). When these factors are known as well as the biomechanic forces involved, it is then possible to carry out preventative trimming, therefore correcting the conformation of the limb. A good distribution of the load, between lateral and medial hoof, as well as on two limbs must be achieved. This functional trimming must be carried out systematically twice yearly (12 photos, 6 figures, 4 encadres, 24 references)
Functional trimming of bovine hoovesMillemann, Y., Remy, D.Functional trimming of bovine hoovesMillemann, Y., Remy, D.Point Veterinaire1998
Association between digital dermatitis lesions and test-day milk yield of Holstein cows from 41 French dairy farmsBareille, N., Chesnin, A., Guatteo, R. et alAssociation between digital dermatitis lesions and test-day milk yield of Holstein cows from 41 French dairy farmsBareille, N., Chesnin, A., Guatteo, R., Lehébel, A., Relun, A.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Estimation of the relative impact of treatment and herd management practices on prevention of digital dermatitis in French dairy...Bareille, N., Bruggink, M., Guatteo, R. et alEstimation of the relative impact of treatment and herd management practices on prevention of digital dermatitis in French dairy herdsBareille, N., Bruggink, M., Guatteo, R., Lehébel, A., Relun, A.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2013The purpose of this study was to concurrently estimate the effect of different digital dermatitis (DD) treatment regimens and herd management practices on the occurrence of a new DD lesion. A controlled clinical trial was conducted and involved 4678 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms where DD was endemic. Farms were allocated by minimisation to one of 4 treatment regimens, varying through the mode (footbath or collective spraying) and the frequency of application (2 days every 4 weeks or fortnightly). They were visited 7 times every 4 weeks by 14 trained investigators. Frailty Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative effect of potential risk factors and treatment practices on the time until the first occurrence of a DD lesion. At herd level, high initial DD prevalence strongly increased the risk for DD occurrence (HR = 1.93, CI 1.23–3.04), as well as absence of hoof-trimming (HR = 1.75, CI 1.36–2.27) and poor leg cleanliness (HR = 2.44, CI 1.80–3.31). At animal level, Holstein breed (HR = 1.92, CI 1.35–3.57) and high-productive cows (HR = 1.26, CI 1.01–1.56) were identified to be at higher risk for DD compared to Normande breed and low-productive cows, respectively. Compared to individual topical antibiotic treatments alone, collective treatments tended to decrease the risk of DD occurrence only when applied over 2 days at least every fortnight (HR range = 0.64–0.73).
Effectiveness of different regimens of a collective topical treatment using a solution of copper and zinc chelates in the cure of...Bareille, N., Guatteo, R., Lehébel, A. et alEffectiveness of different regimens of a collective topical treatment using a solution of copper and zinc chelates in the cure of digital dermatitis in dairy farms under field conditionsBareille, N., Guatteo, R., Lehébel, A., Relun, A.Journal of Dairy Science2012A controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate in dairy cattle the benefit provided by different regimens of a collective topical treatment using a solution of copper and zinc chelates to cure digital dermatitis (DD) compared with individual treatment alone, and further to investigate factors that could explain variations in the clinical cure of DD lesions over 6 mo. The study was conducted between November 2009 and October 2010 and involved 4,677 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms on which DD was endemic. The farms were quasi-randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment regimens for 6 mo: no collective treatment (control), walk-through footbath during 4 consecutive milkings every 4 wk (FB/4W) or every 2 wk (FB/2W) and collective spraying during 2 milkings every 2 wk (CS/2W). For ethical and welfare reasons, all farmers also had to treat all detected active DD lesions with individual topical spraying of oxytetracycline. Digital dermatitis and leg hygiene were scored on all lactating cows during milking 7 times every 4 wk by 14 trained investigators. During these farm visits, data related to farm management were also collected. The curative effectiveness of collective treatments was assessed through a Cox survival frailty model as the probability of cure of an active DD lesion during at least 2 consecutive visits. The model was adjusted for farm and cow risk factors as well as initial DD prevalence. Monthly DD cure rates were 58, 55, 76, and 76% in the control, FB/4W, FB/2W, and CS/2W regimens, respectively. The spontaneous monthly cure rate for untreated active DD lesions was 61%. Hazard of cure of DD was increased by 1.28 and 1.41 when walk-through footbath and collective spraying, respectively, were applied over 2 d every 2 wk compared with the control regimen. Applying a walk-through footbath 2 d every 4 wk was not sufficient to improve the cure of DD compared with individual treatments alone. Three main factors were identified as speeding DD healing: cleanliness of the feet, initial small size of the DD lesion, and additional individual topical treatment. Grazing tended to speed DD healing. These results highlight the need of combining several control measures, including individual and collective topical treatments, and improving foot hygiene and the early detection of DD lesions to ensure a high cure rate and rapid curing of digital dermatitis on endemically affected farms.
A simple method to score digital dermatitis in dairy cows in the milking parlorBareille, N., Guatteo, R., Relun, A. et alA simple method to score digital dermatitis in dairy cows in the milking parlorBareille, N., Guatteo, R., Relun, A., Roussel, P.Journal of Dairy Science2011The diagnosis of digital dermatitis (DD) in cows is crucial for researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate intra- and inter-observer agreement and accuracy of a simple method to score DD lesions that is based on the inspection of cleaned feet in the milking parlor with a swiveling mirror and a powerful headlamp. The hind feet of 242 Holstein cows from 4 farms were inspected concurrently by 5 observers (to assess inter-observer agreement) during 2 consecutive milkings (to assess intra-observer agreement). This inspection was followed by an inspection of the feet in a trimming chute, considered to be the gold standard test, to test for accuracy. The reliability of the method was assessed using both the 5 M-stages scoring system (M0 to M4, M standing for Mortellaro) and a simplified M-stages scoring system in which the M3 and M4 stages are merged. As most disagreements concerned the M3 and M4 stages, performance was improved with the simplified M-stages scoring system. With this simplified system, the method had good intra-observer agreement [percent of overall raw agreement (PA) = 80%, weighted kappa (κw) = 0.71, and good inter-observer agreement (PA = 77%, κw = 0.66)]. The agreement with the gold standard test was moderate (PA = 69%, κw = 0.58). Considering absence versus presence of a DD lesion on a foot, the method had good sensitivity (0.90) and specificity (0.80). The time spent for inspection varied from 30 to 60 s per cow. Inspection of cleaned feet with a swiveling mirror and a powerful headlamp in the milking parlor is a reliable, cost- and time-friendly method, which may be useful for both farmers and researchers, especially when the DD status of many dairy cows has to be evaluated concomitantly. The reliability of this method might be improved by using more precise descriptive criteria for the discrimination of each M-stage.
Investigations on functional traits in Simmental 2. Incidence of diseases in German Simmental cowsDempfle, L., Jaitner, J., Reinsch, N.Investigations on functional traits in Simmental 2. Incidence of diseases in German Simmental cowsDempfle, L., Jaitner, J., Reinsch, N.Livestock Production Science1997In order to get information on disease incidences in German Simmental, health data were collected from 104 Simmental farms in Upper Bavaria from 1987 to 1990. Generalised linear models with complementary log-log link-function and binomial errors were used for statistical analysis, taking censoring into account, Age was revealed to be of major impact on incidence rates. Age-specific risks for ten different diseases are derived for later use in economic modelling as well as average risks per calving interval and per cow and year. When averaged over all age classes, incidences per cow and year were highest for clinical mastitis (14.6%), retained placenta(8%), metritis (10.8%) and various ovulatory disorders (25.5%). Incidences of claw disorders (7.4%) and other leg problems(5%) were similar to the incidence of milk fever (6.7%). (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V
Investigations on functional traits in Simmental: 1. Treatment costs for ten different diseasesDempfle, L., Reinsch, N.Investigations on functional traits in Simmental: 1. Treatment costs for ten different diseasesDempfle, L., Reinsch, N.Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics1997All health-related events and treatment costs were recorded through fortnightly interviews with the herdsmen of 104 Simmental dairy farms in Upper Bavaria, Germany, from autumn 1987 to spring 1990. The data include 8381 calvings. For 10 different disease classes (dystocia, parturient paresis, retained placenta, metritis, fertility problems, mastitis, udder problems, claw disorders, leg disorders, and other diseases) the sum of all treatment costs from calving up to either the subsequent calving or up to culling were computed. A multiplicative model with 3 covariates (farm, parity, and type of end of lactation (culling or subsequent calving)) was fitted to these observations. Farm effects were significant for almost all diseases. The average sum of treatment costs per calving with an associated disease was estimated as the average expected value for this sum, where averaging is over the farms. These costs ranged from 29 DM (claw disorders) up to 137 DM (dystocia). The average costs per calving (with or without disease) ranged from 1.59 DM (injuries of the udder) to 10.90 DM (fertility problems). Corresponding costs per cow and year were 1.74 DM and 12.24 DM, respectively
Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: A dose-dependent responseReich, L. J., Veira, D. M. et alEffects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: A dose-dependent responseReich, L. J., Veira, D. M., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2010The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (±SD) 89.8 ± 3.7, 74.2 ± 6.4, 62.2 ± 6.3, 43.9 ± 4.0, and 34.7 ± 3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6 ± 2.0 and 6.8 ± 2.2°C in the winter and 13.3 ± 2.5 and 22.6 ± 4.1°C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n = 5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4 ± 0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5 ± 0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1 ± 0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9 ± 0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows.
Post surgical convalescence of dairy cows with left abomasal displacement in relation to fatty liverKaske, M., Mertens, M., Rehage, J. et alPost surgical convalescence of dairy cows with left abomasal displacement in relation to fatty liverKaske, M., Mertens, M., Rehage, J., Scholz, H., Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd1996Blood parameters, feed intake and milk yield were determined in 53 cows with a left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) on the day of surgery (ds; laparotomy and omentopexy) and during the following four days (d1-d4). Using histological methods severe (group SF), moderate (group MF) or no/mild (group NF) fatty liver was found in 32%, 40% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Moderate and severe fatty liver were found almost exclusively in cows in the first three weeks post partum. Post surgery, feed intake and daily milk yield increased steadily in cows of the NF- and MF-group; in cows suffering from severe fatty liver feed intake remained low (p < 0.05). On ds, mean serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutamic dehydrogenase (GLDH) in SF-cows were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and values of cholesterol significantly lower (p < 0.05) as compared to the NF- and MF-group; no significant differences were found between the groups in mean serum glucose concentrations. In the four day period following surgery, in all groups mean serum levels of ASAT, GGT, GLDH and cholesterol remained nearly unchanged, whereas total bilirubin, NEFA, BHB and glucose decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Apart from LDA, 55% of the patients were suffering from mastitis, endometritis or lameness. Within three weeks post surgery, 3 cows of the SF-group and 1 cow of the MF-group developed recumbency and liver coma, and were culled for that reason. In conclusion, post surgical convalescence of cows with LDA is clearly related to disturbances of energy metabolism and fatty liver. Therefore, successful treatment of cows suffering from LDA requires the effective treatment of excessive lipomobilization, ketosis and fatty liver along with the immediate surgical correction of LDA
Melatonin enhances the immune response to vaccination against A1 and C strains of Dichelobacter nodosusMartín-Palomino, Pedro, Míguez et alMelatonin enhances the immune response to vaccination against A1 and C strains of Dichelobacter nodosusMartín-Palomino, Pedro, Míguez, María del Prado, Morgado, Sara, Ramos, Asunción, Regodón, Sergio, Rosado, Juan A., Tarazona, RaquelVaccine2009
The use of melatonin as a vaccine agentCarrascosa-Salmoral, M. P. et alThe use of melatonin as a vaccine agentCarrascosa-Salmoral, M. P., Fernandez-Montesinos, R., Guerrero, J. M., Herrera, J. L., Martin-Palomino, P., Piriz, S., Pozo, D., Regodon, S., Vadillo, S.Vaccine2005Molecules with immunomodulatory properties determine the magnitude and quality of immune responses specific for the coadministered antigen. Melatonin is considered a biological-response modifier of the immune system with broad application in veterinary medicine. In seasonally-breeding animals, the indolamine is able to improve reproductive performance. With the purpose of expanding new advantageous roles for melatonin, we investigated the effect of subcutaneous slow-release melatonin implants in the humoral response after a vaccination. We reported here a new feature of melatonin as an adjuvant-like system towards Dichelobacter nodosus (A1 and C serotypes) - the bacterium which cause ovine footrot - the most important cause of lameness in sheep. Antibody titres determined by both agglutination and ELISA techniques were substantially higher and were sustained for a longer duration than non-implanted animals. Remarkably, the effect of melatonin was completely dependent on the presence of aluminium hydroxide. The finding that melatonin enhances a defined immune response in vivo opens new perspectives for the improvement of Th2-biased immune responses by alum adjuvants. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Major causes of organs and carcass condemnation in small ruminants slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir, Oromia Regional State,...Abunna, Fufa, Beyene, Desta, Debela et alMajor causes of organs and carcass condemnation in small ruminants slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir, Oromia Regional State, EthiopiaAbunna, Fufa, Beyene, Desta, Debela, Etana, Megersa, Bekele, Moje, Nebyou, Regassa, Alemayehu, Sheferaw, Dessie, Skjerve, EysteinPreventive Veterinary Medicine2013
Reactions of the Dairy Cow to Changes in Environmental TemperatureRegan, W. M., Richardson, G. A.Reactions of the Dairy Cow to Changes in Environmental TemperatureRegan, W. M., Richardson, G. A.Journal of Dairy Science1938Summary The effect of environmental temperature on high producing dairy cows was studied in a large psychrometric room in which the temperature was increased from 40 to 100° F., while air movement and relative humidity were maintained at the constant values of 50 feet per minute and 60 per cent respectively. It was found that, as the room temperature was increased, there was a uniform increase in the respiration rate, which approximately doubled for each increment of 18° F.; that there was a decrease in pulse rate; and that at 80 or 85° F., depending upon the breed, a pyrexial point was reached where the animals were no longer able to maintain heat balance. As the room temperature was elevated above this pyrexial point, anorexia developed, milk flow declined, and an alteration occurred in the characteristics of the milk produced, which included a lowering of the casein and solids-not-fat content, and an increase in the percentage of butterfat. The pH of the milk was raised, the freezing point depression lowered, and a longer rennet coagulation time was required. The butterfat secreted was lower in volatile acids and higher in unsaturated components. The cow's principal avenue for heat dissipation is the respiratory system. Her breathing varies directly with the environmental temperature, and her skin has a high insulating value. She may, therefore, adapt herself with comfort to conditions of extreme cold; a fact that helps to explain why, as found by certain research workers, exposure to zero weather brings about neither lowered production not increased maintenance requirement. It is also evident that the cow is not especially well fitted to withstand hot climates, though our studies show a distinct breed difference in this regard. Because the cow's heat regulating mechanism functions in such a radically different manner from that of man, we are not justified in applying the comfort standards worked out for man to the management of cattle. The changes in com-position and physico-chemical characteristics of milk when a state of positive heat balance is reached probably result from blood changes instituted to facilitate heat disposal.
Infectious diseases causing lameness in cattle with a main emphasis on digital dermatitis (Mortellaro disease)Abd El-Aal, A. M., Behery, A. E. et alInfectious diseases causing lameness in cattle with a main emphasis on digital dermatitis (Mortellaro disease)Abd El-Aal, A. M., Behery, A. E., Opsomer, G., Refaai, W., Van Aert, M.Livestock Science2013
Efficacy of a novel copper-based footbath preparation for the treatment of ovine footrot during the spread periodAlley, D. U., Reed, G. A.Efficacy of a novel copper-based footbath preparation for the treatment of ovine footrot during the spread periodAlley, D. U., Reed, G. A.Australian Veterinary Journal1996Objective To determine the efficacy of a novel copper based footbath preparation (CHF-1020) for treatment of ovine footrot during the spread period. Design A series of field trials with treated and control groups run together. Animals Mobs of at least 125 sheep on each of six properties in southern New South Wales with equal numbers of controls. Procedure Sheep of group A were treated after minimal paring by making them stand in CHF-1020 for 15 minutes. Treatment was undertaken at intervals throughout the period of the trials (14 September to 17 December 1993). Group A sheep were run on the same pasture as those from group B (untreated sheep). Results The percentage of sheep exhibiting clinical signs of ovine footrot at the start of the trial ranged from 35 to 88% at score 3 or higher, using a 0 to 5 footscoring system. During the trial, the percentage of infected sheep (greater or equal to score 2) in group B increased and ranged from 40 to 90%. The level of infected sheep in group A on each property was reduced progressively to 1 to 16%. Cure rates of 45 to 94% were achieved, with the lowest rate being on a property with a metal footbath. The next lowest cure rate was 73%. Results indicated that treatment should be undertaken at 2-weekly intervals while spread continues. Treated sheep can be returned to contaminated pastures. Conclusion CHF-1020 is effective during the spread period and can be used for the progressive eradication of ovine footrot.
Comparison of 5 topical spray treatments for control of digital dermatitis in dairy herdsMaas, J., Reed, Barbara Berry et alComparison of 5 topical spray treatments for control of digital dermatitis in dairy herdsMaas, J., Reed, Barbara Berry, Schechter, A.Journal of Dairy Science1996
Effect of mobility score on milk yield and activity in dairy cattleGreen, L. E., Green, M. J., Kaler, J. et alEffect of mobility score on milk yield and activity in dairy cattleGreen, L. E., Green, M. J., Kaler, J., Mason, S. A., Reader, J. D.Journal of Dairy Science2011
An invasive spirochaete associated with interdigital papillomatosis of dairy cattleCastro, A. E., Read, D. H., Sundberg et alAn invasive spirochaete associated with interdigital papillomatosis of dairy cattleCastro, A. E., Read, D. H., Sundberg, J. P., Thurmond, M. C., Walker, R. L.Veterinary Record1992Preliminary findings from a study of Californian interdigital papillomatosis included the diffuse invasion of superficial stratum spinosum and papillary dermis and some focal invasion of deep papillary and reticular dermis and arterioles by a large number of spirochaetes which resembled treponemes. No papillomaviruses or their antigens were detected and the papillomas responded rapidly to procaine penicillin or ceftiofur with mature papillomas decreasing in size, early papillomas healing and the painfulness of all papillomas vanishing. The possibility that the spirochaetes may play a pathogenic role and the relevance of these findings to 'digital dermatitis' in the UK, Netherlands and Italy and 'interdigital papillomatosis' in North America which have similar features is discussed
Papillomatous digital dermatitis (footwarts) in California dairy cattle: clinical and gross pathologic findingsRead, D. H., Walker, R. L.Papillomatous digital dermatitis (footwarts) in California dairy cattle: clinical and gross pathologic findingsRead, D. H., Walker, R. L.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation1998Clinical, gross pathologic, and therapeutic studies were performed on a contagious, painful, wart-like digital disease of unknown etiology in California dairy cattle. The disease was called papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD). Survey indicated that the disease spread geographically throughout southern California over the past few years. In 1991, 31% of herds had papillomatous digital dermatitis, whereas in 1994, 89% were affected. Increased incidence occurred during late spring and summer, 1-3 months after the rainy season. Within-herd morbidity ranged from 0.5% to 12% per month. Study of 93 cows in 10 drylot dairies revealed that 91% had characteristic circumscribed, erosive to papillomatous, intensely painful lesions often surrounded by a ridge of hyperkeratotic skin bearing hypertrophied hairs. Lesions were 2-6 cm across (88%), circular to oval (78%), and raised (59%) and had surfaces that were uniformly erosive and granular (31%), uniformly papillary (28%), or composites of both appearances (41%). Lesions were most frequently seen in lactating heifers (31%) and 3-year-old cows (43%). Clinical signs were characterized by lameness, with walking on toes and clubbing of hooves. Lesions exclusively involved the hind limbs in 82% of cows and the plantar/palmar regions in 84% of cows. Lesions had high (89%) prediliction for plantar/palmar skin bordering the interdigital space. Lesions exclusively involved either the medial or lateral digit in 10% and 28% of cows, respectively. In 50% of cows, both medial and lateral digits of individual Limbs were involved; in most cows (31%), lesions apposed each other across the plantar interdigital space, whereas in others (19%), lesions confluently involved the entire plantar/palmar commissural skin folds. In another 12% of cows, lesions were axial. High proportions of lesions showed complete therapeutic responses to antibiotics: parenteral penicillin (9/9) and ceftiofur (41/44), and topical oxytetracycline (4/4). Recurrence or new lesion development occurred in 48% of cows reexamined 7-12 weeks after complete therapeutic response was observed. Overall, the findings indicated that PDD is a distinct disease entity of economic importance in which bacteria may play an important pathogenic role.
Two cases of bovine hypertrophic osteopathy (Marie-Bamberger’s disease)Fecteau, G., Ravary, B.Two cases of bovine hypertrophic osteopathy (Marie-Bamberger’s disease)Fecteau, G., Ravary, B.Point Veterinaire2000
Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a reviewGrommers, F. J., Kanis, E. et alUndesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a reviewGrommers, F. J., Kanis, E., Noordhuizen Stassen, E. N., Rauw, W. M.Livestock Production Science1998Examples are presented of undesirable (cor)related effects of selection for high production efficiency, with respect to metabolic, reproduction and health traits in broilers, turkeys, pigs and dairy cattle. A biological explanation for the occurrence of negative side effects of selection is presented
Antibody responses to inactivated vaccines and natural infection in cattle using bovine viral diarrhoea virus ELISA kits:...Harmeyer, Silke S., Nanjiani, Ian A. et alAntibody responses to inactivated vaccines and natural infection in cattle using bovine viral diarrhoea virus ELISA kits: Assessment of potential to differentiate infected and vaccinated animalsHarmeyer, Silke S., Nanjiani, Ian A., Raue, RüdigerThe Veterinary Journal2011
Determination of prevalence and economic impact of ovine footrot in central Kashmir India with isolation and molecular...Bhat, M. A., Hussain, I., Kabli, Z. A. et alDetermination of prevalence and economic impact of ovine footrot in central Kashmir India with isolation and molecular characterization of Dichelobacter nodosusBhat, M. A., Hussain, I., Kabli, Z. A., Magray, S. N., Rather, M. A., Wani, S. A.Anaerobe2011
Why are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in...Dhand, Navneet K., Khounsy, Syseng et alWhy are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in South-East Asia?Dhand, Navneet K., Khounsy, Syseng, Rast, Luzia, Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L., Windsor, Peter A.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2014
Horseshoe as treatment for bovine lamenessRassel, L.Horseshoe as treatment for bovine lamenessRassel, L.
Bovine digital dermatitis: Possible pathogenic consortium consisting of Dichelobacter nodosus and multiple Treponema speciesBoye, Mette, Capion, Nynne, Fjeldaas et alBovine digital dermatitis: Possible pathogenic consortium consisting of Dichelobacter nodosus and multiple Treponema speciesBoye, Mette, Capion, Nynne, Fjeldaas, Terje, Jensen, Tim K., Klitgaard, Kirstine, Rasmussen, Marianne, Rogdo, TorunnVeterinary Microbiology2012
Papillomatous pastern dermatitis with spirochetes and Pelodera strongyloides in a Tennessee Walking HorseAkin, M., Black, S. S., Rashmir-Raven et alPapillomatous pastern dermatitis with spirochetes and Pelodera strongyloides in a Tennessee Walking HorseAkin, M., Black, S. S., Rashmir-Raven, A. M., Rickard, L. G.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation2000Papillomatous digital dermatitis is a common disease in cattle. The pastern dermatitis observed in a horse shared many of the gross characteristics of papillomatous digital dermatitis in cattle. Lesions included a mixture of proliferative and erosive changes, with a verrucose appearance in some areas. Microscopic similarities included pseudoepitheliomatous and papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, spongiosis of the epidermis, and intraepidermal spirochetes. The horse was also concurrently infected with Pelodera strongyloides. Papillomatous digital dermatitis in cattle is associated with poor husbandry practices. The environment of the affected horse was heavily contaminated with urine, manure, and other organic debris. Verrucous pododermatitis of horses may be the same as or similar to bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis, and these conditions have similar etiologies.
Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia” bacteria: Pathogenicity, biodiversity, and molecular genetic...Golovljova, Irina, Rar, VeraAnaplasma, Ehrlichia, and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia” bacteria: Pathogenicity, biodiversity, and molecular genetic characteristics, a reviewGolovljova, Irina, Rar, VeraInfection, Genetics and Evolution2011
Post anaesthetic forelimb lameness in a cowRaptopoulos, D.Post anaesthetic forelimb lameness in a cowRaptopoulos, D.Veterinary Record1983
A spastic form of lameness in adult cattleRao, S. V.A spastic form of lameness in adult cattleRao, S. V.Indian Veterinary Journal1967
Lameness in dairy heifers; impacts of hoof lesions present around first calving on future lameness, milk yield and culling riskChagunda, M. G. G., Green, L. E., Green et alLameness in dairy heifers; impacts of hoof lesions present around first calving on future lameness, milk yield and culling riskChagunda, M. G. G., Green, L. E., Green, M. J., Huxley, J.N., Mason, C., Randall, L. V.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2016The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd. Heifers were examined in 2 month blocks from 2 months pre-calving through to 4 months post-calving. Sole lesions and white line lesions were scored on a zero to 10 scale and digital dermatitis on a zero to 3 scale. Outcomes investigated were; lameness risk based on weekly locomotion scores, average daily milk yield and culling risk. Mixed effect models were used to investigate associations between maximum lesion scores and outcomes. Lesion scores in the highest score categories for claw horn lesions (sole lesions and white line lesions) in the 2 to 4 month post-calving period were associated with an increased risk of future lameness; heifers with white line lesion scores ≥3 compared with scores zero to 1 and heifers with sole lesion scores ≥4 compared with score 2, at this time point, had a predicted increased risk of future lameness of 1.6 and 2.6 respectively. Sole lesions ≥4 were also associated with a reduction in average daily milk yield of 2.68 kg. Managing heifers to reduce claw horn lesions during this time period post-calving may provide health, welfare and production benefits for the long-term future of those animals. A novel finding from the study was that mild lesion scores compared with scores zero to 1, were associated with a reduced risk of future lameness for white line lesions and sole lesions occurring in the pre-calving or 2 to 4 months post-calving periods respectively. Mild sole lesions in the pre-calving period were also associated with a reduced risk of premature culling. One hypothesis for this result is that a mild insult may result in adaptive changes to the foot leading to greater biomechanical resilience and so increased longevity.
Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herdArcher, S. C., Chagunda, M. G. G. et alLow body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herdArcher, S. C., Chagunda, M. G. G., Green, L. E., Green, M. J., Huxley, J.N., Mason, C., Randall, L. V.Journal of Dairy Science2015Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS <2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the risk of lameness. Low BW (independent of BCS) and increased age at first calving above 24 mo were also associated with increased long-term risk of repeated lameness events. Overall, the model explained 62 and 60% of the variability for mild and severe lameness, respectively, highlighting the importance of these variables as risk factors and hence where management could be targeted to significantly affect reducing the risk of lameness.
Characteristics of prolonged luteal phase identified by milk progesterone concentrations and its effects on reproductive...Dematawewa, C. M. B., Hayashi, A. et alCharacteristics of prolonged luteal phase identified by milk progesterone concentrations and its effects on reproductive performance in Holstein cowsDematawewa, C. M. B., Hayashi, A., Koike, K., Nakao, T., Ranasinghe, R. M. S. B. K., Yamada, K.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Disseminated Idiopathic Myofasciitis in FerretsGarner, Michael M., Ramsell, Katrina D.Disseminated Idiopathic Myofasciitis in FerretsGarner, Michael M., Ramsell, Katrina D.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice2010
The relationships between scrotal surface temperature, age and sperm quality in stallionsAlvarenga, Marco Antonio, Dell'aqua Jr et alThe relationships between scrotal surface temperature, age and sperm quality in stallionsAlvarenga, Marco Antonio, Dell'aqua Jr, José Antônio, Farras, Marcel Cavalcanti, Monteiro, Gabriel Augusto, Papa, Frederico Ozanan, Ramires Neto, Carlos, Zanzarini Delfiol, Diego JoséLivestock Science2013
Acquired flexural deformity in a cowRamadan, R. O.Acquired flexural deformity in a cowRamadan, R. O.Pakistan Veterinary Journal1997
Connection between young bulls’ hoof measurements and their female offsprings’ hoof health in Swedish Red- and...Ral et alConnection between young bulls’ hoof measurements and their female offsprings’ hoof health in Swedish Red- and – White and Swedish Friesian cattleRal, Gunilla Bergsten Christer Philipsson Jan Jonsson GoranSveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Institutionen for Husdjursforadling och Sjukdomsgenetik Rapport1994
A system for identifying lameness in dairy cattleDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M. et alA system for identifying lameness in dairy cattleDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M., Rajkondawar, P. G., Tasch, U., Varner, M. A.Applied Engineering in Agriculture2002Bovine lameness caused by hoof and leg ailments is a costly problem for the dairy farmer and an important animal welfare issue. Cow lameness necessitates medical treatment, can reduce milk production, often results in decreased body condition, can impair reproductive performance, and impacts animal well being. It was hypothesized that measurements Of vertical ground reaction forces as animals walk over a force-plate system could provide the basis for detecting lameness. A system based on this principle, designated the Reaction Force Detection (RFD) system, was developed. The system consists of two parallel, left and right, floor plates that are each supported by four single-axis load cells. When a cow walks through the system, the load cell reaction forces are recorded as electric signals that change over time. These signals are used to calculate the magnitude and position of a single equivalent reaction force for each plate. When a single limb is on a plate, the calculated value represents the position and reaction force of that limb. Examination of calculated values over time allows leg movement characteristics to be reconstructed, thus allowing measured reaction forces to be associated with specific limbs. Additionally, the system provides measurements of body weight and walking speed. Tests using three sound and three lame cows demonstrated that lame cows can be recognized and effected limbs can be identified.
Development of a bovine lameness index that correlates visual lameness scores to measurable limb movement variables: A pilot studyDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M. et alDevelopment of a bovine lameness index that correlates visual lameness scores to measurable limb movement variables: A pilot studyDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M., Neerchal, N., Rajkondawar, P. G., Tasch, U., Varner, M. A.Journal of Dairy Science2001
Comparison of Models to Identify Lame Cows Based on Gait and Lesion Scores, and Limb Movement VariablesDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M. et alComparison of Models to Identify Lame Cows Based on Gait and Lesion Scores, and Limb Movement VariablesDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M., Liu, M., Neerchal, N. K., Rajkondawar, P. G., Tasch, U., Varner, M. A.Journal of Dairy Science2006Bovine lameness results in pain and suffering in cattle and economic loss for producers. A system for automatically detecting lame cows was developed recently that measures vertical force components attributable to individual limbs. These measurements can be used to calculate a number of limb movement variables. The objective of this investigation was to explore whether gait scores, lesion scores, or combined gait and lesion scores were more effectively captured by a set of 5 limb movement variables. A set of 700 hind limb examinations was used to create gait-based, lesion-based, and combined (gait- and lesion-based) models. Logistic regression models were constructed using 1, 2, or 3 d of measurements. Resulting models were tested on cows not used in modeling. The accuracy of lesion-score models was superior to that of gait-score models; lesion-based models generated greater values of areas under the receiving operating characteristic curves (range 0.75 to 0.84) and lower mean-squared errors (0.13 to 0.16) compared with corresponding values for the gait-based models (0.63 to 0.73 and 0.26 to 0.31 for receiving operating characteristic and mean-squared errors, respectively). These results indicate that further model development and investigation could generate automated and objective methods of lameness detection in dairy cattle.
The development of an objective lameness scoring system for dairy herds: Pilot studyDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M. et alThe development of an objective lameness scoring system for dairy herds: Pilot studyDyer, R. M., Erez, B., Lefcourt, A. M., Neerchal, N. K., Rajkondawar, P. G., Tasch, U., Varner, M. A.Transactions of the Asae2002
A walkthrough gait analysis system that detects lameness of dairy herdsErez, B., Lefcourt, A. M., Rajkondawar et alA walkthrough gait analysis system that detects lameness of dairy herdsErez, B., Lefcourt, A. M., Rajkondawar, P, Tasch, U., Varner, M. A.
How do cattle respond to sloped floors? An investigation using behavior and electromyogramsRajapaksha, E., Tucker, C. B.How do cattle respond to sloped floors? An investigation using behavior and electromyogramsRajapaksha, E., Tucker, C. B.Journal of Dairy Science
Effects of milk fever, ketosis, and lameness on milk yield in dairy cowsGrohn, Y. T., McCulloch, C. E. et alEffects of milk fever, ketosis, and lameness on milk yield in dairy cowsGrohn, Y. T., McCulloch, C. E., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Journal of Dairy Science1999The effects of milk fever, ketosis, and lameness were studied using data from 23,416 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed for one lactation (i.e., until culling or the next calving). Monthly test day milk yields were treated as repeated measurements within a cow in a mixed model analysis. Disease index variables were created to relate the timing of a disease to the measures of test day milk. Statistical models for each parity and disease included fixed effects of calving season, stage of lactation, and disease index. An autoregressive correlation structure was used to model the association among the repeated measurements. The milk yield of cows contracting milk fever was affected for a period of 4 to 6 wk after calving; the loss ranged from 1.1 to 2.9 kg/d, depending on parity and the time elapsed after milk fever diagnosis. Despite the loss, cows with milk fever produced 1.1 to 1.7 kg more milk/d than did healthy cows. Milk yield started to decline 2 to 4 wk before the diagnosis of ketosis and continued to decline for a varying time period after it. The daily milk loss was greatest within the 2 wk after the diagnosis, varying from 3.0 to 5.3 kg/d, depending on parity. Cows in parity 4 or higher were most severely affected by ketosis; the average total loss per cow was 353.4 kg. Lameness also affected milk yield; milk loss of cows diagnosed with foot and leg disorders varied between 1.5 and 2.8 kg/d during the first 2 wk after the diagnosis.
Epidemiology of production diseases in Finnish Ayrshire cows. III Effects of disease, milk yield and pregnancy status on cullingGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Epidemiology of production diseases in Finnish Ayrshire cows. III Effects of disease, milk yield and pregnancy status on cullingGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Suomen Elainlaakarilehti2000Risk factors associated with culling in 39thin727 Finnish Ayrshire cows, in 1993, were assessed. The main reasons for culling were mastitis, teat injuries, and lameness, followed by fertility disorders and ketosis. Ovarian cysts and anoestrus had a protective effect against culling, immediately after diagnosis and treatment. The earlier a farmer knew a cow was pregnant the lower was the risk of culling. Increasing milk yield had a protective effect. The risk of culling increased as the cow aged, and cows that calved in the autumn had the lowest risk of being culled
Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cowsGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cowsGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1999The effects of 15 diseases on time until culling were studied in 39 727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved during 1993 and were followed until the next calving or culling. The diseases studied were: dystocia, milk fever, retained placenta, displacement of the abomasum, metritis, non-parturient paresis, ketosis, rumen disorders, acute mastitis, hypomagnesemia, lameness, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, anestrus, ovarian cysts, and teat injuries. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed and diseases were modeled as time-dependent covariates. Different stages of lactation when culling can occur were also considered. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. Parity had a significant effect on culling, the risk of culling being four times higher for a cow in her sixth or higher parity than for a first parity cow. The effects of diseases varied according to when the diseases occurred and when culling occurred. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had a significant effect on culling throughout the whole lactation. Anestrus and ovarian cysts had a protective effect against culling at the time when they were diagnosed. In general, diseases affected culling decisions mostly at the time of their occurrence. The effect seemed to decrease with time from the diagnosis of the disease. However, milk fever, dystocia and metritis also had a significant effect on culling at the end of the lactation. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Epidemiology of production diseases in Finnish Ayrshire cows. II Effect of disease on milk yieldGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Epidemiology of production diseases in Finnish Ayrshire cows. II Effect of disease on milk yieldGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Suomen Elainlaakarilehti1999Finnish dairy herd health recording data were used to study the effects of dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, ketosis, lameness and mastitis on monthly test day milk yields of Finnish Ayrshire cows. Late metritis, diagnosed later than 4 weeks after calving, did not have any effect on milk yield; all other diseases were associated with milk loss. The amount of milk lost varied depending on the disease and parity of a cow. Mastitis had a long lasting effect on milk yield: mastitic cows did not reach their pre-mastitis milk yield level during the rest of the lactation after the disease onset. Despite the loss, cows with milk fever, ketosis, and mastitis milked, on average during the whole lactation, more than their healthy herdmates. The importance of appropriate statistical methods and milk measures used in the interpretation of the results when studying the effect of diseases on milk yield are discussed
Culling of dairy cows. Part II. Effects of diseases and reproductive performance on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cowsGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Culling of dairy cows. Part II. Effects of diseases and reproductive performance on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cowsGrohn, Y. T., Rajala-Schultz, P. J.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1999The effects of 15 diseases and reproductive performance on culling were studied in 39727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed until culling or next calving. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed with diseases and pregnancy status as time-dependent covariates. Parity, calving season and herd were included as covariates in every model. The effect of the number of inseminations was also studied. The farmer's knowledge of the cow's pregnancy status had a significant effect on culling. It varied according to the stage of lactation a cow was in; the earlier the farmer knew a cow was pregnant, the smaller was the risk of culling. If a cow had not been inseminated at all, her risk of culling was 10 times higher than if she was inseminated once. If a cow was inseminated more than once, she had a slightly lower risk of being culled than a cow inseminated only once. The effect of parity decreased when pregnancy status and number of inseminations were added to the model, indicating that part of the parity effect was accounted for by reproductive performance. Including diseases in the model with pregnancy status and the number of inseminations did not change the effects of reproductive performance on culling. Mastitis, teat injuries and lameness had the greatest effect on culling (whether adjusted for reproductive performance or not), increasing the risk of culling, followed by anestrus, ovarian cysts and milk fever. In general, the effects of diseases decreased when reproductive performance was also accounted for in the model. When pregnancy status was included in the model, the effects of anestrus and ovarian cysts became slightly more protective, but when the number of inseminations was also considered, they became non-significant at the beginning of lactation and they increased the risk of culling at the end of lactation. Sensitivity analysis, which was run to evaluate the effects of our censoring mechanism on the results, indicated that the censoring times (i.e., the time of next calving) were not fully independent of the event (culling) times; the effects of the diseases and pregnancy status at the very end of the lactation changed slightly from the original model. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Culling of dairy cows. Part III. Effects of diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cowsRajala-Schultz, P. J.Culling of dairy cows. Part III. Effects of diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cowsRajala-Schultz, P. J.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1999The effects of 15 diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling were studied in 39727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed until culling or next calving. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed with diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield as time-dependent covariates. Effects of parity, calving season and herd were also accounted for. Pregnancy status was the single most influential factor affecting culling decisions, followed by milk yield. Several diseases also had a significant effect on culling, the most influential ones being mastitis, lameness, teat injuries, and milk fever. The effects of all of these factors varied according to the stage of lactation. Milk yield had a significant effect on culling decisions, depending on the stage of lactation. At the beginning of lactation, milk production did not have any effect on culling decisions, but later on, the highest producers were at the lowest risk of being culled and the lowest producers had the highest risk. Adjusting for milk yield modified the effects of parity, most diseases and also pregnancy status on culling. Effects of parity increased after including milk yield in the model, indicating that milk yield and parity are interrelated in their effects on culling. The effects of pregnancy status also increased towards the end of lactation when milk yield was accounted for in the model. The effects of mastitis, teat injuries and lameness decreased after adjusting for milk production. These diseases lower milk yield and thus, part of their effect on culling was mediated through milk production. The effects of anestrus and ovarian cysts were mainly modified by pregnancy status, but not by milk yield. The effects of milk fever on culling increased at the beginning of lactation after including milk yield in the model. This suggests that even though cows with milk fever tend to be higher producers, it is the disease as such that triggers the culling decision early in the lactation. The changes in the effects of other diseases after adjusting for milk yield varied, depending on the disease and the stage of lactation
Loss of income from cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prior to calving compared with cows not...Fetrow, J. P., Raizman, E. A., Wells et alLoss of income from cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prior to calving compared with cows not shedding the organism on two Minnesota dairy farmsFetrow, J. P., Raizman, E. A., Wells, S. J.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared thermographyPacheco, Juan M., Packer, Craig et alDetection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cattle using infrared thermographyPacheco, Juan M., Packer, Craig, Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin, Rodriguez, Luis L.The Veterinary Journal2009
Interdigital dermatitisRagionieri, M.Interdigital dermatitisRagionieri, M.Informatore Agricolo1998This is a brief account of interdigital dermatitis. A diverse spectrum of diseases affecting the feet of cattle in Italy are commonly grouped under the name 'mo blan'. However, it is argued that most cases of 'mo blan' reported in cows in Valle d'Aosta are of interdigital dermatitis, or 'mal bianco'. This is an infectious disease caused by Bacteroides nodosus [Dichelobacter nodosus], which can have a serious economic impact. Infected cattle suffer not only from foot infection, but also decreased milk production and appetite. Infected animals may fail to come into season and it may be impossible to put them out to pasture. Modes of inter-animal infection are discussed, and the symptoms and progress of the 2 phases of the disease are described. Preventative measures and the different treatments for each phase are also described
Influence of load and age on the fat content and the fatty acid profile of the bovine digital cushionGeyer, H., Lischer, Ch J., Ossent, P. et alInfluence of load and age on the fat content and the fatty acid profile of the bovine digital cushionGeyer, H., Lischer, Ch J., Ossent, P., Raeber, M., Scheeder, M. R. L.12th International Symposium on lameness in ruminants2002
Bovine interdigital dermatitis in Fayoum Governorate and its relationship to obligate anaerobic microorganismsRadwan, I. A.Bovine interdigital dermatitis in Fayoum Governorate and its relationship to obligate anaerobic microorganismsRadwan, I. A.Veterinary Medical Journal Giza1999
Bovine interdigital necrobacillosis (foul in the foot, foot rot, interdigital phlegmon)Blood,D.C., Gay,O.C., Hinchcliff,K.W. et alBovine interdigital necrobacillosis (foul in the foot, foot rot, interdigital phlegmon)Blood,D.C., Gay,O.C., Hinchcliff,K.W., Radostits,O.M.Veterinary Medicine2000
Herd HealthRadostits, O. M.Herd HealthRadostits, O. M.Food Animal Production Medicine2001
The content and composition of lipids in the digital cushion of the bovine claw with respect to age and location – A...Geyer, H., Lischer, Ch J., Ossent, P. et alThe content and composition of lipids in the digital cushion of the bovine claw with respect to age and location – A preliminary reportGeyer, H., Lischer, Ch J., Ossent, P., Räber, M., Scheeder, M. R. L.The Veterinary Journal2006The pads of the bovine digital cushion, which serves as a shock absorber, have specific anatomical structures to cope with the substantial forces acting within the claw. To gain more information on the lipid composition and content of the pads, horn shoes from 12 slaughtered heifers and cows were removed and different samples of the pads excised with a scalpel. Pad lipids were extracted and the fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography. Fat from perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues served as a comparison. Overall, this fat contained a higher quantity of extracted lipids than that of the claw pads and did not differ between heifers and cows. In contrast, lipid content in the pads was significantly higher in the cows than in the heifers. In both groups, the lipid content of the middle and abaxial pads, which are situated directly under the distal phalanx, was lower than in the pads of the other locations. The lipids in all pads contained >77% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), differing sharply from the adipose tissue with values <51%. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) a significantly higher proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) was found in the heifer pads than in those of the cows, whereas the proportion of AA was similar in the adipose tissue of all animals. The proportion of AA in the pad lipids also varied between the defined locations with the highest proportion found in locations that showed the lowest lipid content and was related to the age of the animal.
The bovine digital cushion – a descriptive anatomical studyGeyer, H., Lischer, Ch J., Ossent, P. et alThe bovine digital cushion – a descriptive anatomical studyGeyer, H., Lischer, Ch J., Ossent, P., Räber, M.The Veterinary Journal2004The properties of the suspensory and supporting structures of the bovine claw are of particular importance in the pathogenesis of claw lesions since both must function optimally to prevent soft tissue compression and trauma. An essential component is the shock-absorbing digital cushion situated under the distal phalanx. The sound claws of 54 slaughtered cows were dissected. The digital cushion consisted of three parallel pads – axial, middle and abaxial – that ran longitudinally from the heel and underneath the distal phalanx with numerous transverse finger-shaped branches that connected the axial and abaxial pads cranial to the flexor process of the distal phalanx. The middle fat pad frequently ended just at the apical end of the flexor process of the distal phalanx, which may result in an inferior cushioning effect under the distal phalanx and increase the likelihood of ulcers. There were differences in the structure of the digital cushion with age and loose connective tissue in heifers' pads was first replaced by fat which, after the third lactation, was gradually supplanted by collagenous connective tissue.
Protective Antibody-Titers and Antigenic-Competition in Multivalent Dichelobacter-Nodosus Fimbrial Vaccines Using Characterized...Egerton, J. R., Lehrbach, P. R., Omeara et alProtective Antibody-Titers and Antigenic-Competition in Multivalent Dichelobacter-Nodosus Fimbrial Vaccines Using Characterized Rdna AntigensEgerton, J. R., Lehrbach, P. R., Omeara, T. J., Raadsma, H. W., Schwartzkoff, C. L.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology1994The relationship between K-agglutination antibody titres and protection against experimental challenge with Dichelobacter nodosus, the effect of increasing the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, and the importance of the nature of additional antigens in multivalent vaccines on antibody response and protection against experimental challenge with D. nodosus were examined in Merino sheep. A total of 204 Merino sheep were allocated to one of 12 groups, and vaccinated with preparations containing a variable number of rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial antigens. The most complex vaccine contained ten fimbrial antigens from all major D. nodosus serogroups, while the least complex contained a single fimbrial antigen. In addition to D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, other bacterial rDNA fimbrial antigens (Moraxella bovis Da12d and Escherichia coli K99), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used in some vaccines. Antibody titres to fimbrial antigens and BSA were measured by agglutination and ELISA tests, respectively. Antibody titres were determined on five occasions (Weeks 0, 3, 6, 8, and 11 after primary vaccination). All sheep were exposed to an experimental challenge with virulent isolates of D. nodosus from either serogroup A or B, 8 weeks after primary vaccination. For D. nodosus K-agglutinating antibody titres, a strong negative correlation between antibody titre and footrot lesion score was observed. This relationship was influenced by the virulence of the challenge strain. Increasing the number of fimbrial antigens in experimental rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial vaccines resulted in a linear decrease in K-agglutinating antibody titres to individual D. nodosus serogroups. Similarly, a linear decrease in protection to challenge with homologous serogroups was observed as the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens represented in the vaccine increased. The reduction in antibody titres in multicomponent vaccines is thought to be due to antigenic competition. The level of competition between individual antigens is not constant and appears to be related to the immunodominance (nature) of the competing antigens. Both BSA ELISA, and M. bovis K-agglutinating antibody titres were adversely affected by the presence of two D. nodosus fimbrial preparations, whereas the antigenicity of E. coli K99 was unchanged by the presence of two additional D. nodosus antigens. Further studies are required to determine the step(s) in the immune response which are influenced by antigenic competition. Our results suggest that antigen presentation, particularly following primary vaccination, is the step most strongly influenced by antigenic competition.
Breeding for disease resistance in Merino sheep in AustraliaGray, G. D., Raadsma, H. W., Woolaston et alBreeding for disease resistance in Merino sheep in AustraliaGray, G. D., Raadsma, H. W., Woolaston, R. R.Revue Scientifique Et Technique De L Office International Des Epizooties1998Breeding far disease resistance in Merino sheep in Australia has attracted considerable research and development attention. Increased labour costs, the reduced efficacy of common anthelmintics and insecticides, consumer demand for products which are free of chemicals and the poor prognosis of alternative long-term control strategies are all forcing sheep breeders to contemplate the best animal health options available, including selective breeding for resistance. The three major diseases which affect sheep production include gastrointestinal nematode parasites, flystrike (cutaneous myiasis) and footrot. Genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible in all these diseases, possibly with little adverse effect on genetic progress in other production traits. Programmes for resistance to internal parasites to be included in practical breeding programmes are now in progress. This paper deals with the incentives for focusing on the three major diseases in Merino sheep, the potential sources of genetic variation, and the means to exploit these sources of variation. The authors also highlight gains and benefits achieved in experimental selection flocks, and the difficulties and options available for commercial breeders.
