Scanning electron microscopy of the epidermis and dermis of the sole of the bovine hoof

By Ando, Y. and Kotani, T. and Nakade, T. and Numata, Y. and Takeuchi, H. and Uchida, Y., Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 1991
Research Paper Web Link / URL:
Electron microscopy of the epidermis and dermis of 29 normal soles and 3 soles with pododermatitis circumscripta showed abnormalities in all the latter and 16 of the former. The abnormalities included hyperextension, curvature and hypertrophy of the dermal papillae, vascularization and vasodilation in the epidermis and dermis, and cracks in the epidermis, and in the clinically normal soles represented the first stages of pododermatitis circumscripta brought about by intensive feeding, abnormal hoof length, or stress from pregnancy or parturition
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