By Dey, S. and Dwivedi, S. K. and Ray, S. K. and Swarup, D., Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 1998
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A survey conducted in the vicinity of an aluminium smelter revealed occurrence of fluoride intoxication in the cattle population. Affected animals exhibited lameness, reluctance to move, thickening of metatarsal, metacarpal rib and mandibular bones with the presence of palpable bony exostoses. Moderate to severe dental lesions were also observed in most of the animals. Overall incidence of disease was 42.31%. The highest incidence (58.27%) was within 3 km of the factory which declined exponentially with the distance from the smelter. Biochemical examination of serum, revealed significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (22.08¤2.12 KA unit/dl), inorganic phosphorus (5.15¤0.24 mg/dl) and creatinine (1.88¤0.26 mg/dl) and decreased levels of triiodothyronine (0.59¤0.14 ng/ml) in the affected animals than in healthy animals. Fluoride levels in the urine of affected cattle averaged 26.45¤3.28 ppm in the close vicinity of smelter. Contamination of pasture from smelter smoke was considered to be the most likely source of the fluoride intoxication
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