Disease Resistance in Merino Sheep .3. Genetic-Variation in Resistance to Footrot Following Challenge and Subsequent Vaccination...Egerton, J. R., Kristo, C., Nicholas et alDisease Resistance in Merino Sheep .3. Genetic-Variation in Resistance to Footrot Following Challenge and Subsequent Vaccination with an Homologous Rdna Pilus Vaccine under Both Induced and Natural ConditionsEgerton, J. R., Kristo, C., Nicholas, F. W., Raadsma, H. W., Wood, D.Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics-Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung Und Zuchtungsbiologie1994Eight traits representing clinical indicators of resistance to footrot were examined in 1562 Merino sheep, representing the progeny from 162 sires in four major bloodlines. Over a 4-year period, sheep were exposed to virulent isolates of Dichelobacter nodosus under both an experimental challenge in which footrot was induced, and a separate natural challenge involving a different isolate of D. nodosus. Five footrot traits and three healing traits were each recorded on seven occasions following induced challenge, and on five occasions following natural challenge. All sheep were vaccinated with a primary and booster injection of an homologous rDNA pilus vaccine, 9 and 6 weeks after initiation of the induced and natural challenge respectively. The major fixed effects which influenced variation in resistance were (in order of Importance) time of inspection after challenge, year and group in which sheep were challenged, and sex of the animal. Date of birth, birth-rearing type and age of dam were unimportant in the expression of footrot. Half-sib heritability estimates of resistance to footrot were low to moderate for single observations recorded pre-vaccination (0.07-0.22), and slightly lower for inspections made after vaccination (0.07-0.15). Repeatability estimates for footrot traits during a challenge ranged from 0.31 to 0.70 for inspections pre-vaccination, and 0.19 to 0.35 for inspections post-vaccination. Genetic correlations among footrot: traits recorded at repeat inspections were high for observations pre-vaccination (range 0.87-1.00) and slightly lower for observations made after vaccination (0.52-1.00). Heritability estimates derived from repeat measurements approached 0.30 for most traits, except for traits describing healing, which had a heritability of almost zero. Heritability estimates of liability to footrot ranged between 0.09 and 0.41 depending on the time after challenge when the inspections were made. The genetic correlation between induced and natural footrot ranged from 0.14 to 0.95, depending on the period over which inspections were made, with an average of 0.67. In addition to within-flock genetic variation in resistance to footrot, significant differences were observed between different bloodlines within the experimental flock. It was concluded that there is substantial genetic variation in resistance to challenge with virulent isolates of D. nodosus. However, practical restrictions of exploiting available genetic variation may limit the widespread adoption of direct selection.
An Investigation into Genetic-Aspects of Resistance to Footrot in Merino SheepBrown, S. C., Egerton, J. R. et alAn Investigation into Genetic-Aspects of Resistance to Footrot in Merino SheepBrown, S. C., Egerton, J. R., Litchfield, A. M., Nicholas, F. W., Outteridge, P. M., Raadsma, H. W.Wool Technology and Sheep Breeding1990
Disease Resistance in Merino Sheep .1. Traits Indicating Resistance to Footrot Following Experimental Challenge and Subsequent...Brown, S. C., Egerton, J. R., Nicholas et alDisease Resistance in Merino Sheep .1. Traits Indicating Resistance to Footrot Following Experimental Challenge and Subsequent Vaccination with an Homologous Rdna Pilus VaccineBrown, S. C., Egerton, J. R., Nicholas, F. W., Raadsma, H. W.Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics-Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung Und Zuchtungsbiologie1993Clinical and serological responses were monitored in sheep following experimental challenge with footrot and subsequent vaccination with an homologous rDNA pilus vaccine. Twenty-two clinical indicators of footrot were identified to describe differences between feet, between sheep, between flocks, and over time. All eleven between-sheep indicators were significantly correlated with each other (0.47 to 0.96). However, analyses of liability on a underlying scale showed that those indicators with several categories, such as the number of feet affected or underrun, were most useful: the data strongly indicated that increasing grades of severity reflect a single underlying variable. The proportion of sheep affected and/or underrun (i.c.e. prevalence) was the most suitable indicator of flock differences. Repeatability of footrot scores over time was relatively low (0.36 to 0.56 prior to vaccination; 0.02 to 0.30 after vaccination), highlighting the need for repeat observations to describe differences in footrot over time. A need was shown to incorporate spontaneous or induced healing following vaccination in scoring systems for footrot. Serological assays detected an increase in antibody titres during infection, but antibody titres were not sufficiently correlated with clinical indicators (0.34 to 0.61) to justify their use as indicators of footrot. K-agglutination titres were moderately to highly correlated with Pili ELISA assays (0.69 to 0.86), but the two types of assay are not interchangeable. On balance, K-agglutination is the most appropriate measurement of antibody response for all types of footrot studies. This set of initial analyses has shown large phenotypic variation in all important footrot indicators Subsequent studies will investigate the extent to which there is genetic variation in these indicators, with the aim of determining the feasibility of incorporating resistance to footrot into breeding programmes. The traits defined and described in this paper from the basis of a large scale investigation into genetic and phenotypic aspects of resistance to footrot.
A review of footrot in sheep: Aetiology, risk factors and control methodsEgerton, J. R., Raadsma, H. W.A review of footrot in sheep: Aetiology, risk factors and control methodsEgerton, J. R., Raadsma, H. W.Livestock Science2013
Current Research on an Alternative Footrot Control StrategyEgerton, J. R., Raadsma, H. W.Current Research on an Alternative Footrot Control StrategyEgerton, J. R., Raadsma, H. W.Wool Technology and Sheep Breeding1993The expression of footrot results from an interaction between a specific transmitting agent, Dichelobacter nodosus, other micro-organisms, the innate and acquired resistance of the host, and the environment in which the sheep are kept. The economic impact of footrot is determined by the prevalence of severe infections and the duration of these infections. For a high risk environment the annual cost of footrot per 1000 sheep may range from $14,000 to almost 0, depending on the virulence of the transmitting agent. It is unlikely that National Eradication programmes will be successful, and most conventional control options are expensive and require re-current inputs. Alternative and long-term control strategies therefore warrant investigation. One form of long-term control would be to adapt the genotype of the host in such a way that virulent and intermediate footrot is expressed to the same extent as benign footrot. The economic impact of infection with virulent isolates of D. nodosus will be reduced that of benign isolates (i.e. benign footrot).
A review of footrot in sheep: New approaches for control of virulent footrotDhungyel, O. P., Raadsma, H. W.A review of footrot in sheep: New approaches for control of virulent footrotDhungyel, O. P., Raadsma, H. W.Livestock Science2013
Disease resistance in merino sheep .4. Genetic variation in immunological responsiveness to fimbrial Dichelobacter nodosus...Attard, G. A., Egerton, J. R., Nicholas et alDisease resistance in merino sheep .4. Genetic variation in immunological responsiveness to fimbrial Dichelobacter nodosus antigens, and its relationship with resistance to footrotAttard, G. A., Egerton, J. R., Nicholas, F. W., Raadsma, H. W.Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics-Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung Und Zuchtungsbiologie1995K-agglutinating antibody responses directed to the fimbrial antigens of Dichelobacter nodosus, the causative agent of ovine footrot, were examined in 3 997 progeny from 162 sires. The experiment was designed to determine the phenotypic and genetic importance of serological responses in four distinct applications: 1. As an alternative clinical indicator of infection; 2. As a therapeutic agent following vaccination; 3. As a protective agent following vaccination; and 4. As an indirect selection criterion for innate resistance. Approximately half the progeny were subjected to direct challenge with footrot on two separate occasions, and were subsequently vaccinated with an homologous rDNA fimbrial vaccine directed to the challenge isolate. The remaining progeny were not challenged, bur were vaccinated with a commercial multivarent whole-cell footrot vaccine. Under challenge with footrot, antibody titre showed a consistent but low positive phenotypic correlation with clinical footrot scores. The moderate genetic variation in antibody titre and low and Inconsistent genetic correlation with foot scores, suggests that antibody titre during infection is not a suitable indirect selection criterion for resistance to footrot. Significant differences were observed in antibody profiles in sheep which were free from footrot on all occasions during challenge, those which were infected and subsequently healed after vaccination, and those which remained chronically infected. Low and inconsistent phenotypic and genetic correlations between healing and antibody titre make the chronically infected group an unsuitable indicator of the capacity of individual sheep to heal from footrot after vaccination. Differences larger than two-fold were observed in the estimated breeding value of mean antibody titre after vaccination between the highest and lowest. ranked sire in the study. A genetic correlation of 0.50 (+/-0.12) between antibody response to two serogroups (A and B) indicates that, in pan, different genes are responsible for serogroup-specific K-agglutinating antibody response. Despite the moderate to high heritability estimates (0.41 +/- 0.10, and 0.56 +/- 0.10) for antibody response to serogroups A and B, the genetic correlation with innate resistance was low and inconsistent in sign. Indirect selection, based on vaccine response to D. nodosus antigens, is thus unlikely to increase the innate resistance of sheep to footrot. Until a better understanding of the mechanisms and/or genes responsible for innate resistance can be identified, indirect selection for resistance to footrot is not feasible. Selection following direct challenge of candidates or of contemporary relatives is still the most effective option for genetic improvement in innate resistance to footrot in Merino sheep. Selection for increased immune responsiveness to fimbrial D. nodosus antigens should only be considered as a possible tool for increasing responsiveness, and hence vaccine efficacy, to increase acquired resistance to footrot.
Potential risk indicators of retained placenta and other diseases in multiparous cowsBobe, G., Fadden, A. N., Qu, Y., Traber et alPotential risk indicators of retained placenta and other diseases in multiparous cowsBobe, G., Fadden, A. N., Qu, Y., Traber, M. G.Journal of Dairy Science2014Retained placenta (RP), defined as fetal membranes not being expelled within 24 h after calving, is a costly disease in multiparous dairy cows that has been linked to immune suppression, infections, elevated lipid mobilization, and depleted status of antioxidants including α-tocopherol, and that increases the risk of other diseases (OD) in early lactation. Early detection of cows at increased risk of developing RP, OD, or both in early lactation could improve treatment success and result in improved milk production and reproductive performance. To identify risk indicators of RP, OD, or both, we used a nested case-control design and compared multiparous dairy cows that developed RP (n = 32) with cows that remained healthy (H; n = 32) or cows that developed OD (n = 32) in early lactation. We compared peripartal body condition score (BCS) as well as serum concentrations of α-tocopherol, metabolites [β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea N], haptoglobin, and macrominerals (i.e., calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) on d −21, −14, −7, −3, −1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 postpartum. In addition, average serum concentrations were calculated for each cow for the last 3 wk prepartum, for 3 and 2 wk prepartum combined, for the last week prepartum, and for the morning after calving and compared between groups. The RP cows had lower BCS than the H or OD cows until 2 wk postpartum. During the prepartal periods, RP and OD cows had lower α-tocopherol concentrations (corrected or not for cholesterol concentration) and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations than H cows. Thus, lower prepartal BCS could be an early predictor for RP risk, and lower α-tocopherol concentrations and higher NEFA and BHBA concentrations could be early predictors for disease.
Comparison of bandaging and elevation of the claw for the treatment of foot lameness in dairy cowsPyman, M. F. S.Comparison of bandaging and elevation of the claw for the treatment of foot lameness in dairy cowsPyman, M. F. S.Australian Veterinary Journal1997Objective To compare the effectiveness of three treatments for sole injuries in dairy cows and to evaluate the ease and speed of applying the treatments. Design A randomised clinical trial. Procedure The three forms of treatment were elevating the affected claw of a lame cow with a wooden block glued to the unaffected claw (39 cows), elevating the affected claw with a rubberised shoe glued to the unaffected claw (42 cows) or applying a padded bandage to the whole fool of a lame cow (31 cows). Results the percentages of cows that recovered from tameness at 3 and 7 days after treatment were significantly higher for cows treated with wooden blocks (P = 0.013 and P = 0.008) or rubberised shoes (P = 0.026 and P = 0.0003) than padded bandages. Cows treated with blocks had a recovery rate of 48.7% at day three and 65.8% at day seven, and cows treated with rubberised shoes, rates of 45.2% and 76.2%, respectively. Cows which had a bandage applied to the foot had recovery rates of 19.4% al day three and 32.3% at day seven. However, by day 14, there was no significant difference in recovery rate between the three treatments. Rubberised shoes were shown to offer a number of advantages over wooden blocks. The shoes were significantly quicker to attach than blocks (median of 9.5 minutes compared with 14.0 minutes, P < 0.0001) and remained on the claw longer (57.1% of rubberised shoes remained at 30 days compared to 30.8% of blocks, P = 0.025). The rubberised shoes also offered an advantage over wooden blocks for operator safety and health by reducing contact between the potentially hazardous adhesive used to attach both devices and the skin of the person applying the device, Conclusions Rubberised shoes are a superior method of elevating an affected claw in conditions of lameness likely to respond to removal of weightbearing forces.
Vaccination with recombinant Mycoplasma bovis GAPDH results in a strong humoral immune response but does not protect feedlot...Perez-Casal, Jose, Prysliak, Tracy et alVaccination with recombinant Mycoplasma bovis GAPDH results in a strong humoral immune response but does not protect feedlot cattle from an experimental challenge with M. bovisPerez-Casal, Jose, Prysliak, Tracy, van der Merwe, JacquesMicrobial Pathogenesis2013
Genetic aspects of common health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattleHill, W. G., Pryce , J. E., Simm, G. et alGenetic aspects of common health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattleHill, W. G., Pryce , J. E., Simm, G., Thompson, R., Veerkamp, R. F.Animal Science1997The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for measures of fertility and several health disorders in dairy cows. Data consisted of 33732 records, of which 9163 were on heifers, on 305-day milk yield, health disorders and inseminations. Measures of fertility were calculated from calving and insemination dates and included calving interval, days to fir st service and conception to first service. Health disorders included milk fever, mastitis and lameness. Genetic and phenotypic (co)variances were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates for both health disorders and fertility traits were low, ranging from 0.003 to 0.080. All genetic correlations between 305-day milk yield and health and fertility traits, in cotes and heifers together, were antagonistic implying that selection for milk yield may have caused a deterioration in health and fertility. The unfavourable correlation between milk yield and health and fertility tl nits, plus the economic importance of the latter, suggests that future breeding goals should be expanded to include some health disorders and fertility
Expected correlated responses in health and fertility traits to selection on production in dairy cattlePryce , J. E., Simm, G., Veerkamp, R. F.Expected correlated responses in health and fertility traits to selection on production in dairy cattlePryce , J. E., Simm, G., Veerkamp, R. F.Stocarstvo1999Genetic parameter estimates for milk yield, calving interval, and mastitis and lameness incidence were calculated from analysis of data from two UK recording schemes using two selection indices. The goal of both indices was to optimize responses to selection for production, using economic values of -0.03 o/kg, 0.60 o/kg and 4.04 o/kg for milk, butterfat and protein yields respectively. One index was used to maximize response in production (PIN) and the other was restricted to zero genetic change in several health and fertility traits (RIN). Selection on PIN was predicted to increase calving interval by 2.78 days per unit selection differential. Mastitis and lameness were expected to increase by 0.018 and 0.007 cows with one or more cases of mastitis and lameness respectively. Selection using RIN was expected to result in 11% less overall economic response in production than PIN
Fertility in the high-producing dairy cowGarnsworthy, P. C., Mao, I. L., Pryce et alFertility in the high-producing dairy cowGarnsworthy, P. C., Mao, I. L., Pryce , J. E., Royal, M. D.Livestock Production Science2004Genetic correlations between milk yield and reproductive measures in dairy cows are unfavourable. This suggests that successful selection for higher yields may have led to a decline in fertility. There is also evidence that an imbalance of nutrients, in either high genetic merit cows or those fed diets not matched to their performance, leads to poorer reproductive performance. Physiological reasons for the antagonism have not been elucidated. In this paper we examine the complexity of genetic, nutritional, physiological and management factors of the yield versus fertility antagonism. To maintain or recover high fertility in modern dairy cows calls for a two-pronged approach involving both inclusion of fertility in broader breeding goals and adjustment to management practices.
Genotype and feeding system effects and interactions for health and fertility triats in dairy cattleNielsen, Birte L., Pryce, Jennie E. et alGenotype and feeding system effects and interactions for health and fertility triats in dairy cattleNielsen, Birte L., Pryce, Jennie E., Simm, Geoff, Veerkamp, Roel F.Livestock Production Science1999The effects of feeding system, genotype and genotype by feeding system interactions on a range of health and fertility traits were investigated in Holstein Friesian cows at the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre. There were two genetic groups: a selection (S) and control (C) line, housed and managed as one herd. Animals from each group were assigned to either a high concentrate (HC) or low concentrate (LC) feeding system and offered approximately 2500 kg and 1000 kg of concentrate per lactation on the HC and LC diets respectively. Feeding system had a significant effect on milk fever, days to first service and days to first heat. Lactation number had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the incidence of mastitis, ketosis, retained placentas, milk fever and lameness and conception at first service. Effects of genotype were investigated first by comparing the two genetic groups and then by regressions of the health and fertility traits on pedigree index for fat plus protein (PI). Significant effects of PI were found for oestrus not observed, conception at first service, days to first heat, calving interval, days open and days to first service. The regression coefficient for mastitis on PI was also significantly different from zero (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant genetic line by feeding system interactions, indicating that the observed line differences applied to both dietary treatments. Heritabilities for the health traits ranged between 0.00 and 0.08 and for the fertility traits they ranged between 0.02 and 0.15. Selection for high genetic merit in this herd, seems to have led to a deterioration in fertility but not health traits (with the exception of mastitis). These results, in line with those from studies in large populations, suggest that as genetic merit for production rises, fertility and some aspects of health are deteriorating
Estimation of genetic parameters using health, fertility and production data from a management recording system for dairy cattleEsslemont, R. J., Kossaibati, M. A. et alEstimation of genetic parameters using health, fertility and production data from a management recording system for dairy cattleEsslemont, R. J., Kossaibati, M. A., Pryce , J. E., Simm, G., Thompson, R., Veerkamp, R. F.Animal Science199810 569 records of 4642 cows from 33 herds collected from 1988 to 1994 were used to study genetic relationships between health, fertility and production traits. These were used to estimate genetic parameters for mastitis, lameness, somatic cell score (SCS), calving interval, days to first service, conception to first service, 305-day milk, butterfat and protein yields. Heritabilities for these traits were also estimated for the first 3 lactations. (Co)variances were estimated using linear, multitrait Restricted Maximum Likelihood with an animal model. The incidence of mastitis and lameness increased with lactation number, therefore a method was used to fix the within-lactation variance to 1 in all lactations while maintaining the same mean. Estimated heritability of SCS across lactations was 0.15. Heritabilities for other health and fertility traits were low and ranged between 0.013 and 0.047. All genetic correlations of health and fertility traits with production traits were negative. The genetic correlation between SCS and mastitis was 0.65 indicating that indirect selection for improvements in mastitis may be achieved using somatic cell counts as a selection criterion. The potential use of linear type scores as predictors of health traits was investigated by regressing health traits on sire predicted transmitting abilities for type. The results indicated that some type traits may be useful as selection criteria
The relationship between body condition score and reproductive performanceCoffey, M. P., Pryce , J. E., Simm, G.The relationship between body condition score and reproductive performanceCoffey, M. P., Pryce , J. E., Simm, G.Journal of Dairy Science2001
Genetic relationships between calving interval and body condition score conditional on milk yieldBrotherstone, S. H., Coffey, M. P. et alGenetic relationships between calving interval and body condition score conditional on milk yieldBrotherstone, S. H., Coffey, M. P., Pryce , J. E., Woolliams, J. A.Journal of Dairy Science2002
The genetic relationship between calving interval, body condition score and linear type and management traits in registered...Brotherstone, S., Coffey, M. P., Pryce et alThe genetic relationship between calving interval, body condition score and linear type and management traits in registered HolsteinsBrotherstone, S., Coffey, M. P., Pryce , J. E.Journal of Dairy Science2000
Linking the social environment to illness in farm animalsProudfoot, Kathryn L., von Keyserlingk et alLinking the social environment to illness in farm animalsProudfoot, Kathryn L., von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G., Weary, Daniel M.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2012
Behavior during transition differs for cows diagnosed with claw horn lesions in mid lactationProudfoot, K. L., von Keyserlingk et alBehavior during transition differs for cows diagnosed with claw horn lesions in mid lactationProudfoot, K. L., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Competition at the feed bunk changes the feeding, standing, and social behavior of transition dairy cowsProudfoot, K. L., Veira, D. M. et alCompetition at the feed bunk changes the feeding, standing, and social behavior of transition dairy cowsProudfoot, K. L., Veira, D. M., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., Weary, D. M.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Effect of moving dairy cows at different stages of labor on behavior during parturitionHeegaard, P. M. H., Jensen, M. B. et alEffect of moving dairy cows at different stages of labor on behavior during parturitionHeegaard, P. M. H., Jensen, M. B., Proudfoot, K. L., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Problems of dairy herd health in IndonesiaProdjoharjono, S.Problems of dairy herd health in IndonesiaProdjoharjono, S.Yamaguchi Journal of Veterinary Medicine1992
Understanding the genetics of survival in dairy cowsCoffey, M., Mrode, R., Pritchard, T. et alUnderstanding the genetics of survival in dairy cowsCoffey, M., Mrode, R., Pritchard, T., Wall, E.Journal of Dairy Science2013
Assessment of the welfare of working horses, mules and donkeys, using health and behaviour parametersLindberg, A. C., Main, D. C. J. et alAssessment of the welfare of working horses, mules and donkeys, using health and behaviour parametersLindberg, A. C., Main, D. C. J., Pritchard, J. C., Whay, H. R.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2005Working animals provide an essential transport resource in developing countries worldwide. Many of these animals are owned by poor people and work in harsh environments, so their welfare is a cause for concern. A protocol was developed to assess the welfare of working horses, mules and donkeys in urban and peri-urban areas, using direct observation of health and behaviour parameters. In this study, 4903 animals used for draught, pack and ridden work in Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Jordan and Pakistan were assessed between December 2002 and April 2003. The data showed that donkeys were more likely than mules or horses to demonstrate avoidance or aggressive behaviour towards an observer, while horses were most likely to make a friendly approach. Fewer than 8% of working equines had abnormal mucous membranes, ectoparasites or poor coat condition. Body lesions occurred predominantly in the areas of the breast/shoulder, withers and girth in all three species, with mules having the highest prevalence of lesions in these areas (22.5, 21.3 and 28.4%, respectively). Among horses and donkeys, the prevalence of these lesions was influenced by the type of work carried out. Lesions on the head, neck, ribs, flank and tail base were seen in less than 10% of animals. Across all three species approximately 70% of animals were thin, having a body condition score (BCS) of 2 or less on a scale of 1-5 (1, very thin; 5, very fat) and more horses were in very thin condition (BCS 1) than mules or donkeys. Over 75% of animals demonstrated limb deformities and abnormalities of gait. The results of this study are being used as the initial stage of a long-term strategy to inform priorities for welfare interventions in working equines and to establish a welfare benchmark. Subsequent stages will rank the welfare concerns identified, assess the contributing risk factors and implement specific interventions to address these risks. Following intervention, success in improving welfare will be measured by repetition of this protocol and comparison with the benchmark. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Validity of a behavioural measure of heat stress and a skin tent test for dehydration in working horses and donkeysBarr, A. R. S., Pritchard, J. C., Whay et alValidity of a behavioural measure of heat stress and a skin tent test for dehydration in working horses and donkeysBarr, A. R. S., Pritchard, J. C., Whay, H. R.Equine Veterinary Journal2006Reasons for performing study: Dehydration and heat stress are serious welfare issues for equids working in developing countries. There is a lack of any standardised method or validated interpretation of the skin tent test in horses and donkeys. Owners of dehydrated and heat-stressed animals often depend on veterinary examination for identification of these conditions, leading to delays in treatment and unnecessary reliance on external sources to effect welfare improvement. Objectives: To validate a standardised skin tent test for dehydration and a behavioural measure of heat stress in working equids; and to examine the effect of heat stress and dehydration on tripping and staggering behaviour. Methods: The study was carried out on 130 working horses and donkeys in Pakistan. Associations between skin tent and blood parameters (packed cell volume [PCV], serum total protein [TP], serum osmolality), clinical parameters, resting and drinking behaviour were examined. Heat stress behaviour (increased respiratory rate and depth, head nodding, flared nostrils, apathy) was observed in conjunction with rectal temperature. Tripping and staggering were assessed using a simple obstacle course. Results: In both species, heat stress behaviour was significantly associated with increased rectal temperature (P < 0.001). A positive skin tent test was not significantly associated with PCV or TP, although in donkeys it was significantly associated with lower serum osmolality (P < 0.001). More animals age > 15 years had a positive skin tent than those in younger age groups (P = 0.037). Very thin horses were more likely to have a positive skin tent than those in thin or moderate condition (P = 0.028). There was no significant correlation between skin tent and tripping or staggering in either species. Conclusions and potential relevance: Heat stress behaviour is related to increased body temperature in working horses and donkeys. Owners may use this to make judgements regarding rest and cooling, precluding the need to seek veterinary attention. The skin tent test for dehydration used in this study did not show a significant relationship with PCV or TP However, the use of blood parameters to validate the skin tent test may be confounded by anaemia, hypoproteinaemia or electrolyte depletion. Alternative methods are needed to confirm or refute the validity of the skin tent test in working equids.
Near infrared spectroscopy of the normal bovine clawArt, T., Lekeux, P., Pringle, J. et alNear infrared spectroscopy of the normal bovine clawArt, T., Lekeux, P., Pringle, J., Uystepruyst, C.Veterinary Journal1998
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation products in the...Aalhus, J. L., Dugan, M. E. R. et alNear infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseedAalhus, J. L., Dugan, M. E. R., Lopez-Campos, O., McAllister, T. A., Prieto, N., Uttaro, B.Meat Science2012
At line prediction of PUFA and biohydrogenation intermediates in perirenal and subcutaneous fat from cattle fed sunflower or...Aalhus, J. L., Dugan, M. E. R. et alAt line prediction of PUFA and biohydrogenation intermediates in perirenal and subcutaneous fat from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed by near infrared spectroscopyAalhus, J. L., Dugan, M. E. R., Lopez-Campos, O., Prieto, N., Uttaro, B.Meat Science2013
The responsiveness of subclinical endometritis to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in pasture-grazed dairy cowsBurke, C. R., Greenwood, S. L. et alThe responsiveness of subclinical endometritis to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in pasture-grazed dairy cowsBurke, C. R., Greenwood, S. L., McDougall, S., McLeod, K. L., Meier, S., Mitchell, M., Priest, N. V., Roche, J. R.Journal of Dairy Science2013The objective of this study was to determine if the inflammation associated with subclinical endometritis (SCE) is a part of the mechanism by which reproductive performance is reduced in cows with this disease. If it is, reducing inflammation associated with SCE with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) should reduce the severity [as measured by average polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) percentage] of uterine pathology and improve reproductive performance. It was also investigated whether the NSAID treatment reduced metabolic indicators of systemic inflammation previously reported to be altered in cows with SCE. Holstein-Friesian and Friesian-Jersey cross dairy cows (n = 213) were paired by calving date and d-14 uterine PMN percentage and randomly assigned to 3 injections at intervals of 3 d of an NSAID (1.4 mg of carprofen/kg; n = 104) between 21 and 31 d postpartum or left as untreated controls (n = 109). Cows with ≥14% PMN (upper quartile of PMN percentage) in the cytological sample collected at d 14 postpartum were defined as having SCE. The average d-14 PMN percentage was low (9.9%) and a high self-cure rate of SCE (>90%) at d 42 was observed. Treatment with an NSAID reduced plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and increased pregnancy rate in SCE cows. However, no effect of the NSAID treatment was observed on PMN percentage at d 42, postpartum anovulatory interval, or milk production. Compared with cows without SCE, cows with SCE had lower plasma albumin concentration, albumin:globulin ratio, and body condition score, but higher nonesterified fatty acids on the day of calving. These results indicate that cows with SCE are experiencing a physiological dysfunction, including lower body condition, liver dysfunction, and greater metabolic challenge during the periparturient period. Further research is required to determine the effect of NSAID on SCE and to evaluate the influence of timing of drug application on treatment effectiveness.
Some observations on the incidence of lameness in dairy cattle in West CheshireNeal, XX, Prentice, D. E.Some observations on the incidence of lameness in dairy cattle in West CheshireNeal, XX, Prentice, D. E.Veterinary Record1972
A comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F1 cross with regard to milk yield, somatic cell score,...Buckley, F., Pierce, K. M., Prendiville et alA comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F1 cross with regard to milk yield, somatic cell score, mastitis, and milking characteristics under grazing conditionsBuckley, F., Pierce, K. M., Prendiville, R.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Induced infectious arthritis in cow calves: clinical manifestations and microbial study in synovial fluidKumar, P. N., Pratap, K., Singh, G. R.Induced infectious arthritis in cow calves: clinical manifestations and microbial study in synovial fluidKumar, P. N., Pratap, K., Singh, G. R.Indian Veterinary Journal1995
Bovine lameness in an organised dairy farmPratap, K., Sharma, A. K., Singh, G. R.Bovine lameness in an organised dairy farmPratap, K., Sharma, A. K., Singh, G. R.Indian Journal of Veterinary Research1996749 cattle and 79 buffaloes at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, were examined for foot and joint lesions. Of 48 cattle with lesions, 35 were females with high (23 cows), medium (8) and low (4) milk yield. Foot lesions were found in 29 cattle, joint lesions in 11 and a combination of both in 8 cattle. Of these, 19 animals did not show lameness while 12, 6 and 11 animals showed severe, medium or low degrees of lameness, respectively. Hind limbs were affected in 26 cattle, forelimbs in 12 and both hind limbs and forelimbs in 10 cattle. The foot lesions included hoof deformity, interdigital hyperplasia, hoof erosion, ulcer, sand crack wound and abscess. The joint conditions included bursitis, synovitis, arthritis, osteitis, exostoses, wound and abscess. In buffaloes, only 1 case of hoof deformity was observed
Clinical report on ephemeral fever in cattleManuja, Simmi Kishtwaria, Prasad, B. et alClinical report on ephemeral fever in cattleManuja, Simmi Kishtwaria, Prasad, B., Rao, V., Singh, R.Indian Veterinary Journal1997Nineteen crossbred cattle, suffering from Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) had clinical manifestations like rise in body temperature, restricted gait or lameness, anorexia, suspended rumination, sharp fall in milk yield and swollen superficial lymph nodes. Neutrophilic leucocytosis was present. Treatment with analgesic, antibiotic and rumenotoric for 3-5 days proved very effective in this disease
EVALUATION: FROM PRECISION, RECALL AND F-MEASURE TO ROC, INFORMEDNESS, MARKEDNESS & CORRELATIONPowers, D. M. W.EVALUATION: FROM PRECISION, RECALL AND F-MEASURE TO ROC, INFORMEDNESS, MARKEDNESS & CORRELATIONPowers, D. M. W.Journal of Machine Learning Technologies2011Commonly used evaluation measures including Recall, Precision, F-Measure and Rand Accuracy are biased and should not be used without clear understanding of the biases, and corresponding identification of chance or base case levels of the statistic. Using these measures a system that performs worse in the objective sense of Informedness, can appear to perform better under any of these commonly used measures. We discuss several concepts and measures that reflect the probability that prediction is informed versus chance. Informedness and introduce Markedness as a dual measure for the probability that prediction is marked versus chance. Finally we demonstrate elegant connections between the concepts of Informedness, Markedness, Correlation and Significance as well as their intuitive relationships with Recall and Precision, and outline the extension from the dichotomous case to the general multi-class case.
Bacterial endocarditis in adult dairy cattlePower, H. T.Bacterial endocarditis in adult dairy cattlePower, H. T.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1983Thirty-one cases of bacterial endocarditis in adult dairy cows were reviewed. Clinical signs were reflective of the stage of the disease. Recurrent or persistent fever, tachycardia and a pounding heartbeat or systolic murmur, polypnea, and lameness were typical. With chronicity, weight loss and poor production developed. The end stage was congestive heart failure. Neutrophilia was typical in early cases. Low-grade anemia and high total serum globulin content developed with chronicity and seemed to be negative prognostic signs. Corynebacterium pyogenes was the organism most frequently identified by blood culture or at necropsy. Twenty cows were necropsied and 2 cows were sent to slaughter. Nine cows in which the diagnosis was made early in the course of the disease responded to long-term penicillin therapy
Cutaneous histoplasmosis in 13 Ethiopian donkeys.Abreha, T., Asmamaw, K., Bell, N.J. et alCutaneous histoplasmosis in 13 Ethiopian donkeys.Abreha, T., Asmamaw, K., Bell, N.J., Dawit, T., Feseha, G.A., Itsay, K., Powell, R.K.Vet Rec2006
Real-time automatic lameness detection based on back posture extraction in dairy cattle: Shape analysis of cow with image...Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Pluk, A. et alReal-time automatic lameness detection based on back posture extraction in dairy cattle: Shape analysis of cow with image processing techniquesBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Pluk, A., Poursaberi, A., Van Nuffel, A.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2010In this paper results on utilizing image analysis techniques towards early lameness detection in dairy cattle are presented. Data from two different dairy farms in Belgium were gathered. Preprocessing on raw data is required because of non-predictable behaviours of cows such as stopping for a while in front of the camera or non-uniform walking behaviour during experiments. Prelocalization of cow in each frame has been done based on two steps separation: (1) A coarse estimation of moving objects was obtained through background subtraction, (2) second statistical analysis of intensities in gray-scale image along with binarization was utilized to detect moving object in video. A common problem in on-farm collected videos is the similarity of the background and the cow's body colour since the use of classic algorithms for segmentation purposes does not work. Here a hierarchy background/foreground exaggeration is proposed to segment the cow in each frame and track it in video. The combination of logarithm and exponential, background subtraction as well as statistical filtering are used to find the accurate shape of the cow. Furthermore, the back posture of each cow during standing and walking was extracted automatically. It was done by detecting the arc of back posture and fitting a circle through selected points on the spine line. The average inverse radius of four frames displaying the hind hoofs in contact with the ground (two frames for each hoof in a row) was assigned to the cow. Based on this curvature value, a score representing the status of lameness in the individual cow was given automatically. Experimental results from two different databases show promising results in automatic lameness detection based on back posture information.
The effect of biotin supplementation on white line disease in dairy cattleBlowey, R. W., Green, L. E., Hedges et alThe effect of biotin supplementation on white line disease in dairy cattleBlowey, R. W., Green, L. E., Hedges, V. J., Packington, A.J., Potzsch, C. J.Journal of Dairy Science2003
The impact of parity and duration of biotin supplementation on white line disease lameness in dairy cattleBlowey, R. W., Collis, V.J., Green et alThe impact of parity and duration of biotin supplementation on white line disease lameness in dairy cattleBlowey, R. W., Collis, V.J., Green, L. E., Packington, A.J., Potzsch, C. J.Journal of Dairy Science2003A field study was conducted to examine effects of oral biotin supplementation for up to 18 mo on risks of lameness in dairy cows. The study included a total of 900 cattle from five dairy farms in Gloucestershire, southwest U. K., in a within-herd randomized control trial. The data from this trial were used in this paper to investigate the impact of parity and duration of supplementation with oral biotin at 20 mg/d on white line disease (WLD) lameness. Analysis of the data indicated that WLD increased with increasing parity independent of biotin supplementation from approximately two cases per 100 cow years in primiparous cows to 15.5 cases per 100 cow years in all multiparous cows, but up to 47.7 cases per 100 cow years for cows in parities greater than or equal to 5. Supplementation with biotin reduced WLD lameness by 45% in multiparous cows down to 8.5 cases per 100 cow years, whereas the effect of biotin supplementation in primiparous cows was not significant. Although numerical reductions in WLD lameness were observed for shorter periods of supplementation, a supplementation length of at least 6 mo was required to significantly reduce the risk of WLD lameness in multiparous cows. The effect of biotin supplementation in reducing lameness has potential impact for both animal welfare and farm economics.
Risk factors associated with hair loss, ulceration, and swelling at the hock in freestall-housed UK dairy herdsGreen, M. J., Harris, J., Huxley, J.N. et alRisk factors associated with hair loss, ulceration, and swelling at the hock in freestall-housed UK dairy herdsGreen, M. J., Harris, J., Huxley, J.N., Millar, K. M., Potterton, S. L., Whay, H. R.Journal of Dairy Science2011
A descriptive review of the peer and non-peer reviewed literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle...Atkinson, O.C.D., Bell, N.J., Berry et alA descriptive review of the peer and non-peer reviewed literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published between 2000 and 2011Atkinson, O.C.D., Bell, N.J., Berry, E. A., Dean, R. S., Huxley, J.N., Main, D. C. J., Potterton, S. L., Whay, H. R.The Veterinary Journal2012The aim of this study was to collate and review the peer and non-peer reviewed English language literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published since January 2000. The study aimed to identify deficits in knowledge and areas of disparity between what is recommended in the field by veterinarians, foot trimmers and advisors and what has been substantiated experimentally. Peer reviewed literature containing original work was gathered by searching three databases. Papers were categorised and reviewed if they contained material on treatment or prevention. Non-peer reviewed clinical materials were collated from a range of sources. The materials were reviewed and categorised based on whether they recommended a range of possible treatment and prevention strategies. The peer reviewed data base contained 591 papers, of which 286 contained information on treatment or prevention. The vast majority of papers (258) concerned prevention; only a small number covered treatment (31) and of these only three contained information on the treatment of sole ulcers or white line disease. The number of intervention studies and trials was low; most papers on prevention were observational. Generally, lesion specific outcomes were not described making the findings of these papers difficult to use clinically. The non-peer reviewed material contained 46 sources; they varied significantly in regard to the treatments they advocated with some texts directly contradicting each other. Some aspects of prevention recommended in these sources seemed poorly supported by findings from the research literature. Well designed intervention studies are required to address these deficits.
A Review of the Peer Reviewed Literature on the Treatment and Prevention of Foot Lameness in Cattle Published Between 2000 and...Bell, N.J., Huxley, J.N., Main et alA Review of the Peer Reviewed Literature on the Treatment and Prevention of Foot Lameness in Cattle Published Between 2000 and 2011Bell, N.J., Huxley, J.N., Main, D. C. J., Potterton, S., Whay, H. R.2011
Risk factors for clinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cattleFishwick, John, Gordon, Patrick J. et alRisk factors for clinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cattleFishwick, John, Gordon, Patrick J., Guitian, Javier, Potter, Timothy J., Sheldon, I. MartinTheriogenology2010
Using locomotion scores to investigate lameness problemsPotter, T.Using locomotion scores to investigate lameness problemsPotter, T.UK Vet2005
Behaviour and welfare aspects of cattle lameness in relation to building designBroom, D.M., Potter, M.J.Behaviour and welfare aspects of cattle lameness in relation to building designBroom, D.M., Potter, M.J.6th International symposium on diseases of the ruminant digit1990
Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farmsDrillich, M., Nechanitzky, K., Pothmann et alConsultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farmsDrillich, M., Nechanitzky, K., Pothmann, H., Sturmlechner, F.Journal of Dairy Science2014
Treatment of digital dermatitis (Mortellaro-disease) in dairy cows with the non-antibiotic Protexin((R)) Hoof-Care pasteKofler, J., Pospichal, M.Treatment of digital dermatitis (Mortellaro-disease) in dairy cows with the non-antibiotic Protexin((R)) Hoof-Care pasteKofler, J., Pospichal, M.Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift2003The efficacy of the non-antibiotic formulation Protexin(R) Hoof-Care containing metallic salts and organic acids, for local treatment of digital dermatitis was tested in twenty-six cases of acute stages of digital dermatitis. The control group (n = 26 cases) was treated with local oxytetracycline spray application. These fifty-two cases of digital dermatitis were selected from a total of fourty-seven dairy cows from eight different farms with slatted floors. The therapeutic effect was evaluated using a scoring system for weightbearing at stance, lameness at walk and pain of the digital dermatitis lesions. The pretreatment and control examination scores were documented on days 0, 4, 10 and 28 in these fifty-two cases. Both treatment regimens were efficient, no statistical differences regarding the examined parameters could be assessed between the group treated with the non-antibiotic Protexin(R) Hoof-Care paste and the group treated with topical oxytetracycline aerosol spray. At least on day 28, all digital dermatitis lesions in boths groups were completely healed, except four lesions which were not yet covered completely with new epithel, and showed still a slight or moderate pain. In one cow, the lesion was completely healed on day 10, but had recurred on day 28. Our data indicate that both local applications of the Protexin(R) Hoof-Care paste and the oxytetracycline aerosol spray had an identical efficacy for the treatment of digital dermatitis.
A computer vision-based system for the automatic detection of lying behaviour of dairy cows in free-stall barnsAnguzza, Umberto, Arcidiacono, Claudia et alA computer vision-based system for the automatic detection of lying behaviour of dairy cows in free-stall barnsAnguzza, Umberto, Arcidiacono, Claudia, Cascone, Giovanni, Porto, Simona M. C.Biosystems Engineering2013A computer vision-based system for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. The system is composed of a multi-camera video-recording system and a software component which executes a cow lying behaviour detector model using the Viola–Jones algorithm. A method to carry out the training, testing and validation phase of the modelled cow lying behaviour detector is described. The performance of the system was tested in an area of a head-to-head free-stall barn where a group of 15 Holstein dairy cows was housed. A multi-camera video-recording system was installed to obtain panoramic top-view images of the area under study. Since the Viola–Jones algorithm was not invariant to the rotation of the cow images, two classifiers were modelled, one for each row of stalls located in the barn. These two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the system in order to perform the lying behaviour detection. The system was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. The ability of the system to detect cow lying behaviour was confirmed by the high value of its sensitivity, which was approximately 92%. Conversely, the value of the branching factor which was approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected for every 13 well detected cows. These results suggest that the system proposed in this study could be used for the calculation of the cow lying index which is widely used to investigate cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns.
Commercial and Industrial Chemical Hazards for RuminantsPoppenga, Robert H.Commercial and Industrial Chemical Hazards for RuminantsPoppenga, Robert H.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2011
The problem and the implications of Lyme borreliosis in veterinary medicineDuricic, Bosiljka Valcic, Popovic, N.The problem and the implications of Lyme borreliosis in veterinary medicineDuricic, Bosiljka Valcic, Popovic, N.Glas Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti Odeljenje Meditsinskikh Nauka1993A study of literature concerning Lyme borreliosis related to animals was done. In the research work the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of horses, cattle and dogs affected with Lyme borreliosis have been discussed. The clinical signs of Lyme borreliosis in horses are: chronic weight loss, sporadic lameness, laminitis, low grade fever, swollen joints, muscle tenderness and anterior uveitis. In addition to these clinical signs, neurological signs such as depression, behavioral changes, dysphagia and encephalitis can be seen in chronic cases. Cattle affected with acute Lyme borreliosis often show fever, stiffness, swollen joints and decreased milk production. Chronic weight loss, laminitis and abortion are also a possible outcome of borreliosis in cattle. An early infection of Lyme borreliosis in dogs may give evidence of inappetence, lethargy, lymphadenopathy, and an acute onset of stiffness or pain while a recurrent intermittent nonerosive arthritis is a more advanced manifestation of canine Lyme borreliosis. Glomerulonephritis and tubular damage secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection have been reported to occur in normally infected dogs. In an endemic area atrioventricular heart block has also been reported. The underlying pathogenesis of Lyme disease is still unknown. The diagnosis of clinical Lyme borreliosis is difficult and it depends on a successful recognition of clinical signs, a history of possible exposures to the infection and on serologic testings. The therapy of Lyme borreliosis in animals is based upon the principal therapy of this disease in human medicine
[The importance of Lyme borreliosis in veterinary medicine]. [Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]Popovic, N.[The importance of Lyme borreliosis in veterinary medicine]. [Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]Popovic, N.Glas - Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti, Odeljenje Medicinskih Nauka1993A study of literature concerning Lyme borreliosis related to animals was done. In the research work the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of horses, cattle and dogs affected with Lyme borreliosis have been discussed. The clinical signs of Lyme borreliosis in horses are: chronic weight loss, sporadic lameness, laminitis, low grade fever, swollen joints, muscle tenderness and anterior uvetitis. In addition to these clinical sings, neurological sings such as depression, behavioral changes, dysphagia and encephalitis can be seen in chronic cases. Cattle affected with acute Lyme borreliosis often show fever, stiffness, swollen joints and decreased milk production. Chronic weight loss, laminitis and abortion are also a possible outcome of borreliosis in cattle. An early infection of Lyme borreliosis in dogs may give evidence of inapetenca, lethargy, lyphadenopathy, and an acute onset of stiffness or pain while a recurrent intermittent nonerosive arthritis is a more advanced manifestation of canine Lyme borreliosis. Glomerulonephritis and tubular damage secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection have been reported to occur in normally infected dogs. In an endemic area atrioventricular heart block has also been reported. The underlying pathogenesis of Lyme disease is still unknown. The diagnosis of clinical Lyme borreliosis is difficult and it depends on a successful recognition of clinical signs, a history of possible exposures to the infection and on serologic testings. The therapy of Lyme borreliosis in animals is based upon the principal therapy of this disease in human medicine
The Causative Agent of Foot-Rot – Description, Pathogenicity, VaccinationPopoff, M. R.The Causative Agent of Foot-Rot – Description, Pathogenicity, VaccinationPopoff, M. R.Revue De Medecine Veterinaire1991This article is an overview of the actual knowledges concerning the causative agent of foot-rot (Dichelobacter nodosus): bacteriological description, taxonomic position, virulence factors, vaccination. This bacteria shows a particular adaptation to the ruminant foot, mostly to the sheep foot. These virulence factors encompasse: pili, proteases, other lytic enzymes and undertermined membrane proteins. The pili are the main immunogens able to induce a protective immune response. However, the pili antigenic variations restrict the preparation of an universal vaccine.
The interrelations of good welfare indicators assessed in working horses and their relationships with the type of workDiugan, E. A., Popescu, S., Spinu, M.The interrelations of good welfare indicators assessed in working horses and their relationships with the type of workDiugan, E. A., Popescu, S., Spinu, M.Research in Veterinary Science2014
The Relationship Between Behavioral and Other Welfare Indicators of Working HorsesDiugan, Eva-Andrea, Popescu, SilvanaThe Relationship Between Behavioral and Other Welfare Indicators of Working HorsesDiugan, Eva-Andrea, Popescu, SilvanaJournal of Equine Veterinary Science2013
Equine laminitis:A revised pathophysiology.Pollitt, C.C.Equine laminitis:A revised pathophysiology.Pollitt, C.C.American Association of Equine Practitioners1999
Importance of Claw Quality in Cattle – Review and Recommendations to Achieve Genetic-Improvement – Report of the Eaap...Distl, O., Fjeldaas, T., Heeres, J. et alImportance of Claw Quality in Cattle – Review and Recommendations to Achieve Genetic-Improvement – Report of the Eaap Working Group on Claw Quality in CattleDistl, O., Fjeldaas, T., Heeres, J., McDaniel, B. T., Nielsen, E., Peterse, D. J., Politiek, R. D., Reurink, A., Strandberg, P.Livestock Production Science1986
Development of a system for automatic measurements of force and visual stance variables for objective lameness detection in sows:...Baert, Jeroen, Maes, Dominiek, Mertens et alDevelopment of a system for automatic measurements of force and visual stance variables for objective lameness detection in sows: SowSISBaert, Jeroen, Maes, Dominiek, Mertens, Koen, Millet, Sam, Pluym, Liesbet M., Van Nuffel, Annelies, Van Weyenberg, Stephanie, Vangeyte, JürgenBiosystems Engineering2013
Treatment and prevention of lameness with special emphasis on claw disorders in group-housed sowsMaes, Dominiek, Pluym, Liesbet et alTreatment and prevention of lameness with special emphasis on claw disorders in group-housed sowsMaes, Dominiek, Pluym, Liesbet, Van Nuffel, AnneliesLivestock Science2013
Assessment and Management of Pain in Small Ruminants and CamelidsPlummer, Paul J., Schleining et alAssessment and Management of Pain in Small Ruminants and CamelidsPlummer, Paul J., Schleining, Jennifer A.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2013
Automatic measurement of touch and release angles of the fetlock joint for lameness detection in dairy cattle using vision...Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Maertens, W. et alAutomatic measurement of touch and release angles of the fetlock joint for lameness detection in dairy cattle using vision techniquesBahr, C., Berckmans, D., Maertens, W., Pluk, A., Poursaberi, A., Van Nuffel, A.Journal of Dairy Science2012This paper describes a synchronized measurement system combining image and pressure data to automatically record the angle of the metacarpus and metatarsus bones of the cow with respect to a vertical line, which is useful for lameness detection in dairy cattle. A camera system was developed to record the posture and movement of the cow and the timing and position of hoof placement and release were recorded using a pressure sensitive mat. Experiments with the automatic system were performed continuously on a farm in Ghent (Belgium) for 5 wk in September and October 2009. In total, 2,219 measurements were performed on 75 individual lactating Holstein cows. As a reference for the analysis of the calculated variables, the locomotion of the cows was visually scored from recorded videos by a trained observer into 3 classes of lameness [53.5% were scored with gait score (GS)1, 33.3% were scored with GS2, and 9.3% were scored with GS3]. The contact data of the pressure mat and the camera images recorded by the system were synchronized and combined to measure different angles of the legs of the cows, together with the range of motion of the leg. Significant differences were found between the different gait scores in the release angles of the front hooves, in the range of motion of the front hooves, and in the touch angles of the hind hooves. The contact data of the pressure mat and the camera images recorded by the system were synchronized and combined to measure different angles of the legs of the cows, together with the range of motion of the leg. With respect to the classification of lameness, the range of motion of the front hooves (42.1 and 42.8%) and the release angle of the front hooves (41.7 and 42.0%) were important variables. In 83.3% of the cows, a change in GS led to an increase in within-cow variance for the range of motion or the release angle of the front hooves. In 76.2% of the cows, an increase in GS led to a decrease in range of motion or an increase in release angle of the front hooves.
Reliability and feasibility of selected measures concerning resting behaviour for the on-farm welfare assessment in dairy cowsBroerkens, Nina, Knierim, Ute, Laister et alReliability and feasibility of selected measures concerning resting behaviour for the on-farm welfare assessment in dairy cowsBroerkens, Nina, Knierim, Ute, Laister, Simone, Plesch, Gudrun, Winckler, ChristophApplied Animal Behaviour Science2010
The impact of suboptimal husbandry practices on animal health and economic profitability – the example of tie-in versus...Miller, F., Platz, S., Unshelm, J.The impact of suboptimal husbandry practices on animal health and economic profitability – the example of tie-in versus loose housing system of dairy cattleMiller, F., Platz, S., Unshelm, J.Berliner Und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift1999In this study of two common housing systems of dairy cattle, the tie-in system and the loose housing system, check lists were created to evaluate whether these husbandry systems fulfill the needs of the animals. Furthermore, a combination of questionnaires and interviews were employed to assess the qualification of dairy stockmen to handle the animals. These checklists should provide a useful tool for those persons involved in the examination of husbandry systems, both by providing a written record and by providing a clear outline of all the points that need to be covered during such an examination. The study, done in the way of an explorative analysis of data, included 22 farms (14 with tie-in systems and 8 with loose housing systems) and a total of 802 animals. With regard to the economic effects of poor management and housing conditions, several interesting and statistically noteworthy correlations emerged. Tie-in system: Positive correlations were found between severity of behavioural abnormalities (behav) and number of injuries due to husbandry system (injur); injur and number of inseminations per pregnancy (preg); injur and age of cow (age); preg and cell count of milk (cell), Negative correlations were found between cell and milk yield (milk) as well as between the qualification of stockmen (qual) and inappropriate technical design of the housing environment (tech). Loose housing system: Positive correlations existed between behav and injur, and between tech and injur. Negative correlations were found between milk and cell, qual and tech, and milk and age. The magnitudes of these correlations were quantified by means of linear regression analysis. Comparison of the two husbandry systems revealed that while the loose housing systems is associated with significantly more problems related to tech, it is associated with significantly fewer problems related to injur. It seems that in this housing system cows are better able to avoid injury since they are allowed to move freely. No significant differences in behav were found between the two husbandry systems. The present study shows the importance of proper technical design of housing environments, both in relation to animal welfare and to economic profitability.
Nutritional practices on Manitoba dairy farmsDroppo, T., Garner, T., Plaizier, J. C. et alNutritional practices on Manitoba dairy farmsDroppo, T., Garner, T., Plaizier, J. C., Whiting, T.Canadian Journal of Animal Science2004Nutritional practices on Manitoba dairy farms. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84: 501-509. A survey was conducted on 40 randomly selected dairy farms across Manitoba to document nutritional practices and diet compositions, and study relationships between diet composition and milk production. Samples from all feeds, diets, and the bulk milk tank were collected and analyzed. Inclusion rates of feed ingredients were recorded. Production data were obtained from Western Canada Dairy Herd Improvement Services (WCDHIS). Component feeding and total mixed ration (TMR) feeding were used in 37.5 and 62.5% of herds, respectively. Only 24% of TMR-fed herds used two or more TMR. The medians of dietary contents of crude protein (CP), rumen degradable protein (RDP), rumen undegradable protein (RUP), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) were 18.3% dry matter (DM), 12.2% DM, 5.7% DM, 34.8% DM, and 15.6 mg dL(-1), respectively. On average, diets contained 6.2% more net energy for lactation (NEI), 35.9% more RDP, 15.8% less RLT, 74.6% more calcium (Ca), 51.9% more phosphorous (P), 44.9% more potassium (K), 116.1% more magnesium (Mg), and 4.2% more sodium (Na) than the estimated requirements based on the average milk production and estimated DM intake of the cows on each farm. In 25% of TMR-fed herds, TMR was coarser than recommended. Milk yield, and milk fat percentage were affected by breed, but were not affected by feeding practice (TMR or component feeding), diet composition, and physically effective NDF (peNDF) determined as the percentage of feed particles retained by the 8- and 19-min screens of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by dietary NDF. Milk protein percentage was positively correlated to RUP. MUN was positively coffelated to RDP, RUP, NDF, and days in milk (DIM). Reductions in dietary CP, RDP, Ca, P, Mg, and K could reduce nutrient excretions to the enviromnent without reducing milk production and health. Increasing dietary RUP content could improve milk production on Manitoba dairy farms.
Replacing chopped alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage in barley grain and alfalfa-based total mixed rations for lactating dairy cowsPlaizier, J. C.Replacing chopped alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage in barley grain and alfalfa-based total mixed rations for lactating dairy cowsPlaizier, J. C.Journal of Dairy Science2004The effects of replacing chopped alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage in a fine barley grain and alfalfa-based total mixed ration (TMR) were evaluated. Diets contained ( dry matter basis) 53.0% commercial energy supplement, 10.3% commercial protein supplement, and 9.7% corn silage. Diets varied in inclusion of chopped alfalfa hay and alfalfa silage, and contained either 20.0% chopped alfalfa hay and 7.0% alfalfa silage, 10.0% chopped alfalfa hay and 17.0% alfalfa silage, or 27.0% alfalfa silage. Contents of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber, and minerals did not differ among diets. Replacing chopped alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage decreased dietary dry matter, and increased dietary soluble protein and physical effective NDF calculated as the proportion of dietary NDF retained by the 8- and 19-mm screens of the Penn State Particle Separator (peNDF(NDF)) from 13.3 to 15.6% DM. Replacing chopped alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage did not affect dry matter intake, rumen pH, rumen volatile fatty acids, blood lactate, milk fat, and milk protein percentage, but did decrease blood glucose, tended to increase blood urea, and numerically decreased milk yield and milk protein yield. A wider range in peNDFNDF and a higher inclusion of corn silage might have resulted in greater differences in rumen fermentation and milk production among diets. The pH of rumen fluid samples collected 4 h after feeding varied from 5.90 to 5.98, and milk fat percentage varied from 2.50 to 2.60% among diets. These values suggest that mild subacute ruminal acidosis was induced by all diets.
Invited review: Contemporary environmental issues: A review of the dairy industry’s role in climate change and air quality...Mitloehner, F. M., Place, S. E.Invited review: Contemporary environmental issues: A review of the dairy industry’s role in climate change and air quality and the potential of mitigation through improved production efficiencyMitloehner, F. M., Place, S. E.Journal of Dairy Science2010
Description of 44 surgical cases of septic pododermatitis in cattleBorges, J. R. J., Marsico Filho, F. et alDescription of 44 surgical cases of septic pododermatitis in cattleBorges, J. R. J., Marsico Filho, F., Pitombo, C. A.Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Veterinaria1999
Foot lesions in alpine cattle in Torino provinceFattore, M., Pancani, I., Piromalli, G. et alFoot lesions in alpine cattle in Torino provinceFattore, M., Pancani, I., Piromalli, G., Pupilli, F.Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria1993
Effects of foot lesions on dairy cow productionFatore, M., Pancani, I., Piromalli, G. et alEffects of foot lesions on dairy cow productionFatore, M., Pancani, I., Piromalli, G., Varetto, L.Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria1992Foot care of 54 second or third calvers between 50 and 60 days of lactation on 6 farms resulted in a considerable increase in milk production, often more than doubling their daily milk yield
Bacteriological study of footrot in pigs: A preliminary noteHurtado, M. A., MartinPalomino, P. et alBacteriological study of footrot in pigs: A preliminary noteHurtado, M. A., MartinPalomino, P., Mateos, E. M., Piriz, S., Vadillo, S., Valle, J.Veterinary Record1996
Echocardiographic diagnosis of endocarditis in a bullPipers, F. S.Echocardiographic diagnosis of endocarditis in a bullPipers, F. S.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1978A 2-year-old Charolais bull was examined because of lameness that developed after infection of a tail laceration. A systolic murmur was auscultated during the routine physical examination. A diagnosis of endocarditis and polyarthritis secondary to septicemia from the tail lesion was made. The diagnosis was supported by echocardiography and blood cultures, which yielded Corynebacterium pyogenes. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy
Behavioural reactions before and during vaginal examination in dairy cowsFischer-Tenhagen, Carola, Heuwieser et alBehavioural reactions before and during vaginal examination in dairy cowsFischer-Tenhagen, Carola, Heuwieser, Wolfgang, Lotz, Fabian, Pilz, Madlen, Thiele, Gerhard, Tinge, HarmApplied Animal Behaviour Science2012
The Delphi methods: substance, context, a critique and an annotated bibliography.Pill, J.The Delphi methods: substance, context, a critique and an annotated bibliography.Pill, J.Socioeconomic planning science1971
The Effects of Limb Diseases On the Milk-Production and Liveweight of Dairy-CowsDuda, P., Pilat, Z., Urban, F.The Effects of Limb Diseases On the Milk-Production and Liveweight of Dairy-CowsDuda, P., Pilat, Z., Urban, F.Zivocisna Vyroba1991In keeping with veterinary diagnostics of digit deseases, a relationship between milk performance and liveweight was investigated in cured cows and healthy herd mates. The overall indication demonstrates 56 % of cases within 100 days after calving: 63.1 % of hoof diseases, 31.0 % of cutis and subcutis diseases, 5.9 % of joint diseases. The higher the proportion of the Black Pied Lowland breed, the higher the number of cases and the greater the severity of limb diseases (longer treatment and higher selection). The cured cows had the significantly lower milk performance (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and the worse fitness and the loss of liveweight; this applied mainly to first-calvers (I -milk: F11 generation - 1 006 kg, N generation -648 kg, I - liveweight: F11 generation: -17.0 kg, N generation -31.0 kg, II to IV - milk: F111 generation -602 kg, P < 0.001 per lactation, liveweight: N generation -41.0 kg, P < 0.01 at the age of 150 days after calving; milk and weight gain correlation: F111 and N generations r = -0.353 to -0.395, P < 0.05). The effect of sire individuality on the health of daughters' limbs was confirmed
Hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cowsAiumlamai, S., Doekes, G., Everts, H. et alHydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cowsAiumlamai, S., Doekes, G., Everts, H., Hendriks, W. H., Pilachai, R., Schonewille, J. Th, Thamrongyoswittayakul, C., Vlaeminck, B., Wachirapakorn, C.Animal Feed Science and Technology2014
Diet factors and subclinical laminitis score in lactating cows of smallholder dairy farms in ThailandAiumlamai, S., Everts, H., Hendriks et alDiet factors and subclinical laminitis score in lactating cows of smallholder dairy farms in ThailandAiumlamai, S., Everts, H., Hendriks, W. H., Pilachai, R., Schonewille, J. Th, Thamrongyoswittayakul, C., Wachirapakorn, C.Livestock Science2013
Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cowsAiumlamai, S., Everts, H., Hendriks et alStarch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cowsAiumlamai, S., Everts, H., Hendriks, W. H., Pilachai, R., Schonewille, J. Th, Thamrongyoswittayakul, C., Wachirapakorn, C.Livestock Science2012
Electronic data recording in cattle farmingDemel, S., Pijl, R.Electronic data recording in cattle farmingDemel, S., Pijl, R.
Rotation of the medial claw of the hindfeetPijl, R.Rotation of the medial claw of the hindfeetPijl, R.
Surgical treatment of precarpal hygroma in cattle: 17 cases (1990- 1994)Eicher, R., Martig, J., Piguet, M. et alSurgical treatment of precarpal hygroma in cattle: 17 cases (1990- 1994)Eicher, R., Martig, J., Piguet, M., Steiner, A.Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde1997This retrospective study describes the case reports of 17 cattles suffering from precarpal hygroma, admitted to the clinic for food animals and horses, University of Berne, between 1990 and 1994. The following criteria were evaluated: sex, age, and bodyweight, case history clinical findings at admission, surgical technique, after care, and short- and long-term results. The hygroma was congenital in 3 cases and acquired at the age of 2 to 84 months in 14 cases. Characteristic clinical findings at admission were a nonpainful, fluctuating well delineated swelling of the precarpal area with a maximal diameter of 6 to 20 cm, which did not provoke any lameness. Treatement consisted of surgical excision of the bursa. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia with the animal in lateral recumbency and the affected limb positioned uppermost. After placing a tourniquet proximal to the carpal joint, routine preparation and draping of the surgical field, the bursa was resected completely, a penrose drain introduced, and primary wound closure attempted. Aftercare consisted of parenteral antimicrobial treatment and immobilisation of the affected limb with a full-limb splint bandage to prevent wound dehiscence and seroma formation. Primary wound healing was achieved in all cases. At the time of long- term follow-up evaluation, 4 to 48 months after surgery, telephone conversation with the owners revealed uncomplicated healing in 16 cases. in one case, recurrence of the hygroma had occurred a few weeks after surgical excision had been performed
[Surgical treatment of carpal hygroma in cattle: 17 cases (1990-1994)]. [French]Piguet, M.[Surgical treatment of carpal hygroma in cattle: 17 cases (1990-1994)]. [French]Piguet, M.Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde1997This retrospective study describes the case reports of 17 cattle suffering from precarpal hygroma, admitted to the clinic for food animals and horses, University of Berne, between 1990 and 1994. The following criteria were evaluated: sex, age, and bodyweight, case history, clinical findings at admission, surgical technique, aftercare, and short- and long-term results. The hygroma was congenital in 3 cases and acquired at the age of 2 to 84 months in 14 cases. Characteristic clinical findings at admission were a non painful, fluctuating, well delineated swelling of the precarpal area with a maximal diameter of 6 to 20 cm, which did not provoke any lameness. Treatment consisted of surgical excision of the bursa. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia with the animal in lateral recumbency and the affected limb positioned uppermost. After placing a tourniquet proximal to the carpal joint, routine preparation and draping of the surgical field, the bursa was resected completely, a penrose drain introduced, and primary wound closure attempted. Aftercare consisted of parenteral antimicrobial treatment and immobilisation of the affected limb with a full-limb splint bandage to prevent wound dehiscence and seroma formation. Primary wound healing was achieved in all cases. At the time of long-term follow-up evaluation, 4 to 48 months after surgery, telephone conversation with the owners revealed uncomplicated healing in 16 cases. In one case, recurrence of the hygroma had occurred a few weeks after surgical excision had been performed
Distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from milk and environment of dairy cows differs between herdsBraem, G., De Vliegher, S., De Vuyst et alDistribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from milk and environment of dairy cows differs between herdsBraem, G., De Vliegher, S., De Vuyst, L., Heyndrickx, M., Piessens, V., Supré, K., Van Coillie, E., Van Nuffel, A., Verbist, B.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, CanadaGodkin, A., Kelton, D. F., Leslie et alHerd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, CanadaGodkin, A., Kelton, D. F., Leslie, K. E., Pieper, L., Polleichtner, A., Roesler, U., Slavic, D.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Reliability of body condition scoring of sheep for cross-farm assessmentsCripps, P. J., Duncan, J. S., Hughes et alReliability of body condition scoring of sheep for cross-farm assessmentsCripps, P. J., Duncan, J. S., Hughes, D., Michalopoulou, E., Phythian, C. J.Small Ruminant Research2012
Reliability of indicators of sheep welfare assessed by a group observation methodClarkson, Michael J., Cripps, Peter J. et alReliability of indicators of sheep welfare assessed by a group observation methodClarkson, Michael J., Cripps, Peter J., Duncan, Jennifer S., Grove-White, Dai, Jones, Phillip H., Michalopoulou, Eleni, Phythian, Clare J., Stubbings, Lesley A., Winter, Agnes C.The Veterinary Journal2012
Inter-observer reliability of Qualitative Behavioural Assessments of sheepDuncan, Jennifer, Michalopoulou, Eleni et alInter-observer reliability of Qualitative Behavioural Assessments of sheepDuncan, Jennifer, Michalopoulou, Eleni, Phythian, Clare, Wemelsfelder, FrançoiseApplied Animal Behaviour Science2013
Equine Melanocytic TumorsLembcke, Luis M., Phillips, Jeffrey C.Equine Melanocytic TumorsLembcke, Luis M., Phillips, Jeffrey C.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice2013
The effect of cubicle and straw yard housing of the behaviour, production and hoof health of dairy cowsPhillips, C. J. C., Schofield, S. A.The effect of cubicle and straw yard housing of the behaviour, production and hoof health of dairy cowsPhillips, C. J. C., Schofield, S. A.Animal Welfare1994In a study of 40 spring-calving dairy cows housed in a deep straw yard or a cubicle house from November to April cows in straw yards spent longer lying down and feeding, except during oestrus when they increased their time spent standing proportionately more than cows in cubicles. In the straw yard cows spent longer in associative behaviour during oestrus and had fewer unsuccessful mounting attempts. There were no differences in milk production or composition but cows in the straw yard lost more weight after calving. Cows in the cubicles had a reduction in heel depth, which is a predisposing factor to lameness. It is concluded that a straw yard system for dairy cows allows greater opportunity to display normal behaviour, leads to better hoof health and provided acceptable levels of production
The Effects on Production and Behavior of Mixing Uniparous and Multiparous CowsPhillips, C. J. C., Rind, M. I.The Effects on Production and Behavior of Mixing Uniparous and Multiparous CowsPhillips, C. J. C., Rind, M. I.Journal of Dairy Science2001The production and behavior of a group of eight multiparous and eight uniparous cows after they were mixed were compared with unmixed groups of 16 multiparous and 16 uniparous cows. The cows grazed pasture (mean height 16cm) in treatment groups in a daily paddock rotation. The milk yield of mixed cows was 3% less in the first week than cows in the unmixed groups, and 1% less in the 6 wk after mixing. The reduction in milk yield was similar for uni- and multiparous cows. Both uni- and multiparous cows in the mixed group grazed for less time and they stood for longer, particularly in the first week postmixing. The multiparous cows in the mixed group increased their pasture biting rate and became more dominant than the uniparous cows, who spent more time grooming other cows and in aggressive interactions compared with the unmixed group of uniparous cows. We concluded that the mixing of multi- and uniparous cows causes disruption to their grazing and social behavior, which results in a reduction in milk yield.
Progress in dairy sciencePhillips, C. J. C.Progress in dairy sciencePhillips, C. J. C.1996This book contains 18 chapters by different authors which review extensively recent advances in dairy science. The subject matter is divided into 5 sections covering: nutrition and physiology (protein requirement systems for ruminants, sodium nutrition of dairy cows, nutrition and mammary host defences against disease in dairy cattle, and the effect of bovine somatotropin on dairy production, cow health and economics); breeding and reproduction (the bovine gene map, the application of genetic markers in dairy cow selection programmes, breeding for longevity in dairy cows, and the effect of draught work on the metabolism and reproduction of dairy cows); health control (control of mastitis, controlling lameness in dairy cows, and amelioration of heat stress in dairy cows); milking and milk technology (production and utilization of cow milk and milk products with increased unsaturated fatty acids, robotic milking of dairy cows, modification of milk protein composition by gene transfer, and autocrine regulation of milk secretion); and the environment and ethics (organic dairy farming, economic aspects of feeding dairy cows to contain environmental pollution, and ethical impacts of biotechnology in dairying). The book represents an important update of the literature for research workers, lecturers, advisors, veterinarians and students in many areas of animal science. There is a 21-page subject index
Adverse-Effects On Reproductive-Performance and Lameness of Feeding Grazing Dairy-Cows Partially On Silage IndoorsPhillips, C. J. C.Adverse-Effects On Reproductive-Performance and Lameness of Feeding Grazing Dairy-Cows Partially On Silage IndoorsPhillips, C. J. C.Journal of Agricultural Science1990
The locomotion of dairy cows on floor surfaces with different frictional propertiesMorris, I. D., Phillips, C. J.The locomotion of dairy cows on floor surfaces with different frictional propertiesMorris, I. D., Phillips, C. J.Journal of Dairy Science2001
Frictional properties of cattle hooves and their conformation after trimmingBucktrout, M. J., Chiy, P. C., Collins et alFrictional properties of cattle hooves and their conformation after trimmingBucktrout, M. J., Chiy, P. C., Collins, S. M., Gasson, C. J., Jenkins, A. C., Paranhos da Costa, M. J., Phillips, C. J.Vet Rec2000The conformation of the hooves of nine heifers obtained from an abattoir was measured and their coefficient of static friction (mu) was determined for movement in forward, backward and sideways directions. The hooves were trimmed by the Dutch method and their conformation and p were measured again. Trimming increased mu, and decreased the length of the digit and the angle between it and the floor. The value of mu was considerably greater for movement in a forward or backwards direction than sideways. The relationship between the value of mu for sideways movement and hoof conformation was examined by using 52 lower limbs from a variety of cattle breeds. Although mu was greater for Belgian blue than other cattle breeds, there were no relationships between mu and hoof conformation, including a measure of the roughness of the sole
Volume assessment of the bovine hoofApDewi, I., Patterson, S. J., Phillips et alVolume assessment of the bovine hoofApDewi, I., Patterson, S. J., Phillips, C. J. C., Whitaker, C. J.Research in Veterinary Science1996
Clinical Characterization of a Syndrome by Ecopathology Methods – an Example of Dairy-Cow LamenessLuquet, F., Philipot, J. M., Pluvinage et alClinical Characterization of a Syndrome by Ecopathology Methods – an Example of Dairy-Cow LamenessLuquet, F., Philipot, J. M., Pluvinage, P.Veterinary Research1994In 1987, an ecopathology survey was carried out in 160 French dairy farms. Its primary objective was to clinically characterize laminitis and heelhorn erosion in order to identity the risk factors of these affections. A total of 4 896 cows were individually monitored. Observation of podal lesions of each cow allowed us to identify associations between different lesions (by correspondence analysis) and between lesions and lameness (by multiple logistic regression) and thus to characterize 3 distinctive pathologies: chronic laminitis, subacute laminitis and heelhorn erosion.
Risk-Factors of Dairy-Cow Lameness Associated with Housing ConditionsBugnard, F., Cimarosti, I., Philipot et alRisk-Factors of Dairy-Cow Lameness Associated with Housing ConditionsBugnard, F., Cimarosti, I., Philipot, J. M., Pluvinage, P., Sulpice, P.Veterinary Research1994In 1987, an ecopathology survey was carried out in 160 French dairy farms in order to specify lesions typical of laminitis and heelhorn erosion and to assess their risk factors. Three podal affections were characterized: chronic laminitis; subacute laminitis; and heelhorn erosion. Concerning the building for livestock, the risk factors of heelhorn erosion were associated with poor hygiene, while the risk factors of subacute laminitis were linked to uncomfortable housing conditions: high steps and slopes, and discomfort when lying down and getting up. No risk factor of chronic laminitis linked to the building for livestock was identified.
Risk factors of dairy cow lameness associated with housing conditionsPhilipot, J. M.Risk factors of dairy cow lameness associated with housing conditionsPhilipot, J. M.Veterinary Research1994In 1987, an ecopathology survey was carried out in 160 French dairy farms in order to specify lesions typical of laminitis and heelhorn erosion and to assess their risk factors. Three podal affections were characterized: chronic laminitis; subacute laminitis; and heelhorn erosion. Concerning the building for livestock, the risk factors of heelhorn erosion were associated with poor hygiene, while the risk factors of subacute laminitis were linked to uncomfortable housing conditions: high steps and slopes, and discomfort when lying down and getting up. No risk factor of chronic laminitis linked to the building for livestock was identified
Clinical characterization of a syndrome by ecopathology methods: an example of dairy cow lamenessLuquet, F., Philipot, J. M., Pluvinage et alClinical characterization of a syndrome by ecopathology methods: an example of dairy cow lamenessLuquet, F., Philipot, J. M., Pluvinage, P.Veterinary Research1994In 1987, an ecopathological survey was carried out on 160 French dairy farms, its primary objective being the clinical characterization of laminitis and heelhorn erosion and the identification of the risk factors of these conditions. A total of 4896 cows were monitored. Observation of pedal lesions of each cow identified associations between different lesions (by correspondence analysis) and between lesions and lameness (by multiple logistic regression). Three distinct diseases (chronic laminitis, subacute laminitis and heelhorn erosion) were characterized
Ancillary diagnostic imaging. Angiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, and xeroradiographyPharr, J. W.Ancillary diagnostic imaging. Angiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, and xeroradiographyPharr, J. W.Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice1985Veterinary medical imaging is now accepted as including a number of imaging modalities other than conventional radiography. Although the wide availability and relatively low cost of conventional radiography will keep it in the forefront of veterinary medical imaging, other imaging modalities or techniques such as those discussed in this article will, where available, be of significant value in selected cases of bovine lameness
Investigation into prevalence of hygroma in bovinesGowda, H., Krishnappa, G., Phaniraja et alInvestigation into prevalence of hygroma in bovinesGowda, H., Krishnappa, G., Phaniraja, K. L.Indian Journal of Animal Sciences1999
Fusobacterium necrophorum, and not Dichelobacter nodosus, is associated with equine hoof thrushDicks, Leon M. T., Petrov, Kaloyan K.Fusobacterium necrophorum, and not Dichelobacter nodosus, is associated with equine hoof thrushDicks, Leon M. T., Petrov, Kaloyan K.Veterinary Microbiology2013
Statistics for veterinary and animal sciencePetrie, A., Watson, P.Statistics for veterinary and animal sciencePetrie, A., Watson, P.1999
Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicineLe Loir, Yves, Peton, VincentStaphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicineLe Loir, Yves, Peton, VincentInfection, Genetics and Evolution2014
Space allowances for confined livestock and their determination from allometric principlesPetherick, J. Carol, Phillips et alSpace allowances for confined livestock and their determination from allometric principlesPetherick, J. Carol, Phillips, Clive J. C.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2009
Quality of handling and holding yard environment, and beef cattle temperament: 1. Relationships with flight speed and fear of...Doogan, Vivienne J., Holroyd et alQuality of handling and holding yard environment, and beef cattle temperament: 1. Relationships with flight speed and fear of humansDoogan, Vivienne J., Holroyd, Richard G., Olsson, Peggy, Petherick, J. Carol, Venus, Bronwyn K.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2009
Environmental effects on progesterone profile measures of dairy cow fertilityBerglund, B., Gustafsson, H., Petersson et alEnvironmental effects on progesterone profile measures of dairy cow fertilityBerglund, B., Gustafsson, H., Petersson, K. J., Strandberg, E.Animal Reproduction Science2006Environmental effects on fertility measures early in lactation, such as the interval from calving to first luteal activity (CLA), proportion of samples with luteal activity during the first 60 days after calving (PLA) and interval to first ovulatory oestrus (OOE) were studied. In addition, traditional measurements of fertility, such as pregnancy to first insemination, number of inseminations per service period and interval from first to last insemination were studied as well as associations between the early and late measurements. Data were collected from an experimental herd during 15 years and included 1106 post-partum periods from 191 Swedish Holsteins and 325 Swedish Red and White dairy cows. Individual milk progesterone samples were taken twice a week until cyclicity and thereafter less frequently. First parity cows had 14.8 and 18.1 days longer CLA (LS-means difference) than second parity cows and older cows, respectively. Moreover, CLA was 10.5 days longer for cows that calved during the winter season compared with the summer season and 7.5 days longer for cows in tie-stalls than cows in loose-housing system. Cows treated for mastitis and lameness had 8.4 and 18.0 days longer CLA, respectively, compared with healthy cows. OOE was affected in the same way as CLA by the different environmental factors. PLA was a good indicator of CLA, and there was a high correlation (-0.69) between these two measurements. Treatment for lameness had a significant influence on all late fertility measurements, whereas housing was significant only for pregnancy to first insemination. All fertility traits were unfavourably associated with increased milk production. Regression of late fertility measurements on early fertility measurements had only a minor association with conception at first AI and interval from first to last AI for cows with conventional calving intervals, i.e. a 22 days later, CLA increased the interval from first to last insemination by 3.4 days. Early measurements had repeatabilities of 0.14-0.16, indicating a higher influence by the cow itself compared with late measurements, which had repeatabilities of 0.09-0.10. Our study shows that early fertility measurements have a possibility to be used in breeding for better fertility. To improve the early fertility of the cow, there are a number of important factors that have to be taken into account. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Atypical progesterone profiles and fertility in Swedish dairy cowsBerglund, B., Gustafsson, H., Petersson et alAtypical progesterone profiles and fertility in Swedish dairy cowsBerglund, B., Gustafsson, H., Petersson, K. J., Strandberg, E.Journal of Dairy Science2006The incidence of normal and atypical progesterone profiles in Swedish dairy cows was studied. Data were collected from an experimental herd over 15 yr, and included 1,049 postpartum periods from 183 Swedish Holstein and 326 Swedish Red and White dairy cows. Milk progesterone samples were taken twice weekly until initiation of cyclical ovarian activity and less frequently thereafter. Progesterone profiles were 1) normal profile: first rise in milk progesterone above the threshold value before d 56 postpartum, followed by regular cyclical ovarian activity (70.4%); 2) delayed onset of cyclical ovarian activity: low milk progesterone the first 56 d postpartum (15.6%); 3) cessation of cyclical ovarian activity: ovarian activity resumed within 56 d postpartum, but ceased for a period of 14 d or more (6.6%); and 4) prolonged luteal phase: ovarian activity resumed within 56 d postpartum, but milk progesterone remained elevated in the nonpregnant cow for a period of 20 d or more (7.3%). Swedish Holsteins had 1.5 times higher risk of atypical profile than Swedish Red and Whites. Risk of atypical profiles was 0.5 and 0.7 times lower for older cows compared with first-parity cows; 2.3 times higher for cows in tie-stalls compared with those in loose housing; 2.6 times higher for cows calving during winter compared with summer; 0.5 times lower for cows in earlier (1994-1999) calving-year groups compared with the most recent (2000-2002); 2.5 times higher for cows with planned extended calving interval compared with conventional calving interval; and 2.2 times higher for an atypical profile in previous lactation compared with a normal profile. Cows with atypical profiles had a 15-d increase in interval from calving to first artificial insemination and an 18-d increase in interval from calving to conception. Progesterone samples taken within the first 60 d postpartum were used to calculate the percentage of samples above the threshold value of luteal activity. This measure had a significantly different mean in profiles and can be used to separate delayed onset of cyclical ovarian activity profiles and prolonged luteal phase profiles from normal. Thereby, it may be a more effective tool than measurements based only on the onset of ovarian cyclical activity in genetic evaluation of early postpartum fertility in dairy cows.
Foot lamenessAndrews, A. H., Blowey, R. W., Boyd, H. et alFoot lamenessAndrews, A. H., Blowey, R. W., Boyd, H., Eddy, R. G., Peterse, D. J.Bovine medicine: diseases and husbandry1992
[Lameness in cattle]. [Dutch]Peterse, D. J.[Lameness in cattle]. [Dutch]Peterse, D. J.Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde1991
Oxytetracycline Foot-BathsPeterse, D. J.Oxytetracycline Foot-BathsPeterse, D. J.Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde1986
Relationship between levels of concentrate feeding and incidence of sole ulcers in dairy cattleKorver, S., Oldenbroek, JK, Peterse, DJ et alRelationship between levels of concentrate feeding and incidence of sole ulcers in dairy cattleKorver, S., Oldenbroek, JK, Peterse, DJ, Talmon, FPVet Rec1984
Prevalence and risk factors for udder cleft dermatitis in dairy cattleBengtsson, M., Nyman, A. K. et alPrevalence and risk factors for udder cleft dermatitis in dairy cattleBengtsson, M., Nyman, A. K., Persson Waller, K.Journal of Dairy Science2014Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a skin lesion in dairy cattle mostly located at the anterior junction between the udder and the abdominal wall or between the front quarters. Relatively little is known about causative factors for UCD, and few studies have investigated prevalence and risk factors of UCD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UCD in a random sample of dairy herds with freestalls and milking parlors in a county of Sweden. Thirty dairy herds participated in the study. Each herd was visited once at milking, when every third cow was investigated for presence of UCD. Associations between UCD and milk production, breed, parity, days in milk, claw health, and udder health on the herd and cow levels were also investigated. In addition, a case-control study was performed in 6 herds with a high prevalence of UCD to investigate associations between udder conformation or mange and UCD. Udder cleft dermatitis was found in 18.4% of the 1,084 cows included in the study. The within-herd cow prevalence varied between zero and 39%, with an average of 18.5%. Risk factors for UCD at the herd level were a high proportion of Swedish Red cows and a high production level. At the cow level, breed, parity, and production level were identified as risk factors. The highest risk of having UCD was found in high-producing Swedish Red cows that had calved at least 3 times. Veterinary-treated clinical mastitis was associated with UCD, but cow composite somatic cell count was not. A strong anterior udder attachment was a protective factor, but signs of mange had no association with UCD. The primary cause of UCD is still unclear, and more research is needed to identify the best ways to prevent the development of this animal welfare problem.
Clinical lameness and risk factors in a Spanish Holstein populationAlenda, R., Pérez-Cabal, M. A.Clinical lameness and risk factors in a Spanish Holstein populationAlenda, R., Pérez-Cabal, M. A.Livestock Science
Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa in Assaf LambsBenavides, J., Delgado, L., Ferreras et alDystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa in Assaf LambsBenavides, J., Delgado, L., Ferreras, M. C., García Marín, J. F., Pérez, V., Reyes, L. E.Journal of Comparative Pathology2011
The use of infrared thermography as a non-invasive method for fever detection in sheep infected with bluetongue virusGómez-Villamandos, José C. et alThe use of infrared thermography as a non-invasive method for fever detection in sheep infected with bluetongue virusGómez-Villamandos, José C., Martínez-López, Beatriz, Pedrera, Miriam, Pérez de Diego, Ana C., Sánchez-Cordón, Pedro J., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M.The Veterinary Journal2013
Multiresidue screening of milk withheld for sale at dairy farms in central New York StateBicalho, R. C., Pereira, R. V., Siler et alMultiresidue screening of milk withheld for sale at dairy farms in central New York StateBicalho, R. C., Pereira, R. V., Siler, J. D., Warnick, L. D.Journal of Dairy Science2014
Partial replacement of forage with nonforage fiber sources in lactating cow diets. I. Performance and healthArmentano, L. E., Garrett, E. F. et alPartial replacement of forage with nonforage fiber sources in lactating cow diets. I. Performance and healthArmentano, L. E., Garrett, E. F., Oetzel, G. R., Pereira, M. N.Journal of Dairy Science1999Seventy-eight Holsteins were fed for 112 d to evaluate performance and health responses to diets varying in source and concentration of fiber. Three diets based on different carbohydrate feeding strategies were formulated. These diets contained low concentrations of forage and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (12.6% forage NDF, 19.5% total NDF), adequate NDF and forage (20% forage NDF, 24.8% total NDF), or low forage with additional NDF from cereal byproducts (12.7% forage NDF, 33.4% total NDF). Responses to sodium bicarbonate supplementation (0 or 0.8% of diet DM) were evaluated for each carbohydrate strategy, and bicarbonate improved performance on all diets. Eight cows were used concurrently in a Latin square experiment to evaluate the linearity of milk fat concentration response to increasing concentrations of byproduct NDF in low-forage diets. Considering both trials, cereal byproduct NDF was only 27% as effective as NDF from alfalfa silage in eliciting a milk fat concentration response, which was less than predicted from previous experiments. This difference was not because of the short duration of previous experiments nor because of nonlinearity in the response to byproduct NDF. Low-forage diets fed for 112 d did not result in major health disorders for midlactation cows. However, several indicators suggested that cows fed low-forage, high-NDF diets might be less susceptible to ruminal acidosis than those fed diets containing low forage and low NDF, especially during times of dietary transition. Although the effective fiber value in various feeds is variable and difficult to quantify, the value of byproduct fiber needs to be considered when balancing the carbohydrate fraction of dairy rations.
Evaporative heat loss in Bos taurus: Do different cattle breeds cope with heat stress in the same way?Almeida, José A., Alves, Alexandre et alEvaporative heat loss in Bos taurus: Do different cattle breeds cope with heat stress in the same way?Almeida, José A., Alves, Alexandre, Baccari Jr, Flávio, Geraldo, Ana M., Infante, Paulo, Leme, Thays M., Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco, Titto, Cristiane G., Titto, Evaldo L.Journal of Thermal Biology2014The aim of this study was to compare two Portuguese (Alentejana and Mertolenga) and two exotic (Frisian and Limousine) cattle breeds in terms of the relationship between the increase in ambient temperature and the responses of the evaporative heat loss pathways and the effects on homeothermy. In the experiment, six heifers of the Alentejana, Frisian, and Mertolenga breeds and four heifers of the Limousine breed were used. The animals were placed in four temperature levels, the first one under thermoneutral conditions and the other ones with increase levels of thermal stress. When submitted to severe heat stress, the Frisian developed high thermal tachypnea (125 mov/min) and moderate sweating rates (117 g m−2 h−1), which did not prevent an increase in the rectal temperature (from 38.4 °C to 40.0 °C). Moderate increases in rectal temperature were observed in the Alentejana (from 38.8 °C to 39.4 °C) and Limousine (from 38.6 °C to 39.4 °C), especially in the period of highest heat stress. The Limousine showed moderate levels of tachypnea (101 mov/min) while showing the lowest sweating rates. The Alentejana showed significant increases in sweating rate (156 g m−2 h−1) that played a major role in homeothermy. The Mertolenga showed a superior stability of body temperature, even in the period of highest heat stress (from 38.5 °C to 39.1 °C). Uncommonly, the maintenance of homeothermy during moderate heat stress was achieved primarily by intense tachypnea (122 mov/min). The sweating rate remained abnormally low under conditions of moderate heat stress, rising significantly (110 g m−2 h−1) without evidence of stabilization, only when tendency for heat storage occurred. This unusual response of the evaporative heat loss pathways infers a different thermoregulatory strategy, suggesting a different adaptation to semi-arid environment and strong association with water metabolism.
Production and physiological responses of heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle to conductive coolingAngenent, Largus T., Gebremedhin et alProduction and physiological responses of heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle to conductive coolingAngenent, Largus T., Gebremedhin, Kifle G., Perano, Kristen M., Usack, Joseph G.Journal of Dairy Science2015The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of conductive cooling in alleviating heat stress of lactating dairy cows. A conductive cooling system was built with waterbeds (Dual Chamber Cow Waterbeds, Advanced Comfort Technology Inc., Reedsburg, WI) modified to circulate chilled water. The experiment lasted 7 wk. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows producing 34.4 ± 3.7 kg/d of milk at 166 ± 28 d in milk were used in the study. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and rectal temperature were recorded twice daily, and respiration rate was recorded 5 times per day. During wk 1, the cows were not exposed to experimental heat stress or conductive cooling. For the remaining 6 wk, the cows were exposed to heat stress from 0900 to 1700 h each day. During these 6 wk, 4 of the 8 cows were cooled with conductive cooling (experimental cows), and the other 4 were not cooled (control cows). The study consisted of 2 thermal environment exposures (temperature-humidity index mean ± standard deviation of 80.7 ± 0.9 and 79.0 ± 1.0) and 2 cooling water temperatures (circulating water through the water mattresses at temperatures of 4.5°C and 10°C). Thus, a total of 4 conductive cooling treatments were tested, with each treatment lasting 1 wk. During wk 6, the experimental and control cows were switched and the temperature-humidity index of 79.0 ± 1.0 with 4.5°C cooling water treatment was repeated. During wk 7, waterbeds were placed directly on concrete stalls without actively cooling the water. Least squares means and P-values for the different treatments were calculated with multivariate mixed models. Conductively cooling the cows with 4.5°C water decreased rectal temperature by 1.0°C, decreased respiration rate by 18 breaths/min, increased milk yield by 5%, and increased DMI by 14% compared with the controls. When the results from the 2 cooling water temperatures (4.5°C and 10°C circulating water) were compared, we found that the rectal temperature from 4.5°C cooling water was 0.3°C lower than the rectal temperature with 10°C cooling water, but the other measurements (respiration rate, milk production, and DMI) did not show a statistically significant difference between the cooling water temperatures. Placing waterbeds on concrete stalls without additional cooling did not have a measurable effect in alleviating the heat stress of the cows.
Stifle Disorders: Cranial Cruciate Ligament, Meniscus, Upward Fixation of the PatellaNiehaus, Andrew, Pentecost, RebeccaStifle Disorders: Cranial Cruciate Ligament, Meniscus, Upward Fixation of the PatellaNiehaus, Andrew, Pentecost, RebeccaVeterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice2014
Digit Amputation in Cattle – 85 Cases (1971-1990)Hoffsis, G. F., Musser, J. M. B., Pejsa et alDigit Amputation in Cattle – 85 Cases (1971-1990)Hoffsis, G. F., Musser, J. M. B., Pejsa, T. G., StJean, G.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1993Medical records of 83 cattle, which had 1 or more digit amputations performed at Kansas State University and The Ohio State University veterinary hospitals between 1971 and 1990, were reviewed. Signalment, duration of lameness, prior treatment, digit involved, and pathologic condition were evaluated. Owners were contacted with regard to the animal's duration in the herd after amputation and reason for exiting the herd, level of production attained, and degree of lameness. The animal was judged to have a good, fair, or poor recovery on the basis of this information. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint and resulting complications were the problems most frequently treated by digit amputation. Fifty-one percent of cattle undergoing digit amputation attained preamputation production levels for a minimum of 24 months. Approximately 30% of cattle undergoing digit amputation were culled for lameness, usually within 7 months of surgery. Cattle remaining in the herd more than 12 months after amputation were unlikely to be culled for lameness, indicating that long-term breakdown of supporting structures was uncommon. Likelihood of a good recovery decreased from 71.4% in cattle weighing less-than-or-equal-to 341 kg to 27.3% in cattle weighing greater-than-or-equal-to 682 kg. Cattle undergoing amputation of a rear medial digit were more likely to recover well than those undergoing amputation of either front digit. The most frequently performed amputation was that of a rear lateral digit, but it was associated with the poorest recovery, possibly because of the disproportionate amount of stress placed on this digit. Cattle used for dairy and beef production had approximately equal chances of a good recovery from digit amputation. Duration of lameness prior to surgery and type of lesion did not influence recovery rates
Digit amputation in cattle: a review of 85 casesHoffsis, G. F., Musser, J. M. B., Pejsa et alDigit amputation in cattle: a review of 85 casesHoffsis, G. F., Musser, J. M. B., Pejsa, T. G., St Jean, G.Veterinary Surgery1992
Digit amputation in cattle: 85 cases (1971-1990)Pejsa, T. G.Digit amputation in cattle: 85 cases (1971-1990)Pejsa, T. G.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1993Medical records of 83 cattle, which had 1 or more digit amputations performed at Kansas State University and The Ohio State University veterinary hospitals between 1971 and 1990, were reviewed. Signalment, duration of lameness, prior treatment, digit involved, and pathologic condition were evaluated. Owners were contacted with regard to the animal's duration in the herd after amputation and reason for exiting the herd, level of production attained, and degree of lameness. The animal was judged to have a good, fair, or poor recovery on the basis of this information. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint and resulting complications were the problems most frequently treated by digit amputation. Fifty-one percent of cattle undergoing digit amputation attained preamputation production levels for a minimum of 24 months. Approximately 30% of cattle undergoing digit amputation were culled for lameness, usually within 7 months of surgery. Cattle remaining in the herd more than 12 months after amputation were unlikely to be culled for lameness, indicating that long-term breakdown of supporting structures was uncommon. Likelihood of a good recovery decreased from 71.4% in cattle weighing < or = 341 kg to 27.3% in cattle weighing > or = 682 kg. Cattle undergoing amputation of a rear medial digit were more likely to recover well than those undergoing amputation of either front digit. The most frequently performed amputation was that of a rear lateral digit, but it was associated with the poorest recovery, possibly because of the disproportionate amount of stress placed on this digit. Cattle used for dairy and beef production had approximately equal chances of a good recovery from digit amputation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Interrelationships of Periparturient Diseases in Dairy-CowsEsslemont, R. J., Otte, M. J., Peeler et alInterrelationships of Periparturient Diseases in Dairy-CowsEsslemont, R. J., Otte, M. J., Peeler, E. J.Veterinary Record1994The associations between periparturient diseases in 3603 lactations over three calving seasons were assessed on 10 dairy farms in the south west of England by using logistic regression. Calf mortality and dystocia were strongly associated. Twinning and dystocia were important predictors of calf mortality. Twinning was also a significant predictor for retained fetal membranes. Retained fetal membranes, twins, calf mortality and dystocia, in that order of importance, were risk factors for vulval discharge. Twinning, dystocia, retained fetal membranes and lameness before service increased the risk of mastitis before service. Similarly, mastitis and dystocia before service increased the risk of lameness before service. Oestrus was less likely to be observed in cows that had twinned or suffered lameness before service, the latter having a significantly greater influence in first calvers than older cows
Inter-relationships of periparturient diseases in dairy cowsPeeler, E. J.Inter-relationships of periparturient diseases in dairy cowsPeeler, E. J.Veterinary Record1994The associations between periparturient diseases in 3603 lactations over three calving seasons were assessed on 10 dairy farms in the south west of England by using logistic regression. Calf mortality and dystocia were strongly associated. Twinning and dystocia were important predictors of calf mortality. Twinning was also a significant predictor for retained fetal membranes. Retained fetal membranes, twins, calf mortality and dystocia, in that order of importance, were risk factors for vulval discharge. Twinning, dystocia, retained fetal membranes and lameness before service increased the risk of mastitis before service. Similarly, mastitis and dystocia before service increased the risk of lameness before service. Oestrus was less likely to be observed in cows that had twinned or suffered lameness before service, the latter having a significantly greater influence in first calvers than older cows
Isolation of Salmonella spp from the environment of dairies without any history of clinical salmonellosisHartmann, F. A., Nordlund, K. V., Peek et alIsolation of Salmonella spp from the environment of dairies without any history of clinical salmonellosisHartmann, F. A., Nordlund, K. V., Peek, S. F., Thomas, C. B.Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association2004
Multicentric schwannomas causing chronic ruminal tympany and forelimb paresis in a Holstein cowAdamus, C., DelPiero, F., Peek, S. F. et alMulticentric schwannomas causing chronic ruminal tympany and forelimb paresis in a Holstein cowAdamus, C., DelPiero, F., Peek, S. F., Rebhun, W. C.Veterinary Record1997A nine-year-old Holstein cow that developed recurrent ruminal tympany and an abnormal forelimb gait and posture ultimately became recumbent and unable to rise, and was euthanased. A postmortem examination demonstrated numerous schwannomas affecting peripheral nerves and several thoracic and abdominal viscera
The “ruminal alkalosis – laminitis” syndrome of cattlePedrona, R., Trenti, F., Zannetti, G.The “ruminal alkalosis – laminitis” syndrome of cattlePedrona, R., Trenti, F., Zannetti, G.Proceedings 18th World Buiatrics Congress: 26th Congress of the Italian Association of Buiatrics1994Two episodes of ruminal alkalosis are reported in a breeding herd of 160 Friesian dairy cows and in a breeding herd of 120 Friesian bulls used for artificial insemination. The nutritional alkalosis in the dairy cows was caused by a diet supplied for 5 months containing 1 kg/cow/day of beats dried with formol (1 g/kg). In the bulls the alkalosis was caused by the alternated supply (change every 15-20 days) for about 1 year of 2 kinds of concentrate feeds, apparently similar in analytical content but made by 2 different suppliers. The ruminal alkalosis, confirmed by the analysis of ruminal juice, resulted in about 80% of the animals having a clinical picture of subacute laminitis and general symptoms of anorexia, apathy, loss of weight and locomotion difficulty. There were also alterations in the quality and quantity of the milk and sperm produced. It was concluded that alkalosis, but not acidosis, can induce the development of laminitis in cattle
Can different observers reliably assess lameness in dairy cows?Bonde, M., Fossing, C., Pedersen, K.Can different observers reliably assess lameness in dairy cows?Bonde, M., Fossing, C., Pedersen, K.Proceedings of the 13th international symposium and 5th international conference on lameness in ruminants2004
Surgical repair of a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament in a dromedary camelHurtig, M. B., Pearce, S. G.Surgical repair of a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament in a dromedary camelHurtig, M. B., Pearce, S. G.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association1999Traumatic rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament can cause lameness in the stifle joints of camels. Radiography, nuclear scintigraphy, intra-articular injection of local anesthetics, and arthroscopy can be useful techniques to diagnose rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in nondomestic species. Bilateral arthroscopy is indicated to provide an accurate prognosis when radiographic evidence of degenerative arthritis is evident in both stifle joints
Industrial fluorosis in cattle and buffalo around Udaipur, IndiaBhardwaj, B., Dwivedi, S. K., Patra et alIndustrial fluorosis in cattle and buffalo around Udaipur, IndiaBhardwaj, B., Dwivedi, S. K., Patra, R. C., Swarup, D.Science of The Total Environment2000Signs of dental discolouration, difficulty in mastication, bony lesions, lameness, debility and mortality in domesticated animals, reared around superphosphate fertiliser plants located approximately 15 km north of Udaipur, Rajasthan prompted us to investigate for the occurrence of fluorosis. Out of 166 animals clinically examined, the prevalence rate was 17.4% (4/23) in calves below 1 year of age, 37.2% (16/43) in cattle between 1 and 3 years, 61.3% (46/75) in cattle above 3 years and 72% (18/25) in buffalo above 1 year. Dental fluorosis was common in buffalo compared to cattle of all the age groups. Fluoride levels in fodder and water, consumed by the animals were much higher than the recommended permissible limit. Mean fluoride concentrations in serum and urine were 1.53 +- 1.27 and 26.4 +- 6.17 mg l-1 in calves below 1 year of age, 0.56 +- 0.17 and 26.2 +- 3.86 mg l-1 in cattle of 1-3 years, 0.49 +- 1.13 and 27.5 +- 4.63 mg l-1 in cattle above 3 years and 0.60 +- 0.07 and 28.6 +- 4.73 mg l-1 in buffalo over 1 year, respectively. The values were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than those of control animals kept over a 15-km distance from the factories. Fluoride concentrations in the environmental sample collected from the affected locality were 534.4 +- 74.9 mg kg-1 in fodder, 1.19 +- 0.29 mg l-1 in pond water and 0.479 +- 0.351 mg l-1 in tube well water. It was concluded that the consumption of fodder and water contaminated by the fumes and dusts emitting from superphosphate fertiliser plants resulted in the development of chronic fluorotic lesions in cattle and buffalo
Treating bovine sole ulcers – an alternative to amputation of granulation tissuePaton, RTreating bovine sole ulcers – an alternative to amputation of granulation tissuePaton, RUK Vet2010
The emergence of mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusHarrison, Ewan M., Holmes, Mark A. et alThe emergence of mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusHarrison, Ewan M., Holmes, Mark A., Paterson, Gavin K.Trends in Microbiology2014
Application of pre-partum feeding and social behaviour in predicting risk of developing metritis in crossbred cowsBehera, Kumaresh, Kumaresan, Arumugam et alApplication of pre-partum feeding and social behaviour in predicting risk of developing metritis in crossbred cowsBehera, Kumaresh, Kumaresan, Arumugam, Layek, Siddhartha Shankar, Mohanty, Tushar Kumar, Patbandha, Tapas KumarApplied Animal Behaviour Science2012
A Probabilistic Neural Network Model for Lameness DetectionKujala, M., Pastell, M. E.A Probabilistic Neural Network Model for Lameness DetectionKujala, M., Pastell, M. E.Journal of Dairy Science2007A 4-balance system for measuring the leg-load distribution of dairy cows during milking to detect lameness was developed. Leg weights of 73 cows were successfully recorded during almost 10,000 robotic milkings over a period of 5 mo. Cows were scored weekly for locomotion, and lame cows were inspected clinically for hoof lesions. Unsuccessful measurements, caused by cows standing outside the balances, were removed from the data with a special algorithm, and the mean leg loads and number of kicks during milking were calculated. To develop an expert system to automatically detect lameness cases, a model was needed, and a classifying probabilistic neural network model was chosen for the task. The data were divided into 2 parts and 5,074 measurements from 37 cows were used to train a classifying probabilistic neural network model. The operation of the model was evaluated for its ability to detect lameness in the validating data set, which had 4,868 measurements from 36 cows. The model was able to classify 96.2% of the measurements correctly as sound or lame cows, and 100% of the lameness cases in the validation data were identified. The number of measurements (equal to the number of milkings) causing false alarms was 1.1%. The model developed has the potential to be used as an on-farm decision aid and can be used in a real-time lameness monitoring system.
A wireless accelerometer system with wavelet analysis for assessing lameness in cattleHakojärvi, M., Hänninen, L., Pastell et alA wireless accelerometer system with wavelet analysis for assessing lameness in cattleHakojärvi, M., Hänninen, L., Pastell, M., Tiusanen, J.Biosystems Engineering2009
Assessing cows’ welfare: weighing the cow in a milking robotAhokas, J., Grohn, H., Hautala, M. et alAssessing cows’ welfare: weighing the cow in a milking robotAhokas, J., Grohn, H., Hautala, M., Kujala, M., Pastell, M., Poikalainen, V., Praks, J., Takko, H., Veermäe, I.Biosystems Engineering2006Four strain gauge balances were installed into a milking robot after careful inspection of the positions of the legs of all 40 cows from a herd. It was found that 90% of the cows Would have all the legs on the balances at least during every second milking. The balances were connected to a four channel amplifier and the data were targeted to a personal computer using a dedicated computer program. From the data.. the dynamic weight, the load of each leg can be measured. The average weight, the weight variation of each leg, the total weight, the number of kicks, the frequency of kicks and the total time in the milking robot were calculated. The changes in values of each cow were followed and the leg health of cows was observed. Preliminary analysis of the data gives evidence that limb and hoof disorders can be detected with the system. It is also possible to analyse the step and kick behaviour of the cow during milking and during the different stages of milking, washing. milking and disconnecting. In this way it is also possible to monitor the activity level of the cow and how it changes. (c) 2005 Silsoe Research Institute. All rights reserved Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Application of CUSUM charts to detect lameness in a milking robotMadsen, Henrik, Pastell, MattiApplication of CUSUM charts to detect lameness in a milking robotMadsen, Henrik, Pastell, MattiExpert Systems with Applications2008In the year 2006 about 4000 farms worldwide used over 6000 milking robots. With increased automation the time that the cattle keeper uses for monitoring animals has decreased. This has created a need for automatic health monitoring systems. Lameness is a crucial welfare and economic issue in modern dairy husbandry. It causes problems especially in loose housing of cattle. This could be greatly reduced by early identification and treatment. A four-balance system for automatically measuring the load on each leg of a cow during milking in a milking robot has been developed. It has been previously shown that the weight distribution between limbs changes when cow get lame. In this paper we suggest CUSUM charts to automatically detect lameness based on the measurements. CUSUM charts are statistical based control charts and are well suited for checking a measuring system in operation for any departure from some target or specified values. The target values for detecting lameness were calculated from the cow’s own historical data so that each animal had an individual chart. The method enables objective monitoring of the changes in leg health, which is valuable information in veterinary research because it provides means for assessing the severity and impact of different causes of lameness and also evaluating the effect of treatment and medication. So far no objective method for calculating these measures has been available and the methodology presented in this paper seems very promising for the task.
Detecting cow’s lameness using force sensorsAhokas, J., Aisla, A. M., Hautala, M. et alDetecting cow’s lameness using force sensorsAhokas, J., Aisla, A. M., Hautala, M., Kujala, M., Pastell, M., Poikalainen, V., Praks, J., Veermäe, I.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2008Our aim is to automatically detect cow's leg problems. The first system is a four-balance system, where each of the legs is weighed when a cow is in a milking robot. Its functionality is limited to milking robot and complications in interpreting results occur, since often not all of the legs are properly in each balance or the cow is leaning the robot. Therefore, we introduce a new system. It is a mat made of electromechanical film, Emfit, which can detect only dynamic forces. Its benefit is that its use is not limited to milking robot, but it can be set up in any corridor along which the cows walk. Preliminary tests with walking cows indicate that it has potentiality to separate lame cows from healthy cows by different force–time behaviour.
Automatic observation of cow leg health using load sensorsAhokas, J., Hautala, M., Kujala, M. et alAutomatic observation of cow leg health using load sensorsAhokas, J., Hautala, M., Kujala, M., Pastell, M., Poikalainen, V., Praks, J., Veermäe, I.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture2008The milking robot offers a unique possibility for dynamic measurements of the leg health of dairy cows. Four strain gauge scales were installed into a milking robot. The sensors were connected to an amplifier and the data were collected into a PC using dedicated computer programs. The measurement was automatically started and ended based on the cow ID acquired from the milking robot. MATLAB was used for automated data manipulation of over 10,000 data files and criteria for detecting leg injuries were analyzed. The leg weight monitoring was developed into a real-time system with software that alerts the user of possible hoof diseases and other leg problems. The system makes it possible to detect an injured leg by separately measuring the load on each leg. It is also possible to analyze the step and kick behaviour of the cow during milking by measuring the leg weights and analyzing the number of kicks of the cow.
Measures of weight distribution of dairy cows to detect lameness and the presence of hoof lesionsde Passille, A. M., Hänninen, L. et alMeasures of weight distribution of dairy cows to detect lameness and the presence of hoof lesionsde Passille, A. M., Hänninen, L., Pastell, M., Rushen, J.Journal of Dairy Science2010There is increasing interest in automated methods of detecting lame cows. Hoof lesion data and measures of weight distribution from 61 lactating cows were examined in this study. Lame cows were identified with different numerical rating scores (NRS) used as thresholds (NRS >3 and NRS ≥3.5) for lameness. The ratio of weight applied to a pair of legs (LWR) when the cow was standing was calculated using a special weigh scale, and the cows were gait scored using a 1 to 5 NRS. Hoof lesions were scored and the cows placed into 1 of 4 mutually exclusive categories of hoof lesion: a) no lesions, b) moderate or severe hemorrhages, c) digital dermatitis, and d) sole ulcers. Regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the relation between hoof lesions and LWR. A clear relationship was found between NRS and LWR for the cows with sole ulcers (R2 = 0.79). The LWR could differentiate cows with sole ulcers from sound cows with no hoof lesions [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.87] and lame cows from nonlame cows with lameness thresholds NRS >3 (AUC = 0.71) and NRS ≥3.5 (AUC = 0.88). There was no relationship between LWR and NRS for cows with digital dermatitis. Measurement of how cows distribute their weight when standing holds promise as a method of automated detection of lameness.
A state-transition model to stimulate the economics of bovine virus diarrhoea controlDijkhuizen, A. A., Pasman, E. J. et alA state-transition model to stimulate the economics of bovine virus diarrhoea controlDijkhuizen, A. A., Pasman, E. J., Wentink, G. H.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1994A state-transition model was developed to examine the control of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) infections epidemiologically and economically at the farm level, using a computer spreadsheet program. The model offers the possibility of comparing and evaluating the alternatives ‘no intervention’ and ‘culling carriers’. All input variables can easily be modified to suit different conditions and areas, making it a flexible tool for policy making and decision support. Results of calculations with the most likely input values for Dutch conditions showed that culling the carriers which were persistently infected after an outbreak of BVD was economically unattractive (especially if there was any risk of reinfection). Further research is desired (1) to model the losses due to immunosuppression caused by BVDV infection, and (2) to predict more precisely the spread of BVDV after culling the carriers.
Identity profiles based on social strategies, morphology, physiology, and cognitive abilities in goatsAguayo-Ulloa, L., Galindo, F., María et alIdentity profiles based on social strategies, morphology, physiology, and cognitive abilities in goatsAguayo-Ulloa, L., Galindo, F., María, G. A., Miranda-de la Lama, G. C., Pascual-Alonso, M., Sepúlveda, W. S., Villarroel, M.Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research2013
Salvage of the digit as an alternative to amputation in cattleParks, A. H.Salvage of the digit as an alternative to amputation in cattleParks, A. H.Veterinary Annual1994
Lyme borreliosis in cattle and horses: a review of the literatureParker, J. L., White, K. W.Lyme borreliosis in cattle and horses: a review of the literatureParker, J. L., White, K. W.Cornell Veterinarian1992A complete search of the literature concerning Lyme borreliosis as it relates to horses and cattle was done. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunological response to the disease, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. A review of clinical cases in horses and cattle is presented. Clinical signs of Lyme borreliosis in horses include: chronic weight loss, sporadic lameness, laminitis, low grade fever, swollen joints, muscle tenderness, and anterior uveitis. In addition to those clinical signs, neurological signs such as depression, behavioural changes, dysphagia, head tilt and encephalitis can be seen in chronic cases. Borreliosis occurs in cattle, usually as a herd problem. In acute Lyme borreliosis, cattle often have a fever, stiffness, swollen joints, and decreased milk production. Chronic weight loss, laminitis and abortion are also possible outcomes of borreliosis in cattle. Diagnosis of clinical Lyme borreliosis is difficult and depends upon recognition of clinical signs, a history of possible exposure, and identification of the spirochete in the affected animal. Since the spirochete is very difficult to culture, confirmation of B. burgdorferi infection often relies on serological testing. Subclinical seropositive animals do occur, thus confusing the diagnosis. An approach to treatment of cattle and horses with Lyme borreliosis is outlined
Lyme borreliosis in cattle and horses: a review of the literature. [Review] [118 refs]Parker, J. L.Lyme borreliosis in cattle and horses: a review of the literature. [Review] [118 refs]Parker, J. L.Cornell Veterinarian1992A complete search of the literature concerning Lyme borreliosis as it relates to horses and cattle was done. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunological response to the disease, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. A review of clinical cases in horses and cattle is presented. Clinical signs of Lyme borreliosis in horses include: chronic weight loss, sporadic lameness, laminitis, low grade fever, swollen joints, muscle tenderness, and anterior uveitis. In addition to those clinical signs, neurological signs such as depression, behavioral changes, dysphagia, head tilt and encephalitis can be seen in chronic cases. Borreliosis occurs in cattle, usually as a herd problem. In acute Lyme borreliosis, cattle often will show a fever, stiffness, swollen joints, and decreased milk production. Chronic weight loss, laminitis and abortion are also possible outcomes of borreliosis in cattle. Diagnosis of clinical Lyme borreliosis is difficult and depends upon recognition of clinical signs, a history of possible exposure, and identification of the spirochete in the affected animal. Since the spirochete is very difficult to culture, confirmation of B. burgdorferi infection often relies on serologic testing. Subclinical seropositive animals do occur, thus confusing the diagnosis. An approach to treatment of cattle and horses with Lyme borreliosis is outlined. [References: 118]
Incidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United...Clay, J. S., Cole, J. B., Maltecca, C. et alIncidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United StatesClay, J. S., Cole, J. B., Maltecca, C., Parker Gaddis, K. L.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Disease conditions diagnosed in culled adult cattle sent to an abattoir either with or without a veterinary certificateHinton, M., Parker, D. W. H.Disease conditions diagnosed in culled adult cattle sent to an abattoir either with or without a veterinary certificateHinton, M., Parker, D. W. H.Veterinary Record1990Lesions were detected in 208 culled cattle examined at a slaughterhouse. Eighty-two of them had a veterinary certificate, and 30 of these had been slaughtered on the farm. The principal diagnoses included lameness (88 cases), mastitis (35), chronic infections (32), complications of parturition (20) and fractures and dislocation (14). Most of the 126 animals sent for slaughter by farmers without a veterinary certificate were suffering from lameness (71), mastitis (29) or chronic infections (18). Over 90% of the animals with complications of parturition or traumatic injury had a veterinary certificate. The carcasses of 33 (26%) of the animals sent for slaughter without a veterinary certificate were rejected by the meat inspector, and 29 (35%) of those with a veterinary certificate were rejected; the difference was not statistically significant
Disease conditions diagnosed in culled adult cattle sent to an abattoir either with or without a veterinary certificate. [see...Parker, D. W.Disease conditions diagnosed in culled adult cattle sent to an abattoir either with or without a veterinary certificate. [see comments.]Parker, D. W.Veterinary Record1990Lesions were detected in 208 culled cattle examined at a slaughterhouse. Eighty-two of them had a veterinary certificate, and 30 of these had been slaughtered on the farm. The principal diagnoses included lameness (88 cases), mastitis (35), chronic infections (32), complications of parturition (20) and fractures and dislocation (14). Most of the 126 animals sent for slaughter by farmers without a veterinary certificate were suffering from lameness (71), mastitis (29) or chronic infections (18). Over 90 per cent of the animals with complications of parturition or traumatic injury had a veterinary certificate. The carcases of 33 (26 per cent) of the animals sent for slaughter without a veterinary certificate were rejected by the meat inspector, and 29 (35 per cent) of those with a veterinary certificate were rejected; the difference was not statistically significant
Protection to homologous and heterologous challenge in pigs immunized with vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type O caused...Chu, Jia-Qi, Kim, Byounghan, Kim et alProtection to homologous and heterologous challenge in pigs immunized with vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease type O caused an epidemic in East Asia during 2010/2011Chu, Jia-Qi, Kim, Byounghan, Kim, Rae-Hyung, Kim, Su-Mi, Lee, Kwang-Nyeong, Lee, Seo-Yong, Lee, Yeo-Joo, Park, Jeong-Nam, Park, Jong-Hyeon, Tark, Dong-SeobVaccine2014
Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soilsBolan, Nanthi, Choppala, Girish, Chung et alRole of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soilsBolan, Nanthi, Choppala, Girish, Chung, Jae-Woo, Lamb, Dane, Paneerselvam, Periyasamy, Park, Jin HeeJournal of Hazardous Materials2011
Foot disorders in dairy cattle in the region of Presidente Prudente, SPPardo, P. E., Sturion, D. J.Foot disorders in dairy cattle in the region of Presidente Prudente, SPPardo, P. E., Sturion, D. J.UNIMAR Ciencias1997
Efficacy of alphacypermethrin applied to cattle and sheep against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosusBartram, D., Carpenter, S., Mellor, P. et alEfficacy of alphacypermethrin applied to cattle and sheep against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosusBartram, D., Carpenter, S., Mellor, P., Papadopoulos, E., Wall, R.Veterinary Parasitology2009
Laminitis in dairy cowsKaratzias, H., Panousis, N.Laminitis in dairy cowsKaratzias, H., Panousis, N.Deltion tes Ellenikes Kteniatrikes Etaireias = Bulletin of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society1999
A comparison of the estrous behavior of Holstein-Friesian cows when cubicle-housed and at pastureBoyle, Laura A., Mee, John F., Olmos et alA comparison of the estrous behavior of Holstein-Friesian cows when cubicle-housed and at pastureBoyle, Laura A., Mee, John F., Olmos, Gabriela, Palmer, Maeve A.Theriogenology2012
Estrus detection and estrus characteristics in housed and pastured Holstein–Friesian cowsBoyle, Laura A., Mee, John F., Olmos et alEstrus detection and estrus characteristics in housed and pastured Holstein–Friesian cowsBoyle, Laura A., Mee, John F., Olmos, Gabriela, Palmer, Maeve A.Theriogenology2010
Relationships between lameness and feeding behaviour in cubicle-housed Holstein–Friesian dairy cowsLaw, Ryan, O’Connell, Niamh E. et alRelationships between lameness and feeding behaviour in cubicle-housed Holstein–Friesian dairy cowsLaw, Ryan, O’Connell, Niamh E., Palmer, Maeve A.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2012
Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in SusceptibilityO'Connell, N. E., Palmer, M. A.Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in SusceptibilityO'Connell, N. E., Palmer, M. A.Animals (Basel)2015Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes.
Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposureArzt, Jonathan, Pacheco, Juan M. et alEarly events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle after controlled aerosol exposureArzt, Jonathan, Pacheco, Juan M., Rodriguez, Luis L.The Veterinary Journal2010
The relationship between lameness, fertility and aflatoxin in a dairy cattle herdAlkan, S., Altunatmaz, K., Bilal, T. et alThe relationship between lameness, fertility and aflatoxin in a dairy cattle herdAlkan, S., Altunatmaz, K., Bilal, T., Horoz, H., Kasikci, G., Ozsoy, S.Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences2005This study was carried out to determine the relationship between aflatoxins taken with feed, laminitis, lameness and impaired fertility. Lesions were identified in the claw and hock region, causing lameness in 45 cattle in an establishment of 300 Holstein dairy cattle. Of these lame cattle, 27 had cystic ovaries and 10 had cystic ovaries together with clinical metritis. The increase in lameness and fertility problems occurring in this herd, living under the same management and feeding conditions, was determined to start with the change in feed concentrates and, in order to investigate the relationship with mycotoxins, Aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)) analysis was carried out in the feed and Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)) analysis was carried out in the milk of cattle both with and without illness. While a value above normal was determined in AFB(1) in feed concentrate, hay and clover, when compared to the milk of normal cattle, high values of AFM(1) were determined in the milk of lame cattle with cystic ovaries. It was concluded that alflatoxins taken with feed cause lameness (subclinical laminitis) and impaired fertility (cystic ovaries).
Subclinical laminitis in dairy cattleOzsoy, S.Subclinical laminitis in dairy cattleOzsoy, S.Veteriner Cerrahi Dergisi1997
Acidosis in cattle: a reviewGill, D. R., Hill, W. J., Owens, F. N. et alAcidosis in cattle: a reviewGill, D. R., Hill, W. J., Owens, F. N., Secrist, D. S.Journal of Animal Science1998This review covers all aspects of acidosis including causes, physiology and unwanted side effects. Control measures and feeding strategies that may reduce the incidence of acidosis are outlined
Using Time-Lapse Video Photography to Assess Dairy Cattle Lying Behavior in a Free-Stall BarnMoore, D. A., Overton, M. W., Sischo et alUsing Time-Lapse Video Photography to Assess Dairy Cattle Lying Behavior in a Free-Stall BarnMoore, D. A., Overton, M. W., Sischo, W. M., Temple, G. D.Journal of Dairy Science2002The objectives of this observational study were to use time-lapse video photography to document dairy cow behavioral patterns, examine factors affecting lying behavior, and to develop guidelines for visual assessment of free-stall usage during summer conditions in a high producing dairy. Four video cameras were placed in a free-stall pen containing 144 stalls and 129 high producing cows. The videos were recorded over a 6-d period in July 1999 and then were reviewed using 60-min scan sampling techniques. Cows were counted as lying, standing in alley without eating, standing in free stalls, or eating in each of the four sections of the pen. Temperature probes were placed on the feedline, free stalls, on both ends of the pen, and at an outside location. Relationships between proportion eligible lying and ambient temperature, feeding time, and time since milking were examined. Proportion eligible lying was equal to number of cows lying divided by total number of cows lying or standing but not eating. Cattle showed a significant pattern of temporal cyclicity in their lying behavior, with the highest average proportion of eligible cows lying at 6:00 a.m. (85%) and the lowest at 9:00 p.m. (53%). Increasing environmental temperatures and time elapsed since milking negatively impacted proportion of eligible cows observed lying when evaluated using 60-min scan sampling techniques.
Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifersFrankena, K., Ouweltjes, W. et alEffects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifersFrankena, K., Ouweltjes, W., van der Werf, J. T. N., van Leeuwen, J. L.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Effects of two trimming methods of dairy cattle on concrete or rubber-covered slatted floorsHolzhauer, M., Ouweltjes, W. et alEffects of two trimming methods of dairy cattle on concrete or rubber-covered slatted floorsHolzhauer, M., Ouweltjes, W., van der Tol, P. P. J., van der Werf, J.Journal of Dairy Science2009
Adjusting for multiple clinical observers in an unbalanced study design using latent class models of true within-herd lameness...Houe, H., Otten, N. D., Sorensen, J. T. et alAdjusting for multiple clinical observers in an unbalanced study design using latent class models of true within-herd lameness prevalence in Danish dairy herdsHoue, H., Otten, N. D., Sorensen, J. T., Thomsen, P. T., Toft, N.Preventive Veterinary Medicine2013
Pathology of experimentally induced chronic selenosis (alkali disease) in yearling cattleO'Toole, D., Raisbeck, M. F.Pathology of experimentally induced chronic selenosis (alkali disease) in yearling cattleO'Toole, D., Raisbeck, M. F.Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation1995Prolonged oral exposure of cattle to elevated dietary selenium (Se) in forage and seleniferous plants in seleniferous areas of the western United States is associated historically with 2 clinical syndromes: alkali disease and "blind staggers." The potential for Se-induced disease in cattle and other species is considerable in areas with seleniferous shales, Se-accumulating plants, arid climates, and alkaline soils. These 2 Se-associated conditions were defined in the 1930s and 1940s, and the nosology of blind staggers is questionable. Seventeen yearling steers fed 0.15, 0.28, and 0.8 mg Se/kg body weight as selenomethionine or selenite for 120 days were euthanized and examined postmortem. Significant lesions were confined to 4 steers in the medium- and high-dose selenomethionine group and to 1 steer in the high-dose selenite group. Grossly, dystrophic hoof lesions developed in 2 steers, 1 of which had extensive separation of horn from lamellar and coronary epidermis and also lost hair from the tail switch. Histologically, tubules in the stratum medium of hooves from these 5 steers were replaced by islands of parakeratotic cellular debris, separated by more normal hoof matrix. Two of the 5 steers also had hyperplasia, acanthosis, parakeratosis, and disorganized germinal epithelium of varying severity in hoof epithelium, particularly at the tips of epidermal lamellae. These changes may distinguish the hoof lesions of chronic selenosis from those of chronic laminitis in cattle, in which dermal (chorial) changes predominate. In skin from the distal part of the tail of the animal that lost its switch, most follicles were atrophic and devoid of hairshafts and displayed dyskeratosis and mild superficial follicular keratosis. No significant lesions developed in tissues other than integument. Autometallographic staining for catalytic Se bonds in various tissues, including skin, liver, and kidney, revealed no positive staining of hair shafts; the correlation between stain intensity and dose group was poor. These findings indicate that dietary exposure for 4 months to 0.28 and 0.8 mg Se/kg in the form of selenomethionine and to 0.8 mg Se/kg in the form of sodium selenite reproduces in some cattle mild (subclinical) to severe (clinical) forms of alkali disease. No significant neurological, renal, or hepatic lesions developed, supporting the contention that blind staggers is caused by factors other than excessive dietary selenium
Effects of varying the level of palm oil on feed intake, milk yield and composition and postpartum weight changes of Red Sokoto...Adamu, A. M., Ehoche, O. W., Makun et alEffects of varying the level of palm oil on feed intake, milk yield and composition and postpartum weight changes of Red Sokoto goatsAdamu, A. M., Ehoche, O. W., Makun, H. J., Otaru, S. M.Small Ruminant Research2011
Effects of milking frequency on lying down and getting up behaviour in dairy cowsÖsterman, S., Redbo, I.Effects of milking frequency on lying down and getting up behaviour in dairy cowsÖsterman, S., Redbo, I.Applied Animal Behaviour Science2001The objective of this study was to investigate if cows milked twice per day have more difficulty lying down and getting up and spend less time lying than cows milked three times per day. Seventeen cows of the Swedish Red and White Cattle Breed were studied, seven of which were milked twice daily (2M) and ten were milked three times (3M) daily. They were kept in individual cubicles, that were closed in the rear end with a rope. They had free access to a mixture of silage, hay and concentrate. The individual cows were video-recorded for 24 h every fourth week, starting four weeks after calving for four times. The 2M cows stood significantly longer, 128.11 min, than the 3M cows, 64.88 min, (P<0.01) during the 4 h before morning milking. The 2M cows also had a tendency for longer duration of standing rumination (P=0.059) as well as significantly more bouts of standing rumination (P<0.01) during these hours than the 3M cows. The cows in the 3M group spent less time on the getting up movement (P<0.05) during the 4 h before morning milking. The distribution of the lying bouts during these 4 h differed significantly between the groups, where the 3M cows had fewer lying bouts shorter than 15 min and more lying bouts longer than 90 min. The results indicate that milking three times a day contributes to increased comfort in high-producing dairy cows.
Main report – E.A.A.P. working group on: efficiency in the dairy cowAndersen, B. B., Korver, S., Oldham, J. et alMain report – E.A.A.P. working group on: efficiency in the dairy cowAndersen, B. B., Korver, S., Oldham, J., Ostergaard, V., Solbu, H., Wiktorsson, H.Livestock Production Science1990This report by the working group set up by the Commission on Animal Genetics and the Commission on Animal Nutrition of the European Association of Animal Production gives the definitions of efficiency for primary and secondary traits in dairy cattle which can be used in the design of breeding programmes and plans for feeding strategies. The primary traits relate to milk, feed and beef. For milk, a definition is given for energy-corrected milk yield per day. For feed, definitions are given for residual feed intake, feed efficiency and voluntary feed intake. For beef, definitions are given for gain per day, dressing percentage, grading, and energy consumed per kg of product. The secondary traits include reproduction, health and "workability". The traits considered for reproduction are non-return percentage, days open and calving interval, those for health are mastitis incidence, calving difficulty, ketosis and laminitis, and those for workability are milking ability and temperament. Also, a definition is given for overall economic efficiency. The report concludes as follows. "The improvement in biological efficiency is important, and research has to be focussed on the underlying processes such as rumen function, utilisation of digested and metabolised energy, and the partitioning of feed energy between milk and body tissue. Knowledge about genetic variation between animals for these different biological processes is very limited, and should be studied in relation to the composition of feed ration, the feeding strategy and the physiological state of the animal". Single-trait selection for milk yield has had a negative effect on feed efficiency, reproduction and health, and the feed intake capacity has not kept pace with the requirements of high milk yields. As a result, the net income per kg milk has decreased. It is essential to include secondary traits in dairy cattle breeding programmes
A review of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herdOstergaard, Soren Sorensen Jan TindA review of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herdOstergaard, Soren Sorensen Jan TindPreventive Veterinary Medicine1998Diseases may be an important link in the relationship between feeding and production in a dairy herd. The low frequency of relevant disorders calls for studies on survey data on a large population. However, this approach suffers from lack of detailed herd feeding data and consequently only few have studied feeding as a risk factor for disease. Therefore, we reviewed information from various studies to integrate what is known of the feeding- health-production complex in a dairy herd. The need for putting together information from different sources, the herd effects, and the fact that the effect of one factor cannot be kept constant for investigation in a real-life dynamic herd call for a conceptual model as a framework for the review. The complexity is minimized to allow the representation of important elements. Within-cow relationships (such as feeding-disease relationships, disease interrelationships, and disease-production relationships) are reviewed specifically for: ketosis, milk fever, displaced abomasum, acidosis, sole ulcers and laminitis, and bloat. The major feeding management factors involved are concentrate feeding (level and how it is provided) and overconditioned cows. Disease interrelationships are important. Generalization of production loss from diseases is complicated due to the variety of estimates and measures used
Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cowsBurow, E., Ostergaard, S., Thomsen et alSeparate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cowsBurow, E., Ostergaard, S., Thomsen, P. T.Journal of Dairy Science2010
The pathology of digital disease and theories on the pathogenesis of bovine laminitisLishcer, C. J., Ossent, P.The pathology of digital disease and theories on the pathogenesis of bovine laminitisLishcer, C. J., Ossent, P.Irish Veterinary Journal1996
Bovine laminitis: the lesions and their pathogenesisLischer, C., Ossent, P.Bovine laminitis: the lesions and their pathogenesisLischer, C., Ossent, P.In Practice1998
Post mortem examination of the hooves of cattle, horses, pigs and small ruminants under practice conditionsLischer, C., Ossent, P.Post mortem examination of the hooves of cattle, horses, pigs and small ruminants under practice conditionsLischer, C., Ossent, P.In Practice1997A SOURCE of frustration for clinicians dealing with lameness in livestock is a discrepancy between pronounced clinical signs and a lack of visible changes in the hooves, especially in cattle and horses. In contrast, pigs' claws usually appear more severely altered from the exterior than they do from within; nevertheless, hidden lesions in pigs' feet are common. The same is true in small ruminants. A post mortem examination of feet from lame animals returned after slaughter is usually highly rewarding. This article describes a procedure whereby inaccessible and concealed lesions may be exposed by very simple means. The horn shoe is removed and its inner surface, the cerium, its deeper layers, the tendons, ligaments, bursae, bone surfaces and joints are dissected. This provides an efficient and useful instrument for practitioners seeking the cause of clinical signs and, furthermore, may help support a decision to slaughter a lame animal lacking visible lesions
Bovine laminitis: the lesions and theories of their pathogenesisLischer, Ch, Ossent, P.Bovine laminitis: the lesions and theories of their pathogenesisLischer, Ch, Ossent, P.
Subclinical bovine laminitisOssent, P.Subclinical bovine laminitisOssent, P.Cattle Practice1999
Corium tissue expression of genes associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and keratin formation in relation to lameness...Drackley, J. K., Fraser, B. C., Garrett et alCorium tissue expression of genes associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and keratin formation in relation to lameness in dairy cowsDrackley, J. K., Fraser, B. C., Garrett, E. F., Graugnard, D. E., Loor, J. J., Osorio, J. S., Singh, S. S.Journal of Dairy Science2012
Acute sheep poisoning from a copper sulfate footbathAntonelli, A. C., Ortolani, E. L. et alAcute sheep poisoning from a copper sulfate footbathAntonelli, A. C., Ortolani, E. L., Sarkis, J. E. D.Veterinary and Human Toxicology2004An outbreak of footrot occurred in a flock of Corriedale sheep; 27 animals were treated with antibiotic and footbathed in a 5% copper sulfate solution. Being deprived of water for > 17 h, many sheep drank the footbath solution. After 6 h 16 sheep became ill with acute copper poisoning, 10 animals died within 10 h; 6 were severely ill and were sent to Veterinary, Hospital, and 4 had mild signs and recovered without treatment. The sick sheep had anorexia, dullness, grinding teeth, moaning, rumen atony, dehydration, dark blue-green diarrheic feces and congested membranes. They were treated with 3.4 mg tetrathiomobdate/kg body weight and lactated Ringer's solution iv, oral mobdate, sulfate, kaolin and pectin, and drenched with antacids. Two of the 6 sheep died during hospitalization. The ingestion of copper solution caused an intense gastrointestinal injury that resulted in ulcers, petechial and echymotic hemorrhages in the mucosa, mild hemosis detected by microscopic hemoglobinuria and a lowered packed cell volume, severe hepatic injury that raised the AST and gammaGT blood values, and moderate kidney lesions with increasing serum blood urea and nitrogen creatinine levels.
Effect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environmentBradford, B. J., Harner, J. P., Oddy et alEffect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environmentBradford, B. J., Harner, J. P., Oddy, A., Ortiz, X. A., Smith, J. F.Journal of Dairy Science2011
Different infection parameters between dairy cows and calves after an infection with foot-and-mouth disease virusBouma, A., De Jong, M. C. M., Dekker et alDifferent infection parameters between dairy cows and calves after an infection with foot-and-mouth disease virusBouma, A., De Jong, M. C. M., Dekker, A., Orsel, K., Stegeman, J. A.The Veterinary Journal2010
Effect of health and reproductive disorders on milk yield and fertility in dairy cowsOresnik, A., Trenti, F.Effect of health and reproductive disorders on milk yield and fertility in dairy cowsOresnik, A., Trenti, F.Data collected from 1153 lactations in Friesian dairy cows was used to study the frequency of different diseases and reproductive disorders on 5 large dairy farms in Slovenia. The relationships between disease, reproductive disorders, milk yield and fertility were also examined. The average milk yield during the study period was 5631 1775 kg milk per cow. Mastitis was diagnosed in 42.1%, lameness in 15.1%, metritis in 23.9% and retained placenta in 16.1% of the cows in each lactation. These 4 disorders accounted for 86.7% of all the pathological findings in the herds. Farm, lactation number and diseases had a significant effect on milk yield. Ketosis and parturient paresis were associated with higher milk yield and mastitis, retained placenta and abortion with a lower milk yield. The cows fertility was negatively influenced by different diseases especially reproductive pathological disorders
Prevention of health and reproductive disorders based on a suitable feeding system of dairy cowsOresnik, A.Prevention of health and reproductive disorders based on a suitable feeding system of dairy cowsOresnik, A.Prvi Slovenski Veterinarski Kongres1993The results of production, clinical disease and reproductive disorder analyses out of a group of 4 farms (1093 Friesian cows), where a feeding system based on efficient roughage utilization was introduced are presented in this article. The average milk yield per cow was 12.7% higher in 1992 than in 1987 (6563 compared with 5882 kg respectively). The average milk yield from roughage per cow daily was calculated in 1987 to be 7.5 kg and in 1992 to be 11.1 kg. Service interval was 16 days shorter in 1992 than in 1987 (120:104 days respectively). First service conception rate was higher in 1992 than in 1987 (43.5:30.8%). Retained placenta frequency was 17.6% in 1987 and 10.3% in 1992, the appearance of metritis 35.9 and 22.0% and of cystic ovaries 2.4 and 0.5% respectively. Lameness problems were reduced from 29.8 to 13.5% and the frequency of parturient paresis from 4.9 to 3.5% in the 5-year period. These results led to the conclusion that the introduced feeding system is efficient in the prevention of health and reproductive disorders in dairy herds
Study of locomotory disorders in dairy cowsOotake, O.Study of locomotory disorders in dairy cowsOotake, O.Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan1993
Contribution of dynamic calibration to the measurement accuracy of a pressure plate system throughout the stance phase in sound...Back, Willem, Gasthuys, Frank, Oomen et alContribution of dynamic calibration to the measurement accuracy of a pressure plate system throughout the stance phase in sound horsesBack, Willem, Gasthuys, Frank, Oomen, Annemiek M., Oosterlinck, Maarten, Pille, Frederik, Sonneveld, Danse C.The Veterinary Journal2012
Comparison of pressure plate and force plate gait kinetics in sound Warmbloods at walk and trotBack, Willem, Gasthuys, Frank, Huppes et alComparison of pressure plate and force plate gait kinetics in sound Warmbloods at walk and trotBack, Willem, Gasthuys, Frank, Huppes, Tsjester, Oosterlinck, Maarten, Pille, FrederikThe Veterinary Journal2010
Risk factors and milk yield losses associated with lameness in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattleBrotherstone, S., Offer, J., Onyiro et alRisk factors and milk yield losses associated with lameness in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattleBrotherstone, S., Offer, J., Onyiro, O. M.Animal2008Weekly locomotion scores on a scale of 1 to 5 were used to investigate the relationship between cattle lameness, management systems and the impact of lameness on milk production. The data were 14026 locomotion scores from 248 Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were managed in two groups, XE (high-concentrate feed and housed indoors all year) and XM (low-concentrate feed and outdoors in summer). Analysis was performed using residual maximum likelihood. Results indicated that the most significant variables affecting locomotion were time of year when the animal was locomotion scored and management group. Cows scored during February and August had increased locomotion problems. Cows in the more intensively managed group had significantly poorer locomotion compared with those in the more extensive group. Older animals were more susceptible to lameness than heifers. Body weight, body condition score and days in milk (DIM) also accounted for significant variation in locomotion score. Poor locomotion was associated with a significant reduction in the milk yield of later lactation cows. There was a significant difference in the shape of the lactation curve depending on whether or not the cow was lame during lactation. Average persistency was greater for the group of cows never lame throughout lactation compared with those lame before 60 DIM.
Recombinant Vaccines against Ovine FootrotEgerton, J. R., Omeara, T. J., Raadsma et alRecombinant Vaccines against Ovine FootrotEgerton, J. R., Omeara, T. J., Raadsma, H. W.Immunology and Cell Biology1993For the past 20 years footrot vaccines have evolved from simple bacterins to highly specific recombinant DNA (rDNA) fimbrial vaccines. The development of these vaccines has left a trail of discoveries, challenges and solutions; these processes continue as we move closer to understanding the requirements of a footrot vaccine. The initial whole cell vaccines were unsuccessful due to the short duration of immunity and incorporation of limited serotypes. A multistrain vaccine eliminated the problem of serotype inclusion, although the duration of immunity in many cases is still inadequate. The proteases of Dichelobacter nodosus appear to be cross protective, however, little is known of their ability to protect sheep against footrot. The major protective immunogen is the bacterial fimbriae, which also forms the basis for the K-agglutination serotyping system. K-agglutinin titre correlates directly with resistance to challenge. The protective fimbrial epitope is conformationally dependent, suggesting little advantage in the development of synthetic peptide vaccines. To enhance the efficiency of vaccine production D. nodosus fimbrial genes were eventually cloned and successfully expressed in Ps. aeruginosa. Monovalent vaccines based on recombinant fimbriae are omnipotent, inducing high levels of agglutinins and long lasting immunity. In multivalent vaccines, on the other hand, incorporation of each additional serogroup into the vaccine results in reduced efficacy both in terms of reduced K-agglutinin titres and reduced protection following challenge. The least effective are multivalent formulations representing all major serogroups. In addition, considerable genetic variation has been observed in the ability of sheep to respond optimally to each serogroup in a multivalent vaccine. Results show that the limitation of the sheep to mount an effective immune response, rather than the quality or quantity of the immunogen, limits the efficacy of current footrot vaccines. Studies are being undertaken to examine in detail the immune response of sheep to potentially highly effective footrot vaccines.
Associations between use of electric cow-trainers and clinical diseases, reproductive performance and culling in Swedish dairy...Algers, B., Hultgren, J., Oltenacu et alAssociations between use of electric cow-trainers and clinical diseases, reproductive performance and culling in Swedish dairy cattleAlgers, B., Hultgren, J., Oltenacu, P. A.Preventive Veterinary Medicine1998The role of ECT technology as a risk factor for several diseases was evaluated. Diseases considered were retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, cystic ovaries, silent heat, milk fever, clinical mastitis, and foot and leg problems. Historical and contemporary controls (with control herds selected to match the experimental herds for size and location) were used. Data consisted of 10 264 Swedish Red and White (SRB) and 5461 Swedish Friesian (SLB) lactation records in 150 herds in Sweden, of which 33 used cow-trainers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of parity and exposure to electric cow-trainers on the risks of diseases and the effects of diseases and exposure to electric cow-trainers on risk of culling. The dominant effects associated with use of electric cow-trainers were an increased risk for silent heat, clinical mastitis, ketosis and culling relative to cows in herds not using cow-trainers. Diseases had negative effects on reproductive performance and the effects were larger for cows in herds using cow-trainers. In herds using electric cow-trainers, the largest increase in the interval from first service to conception (58 days) was caused by the occurrences of silent heat, cystic ovaries and the combination of two or more diseases. Retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovaries, clinical mastitis and a combination of two or more diseases increased the risk of culling about two times relative to healthy primiparous cows with the increase being greater for cows in herds using cow-trainers. Silent heat did not increase risk of culling in control groups, but was the largest risk factor for culling in the exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to electric cow-trainers increased the incidence risk of silent heat, clinical mastitis, and ketosis and changed silent heat from a neutral disease with respect to culling to a major risk factor. Finally, exposure to cow-trainers increased the general negative effect of diseases on the cows' reproductive performance and risk for culling
Selection for increased production and the welfare of dairy cows: Are new breeding goals needed?Algers, B., Oltenacu, P. A.Selection for increased production and the welfare of dairy cows: Are new breeding goals needed?Algers, B., Oltenacu, P. A.Ambio2005in many European countries, milk production per cow has more than doubled in the last 40 years. The increase in production has been accompanied by declining ability to reproduce, increasing incidence of health problems, and declining longevity in modern dairy cows. Genetic selection for increased milk yield increasingly is viewed as increasing profit at the expense of reducing animal welfare. The economic future of the dairy industry is related directly to public acceptance of its breeding and production practices. It is important to the dairy industry that welfare problems should be addressed before there is widespread condemnation of breeding and management practices. A new breeding goal aimed at improving fitness and tolerance of metabolic stress is necessary to prevent the decrease in the quality of life of dairy cows and instead, perhaps, enhance it.
Feeding of first-lactation cows around calving: effect on milk yield, feed consumption, liveweight, energy balance and health....Frank, B., Olsson, G., Wiktorsson, H.Feeding of first-lactation cows around calving: effect on milk yield, feed consumption, liveweight, energy balance and health. Some preliminary results of trials at the Alnarp and Kungsangen research stations, 1986-88Frank, B., Olsson, G., Wiktorsson, H.Meddelande Svensk Husdjursskotsel1990In 7 trials, 200 SLB or SRB heifers taken in from pasture at least 3 weeks before calving were fed on a diet consisting of hay, lucerne silage and pressed beet pulp or hay and grass silage, plus oats, barley, beet feed and soyabean and rapeseed meals from 3 weeks before to 12 or 16 weeks after calving. Feeding programmes, plane of nutrition and experimental conditions varied among and within trials. Health assessment focused on hoof status after paring and (1 trial) blood values. Milk yield was about the same with medium or high concentrate intake in early lactation. With low concentrate supply before calving and high after calving some feed refusal occurred. On a concentrate-free diet before and after calving milk yield was low. Milk yield was higher and foot sole haemorrhaging commoner on concrete than on rubber matting. Yield and haemorrhaging also appeared to be linked in another trial. With higher concentrate intake insulin was increased at calving